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お願いします!続き Jewelers weren't the only Late Harappan craftsmen who changed their ways.Potters developed a new kind of kiln that could get hotter faster.This kiln had a hollow center.Holes around the edge of the kiln floor let the fire into the chamber with the pottery.The higher temperatures made pots stronger.So did a new way of working the clay-craftsmen used a wooden paddle and a smalk lump of clay like an anvil to beat the clay walls of a pot and make the walls thinner and stronger.Working this way,potters could make pots with a rounded base instead of a flat base,which made them easier to balance on the hip or head and easier to pour from.The hot temperatures of the new kilns also let potters try out new kinds of black and red glazes and,in time,different designs.Did a clever,inventive potter bring about these changes? Or did new people moving to the city introduce them? Potters also began to make small figures of horses,donkeys,and two-humped camels-animals that until this period been used only high in the mountains of Central Asia.What's more,the people using these animals did not write Indus script,although they did use circular seals with geometric designs similar to those found on seals during the Harappan period. Over time,the new leaders who came to power kept neither written records nor made Harappan-style seals to stamp clay and seal trade goods.This may have been because the trade networks had collapsed,so there was no need for the records.Or it's possible that the new leaders decided not to write down their records.


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宝石職人だけが、そのやり方を変えた後期ハラッパの職人ではありませんでした。陶工は、より速く高温になる新しい種類の窯を開発しました。この窯は、中心部がくぼんでいました。窯床の端を取り巻く穴は、陶器類が置かれた部屋に火を入れました。より高い温度のおかげで、壺(深鍋)はより強くなりました。新しい作業の進め方も壺をより強くしました、粘土職人は、壺の粘土の側面を打って、側面をより薄く、強い物にするために木製のヘラと金床の様な小さな粘土の塊を使いました。このように仕事をすることで、陶工は平らな底の代わりに丸い底のある壺を作ることができました、そうすることで、壺は、腰や頭の上でバランスがとり易くなり、注ぎやすくなりました。新しい窯が高温になったために、陶工は、また、新しい種類の黒や赤の釉薬を試したり、やがては、異なるデザインを試すことができました。頭の良い、発明の才のある陶工が、これらの変化をもたらしたのでしょうか? あるいは、新しく都市に移り住むようになった人々が、それらを紹介したのでしょうか? 陶工は、また、馬やロバやフタコブラクダの小さな像も作り始めました ― フタコブラクダは、この時期までは、中央アジアの高山地帯でしか使われていない動物でした。その上、これらの動物を使う人々は、ハラッパ時代の印鑑に見られる模様によく似た幾何学模様のある丸い印鑑を使いましたが、インダス文字は書きませんでした。 時が経って、権力を握った新しい支配者は、文字となった記録も残しませんでしたし、粘土に印を押して、交易商品に封印をするためのハラッパ様式の印鑑も作りませんでした。これは交易網が崩壊して、記録を付ける必要がなくなったためだったのかもしれません。あるいは、新しい支配者が彼らの記録を書きとめないことに決めたためだった可能性もあります。





  • 日本語訳をお願いします。2

    至急こちらをお願いします。続き At first,potters stacked coil of clay on top of each other and pinched and squashed the coils together to make smooth-walled pots.At some point people realized that it would be easier to work on all the sides of a pot if it were on a dish or platter that could be spun around.They also found that adding sand and fine gravel to the clay made pots strong enough to survive cooking fires-no more putting your hand in the flames to retrieve a fallen piece of meat.By abnut 3500-3300 BCE,potters had discovered that “throwing”-shaping their pots on the fast-turning disks-was faster than the coil method. The potter's wheel is a large,flat disk with a socket on the bottom that fits over a round spike set in the ground,like a cupped hand over a fist.The first wheels required a lot of strength and skill to spin,but potters had more control with a spinning wheel.They could make pots that were more even and had thinner walls than coil pots.After the potters shaped the pots,they sliced them ofe the wheels with pieces of thread that they held tightly between their hands.When the pots had dried,artisans coated the inside or outsidd with slip,finely ground colored clay mixed with water until it was about the thickness of cream.The coating of slip helped to seal all the tiny holes in the cilay and make the surface more waterproof.Sometimes artisans would decorate their pots and figures with brushes made from the tail hair of a goat and dipped into red,brown,black,or white slip.

  • 日本語訳を!c10-3

    お願いします!続き The way that people buried their dead changed during the Late Harappan times.At first,they changed only the way they placed the bodies,which were buried on their side and oriented northeast to southwest instead of north and south.The dead were buried with pottery and occasionally ornaments.Later,burial practices really changed.The dead body was left in the open and exposed to animals and insects until only the bones were left.Later,people collected the bones of the dead and put them into a large painted jar that was buried along with smaller pots and offerings,The pottery from the earlier burials looked like Harappan pottery-now the urns used for pot burials had very different painted designs.Changing religious ideas during a difficult time could have been the cause of these new styles.Or,a new people might have introduced them. By 1200 BCE,weapons and tools made of iron began to appear.By 600 BCE,iron was common.Although scholars used to think the South Asians learned how to make iron from people in Turkey,they now believe South Asians discovered it for themselves. And does the appearance of iron weapons mean that people were fighting wars in South Asia? Scriptures called the Rig Veda,which probably come from this time although they weren't written down until several hundred years later,describe forests being cut down as well as the rain and thunder deity Indus destroying forts and conquering his enemies: With all-outstripping chariot-wheel,O Indra,thou far-famed,hast overthrown the twice ten kings of men... Thou goest on from fight to fight intrepidly,destroying castle after castle here witg strength.

  • 日本語訳を!!c8-3

    お願いします!!続き Other shops specialized in the ceramic art of faience,their shelves stocked with beads and bangles as welk as small bottles for perfume and medicines.Still others offered white soapstone beads and pendants,delicately fashioned inlay,and intricately carved and inscribed seals with geometric designs.At this same shop,merchants could have ordered inscribed reals with special animal designs that stood for their clan or religious beliefs. Seals show a person who talks to tigers from a thorny tree.Other seals and figurines show mother deities;a bearded,horned deity;or the ritual killing of a water buffalo.Many of these scenes include a holy man sitting on his heels and meditating in the shade of the pipal,or sacred fig,tree.Archaeologists believe that communities of holy men practiced the discipline of yoga in sacred groves outside the city walls.Sarang's family may well have gone to visit these holy men to bring them offerings as part of the harvest festival. Sarang's family certainly would have stopped in the potter's quarter to buy pots and small clay figurines for worship at the harvest festival.If Sarang had glanced into the courtyard behind any potter's shop,he might well have seen children at work.Artisans' shops were attached to their children would have helped with simple tasks,such as sweeping or fetching materials.Archaeologists have found that some of the flat clay disks that were used to cover pots have child-sized hand-and footprints pressed into them.Bead maker's children,with their small hands and good eyesight,probably also helped string tiny beads. Besides pots,potters made small figurines that were used as offerings to the deities.Even today,many Hindus use small clay or paper figures as part of their prayers and offerings to the deities.Could some of the deities they worship have come from Harappan times?No one knows.

  • 日本語訳を!c13-1

    お願いします!  “All creatures from Brahma to the small insect have to face the result of their deeds,”said the Vedic deity Vishnu. If you were a student who never practiced your Vedas,or a farmer who let your land go to seed,or a craftsman who sold leaky pots,your parents or your wife or your customers would probably get angry with you.But that's not all.What Vishnu meant was that you could pay in your next life for not meeting your duties in this one.Your actions had results,which were called karma.Many ancient South Asians believed that most people's souls came back into the world after they died,and not necessarily in a human body.  On the other hand,if you were especially good,you could come back as a Brahmin.Brahmins were considered to be the most pure of all human beings.Only they knew the hymns and rituals from the Vedas to call the deities to the fire sacrifice.They knew how to start a fire with a bow drill and,once that fire was started,how to offer sacrificed animals and clarified butter(or“ghee”)to the flames as they chanted special hymns.  By around 1000 BCE,the Vedic rituals practiced by Brahmins began to change.Earlier traditions of the Indus civilization and other local beliefs began to creep back into use.The Brahmins began to use Harappan-style conch-shell ladles to pour sacrifices and blow Harappan-style conch shells to call the deities.They began to practice the ancient Harappan discipline of yoga and decorate the floors where they performed rituals with sacred designs called mandalas,made out of powdered conch shells and rice powder.

  • 日本語訳を!!c6-3

    お願いします!!続き Archaeologists know that the Indus script probably used both symbol-pictures and letters standing for different sounds.They have made out between 400 and 450 symbols,which are too few for a language without an alphabet and too many for a language with an alphabet.The script of the Mesopotamians,for example,used more than 600 symbols,each of which stood for a syllable and sometimes also for a whole word.The Canaanites,who lived to the west of Mesopotamia,later developedan alphabet of fewer than 50 symbols,each standing for a specific consonant. A lot of the examples we have of Indus script come from inscriptions on seals.The square seals of the Indus cities were made from a soft stone called steatite,or soapstone.The original color of the stone ranges from gray or tan to white.If the steatite was going to be used for a seal,the seal maker bleached it with a chemical solution and fired it in a kiln to make it hard and white.(For 100 years,archaeologists have been trying to figure out what that solution was,but no luck yet.) Some sealr were made from faience paste that could be molded,fired,and glazed.Faience is made from ground quartz that is melted and then reground to make a glassy paste.It can be colored with copper to make a blue-green or turquoise color,and then fired at high temperatures to make a shiny glazed object.

  • 日本語訳を!c10-1

    お願いします! “Like a bronze city,surpassing all other rivers and waters,pure in her course from the mountains to the sea”is how the Saraswati River is described in ancient South Asian scripture called the Rig Veda.And yet 100 years ago,historians didn't know anything about the river.That's because in about 1900 BCE,the Saraswati River was beginning to dry up.What was a farmer to do? During the Late Harappan period,from 1900 to 1,000 BCE,many people,confused and frightened by the change in the land they knew so well and desperate for food and water,packed up what was left of their shriveled farms and moved to the cities on the Indus and Ravi Rivers or new farmlands in the Ganga plain. Soon the countryside was no longer good for farmers because the rivers had dried up.Even more people poured into the cities,which were full to overflowing.Looking for safety and shelter,the new immigrants built shacks anywhere they could find a corner find a corner to call their own.When the cornerr were gone,they started building shacks in the middle of the street.The government could not keep up with the overcrowding,and garbage began to build up in the streets. At about the same time,just after 1900 BCE,merchants stopped traveling to distant places to find precious goods such as turquoise,lapis lazuli,and carnelian to bring to the city to sell.Craftsmen began making glassy faience that looked like turquoise,lapis lazuli,and red carnelian for customers who could no longer find the real thing.These lookalikes were so good that they sometimes fooled even modern archaeologists until the“stones”were examined under a microscope.In time the craftmen learned how to make true glass that could be colored the reddish brown of carnelian and the black and white of agates,the stone that marbles are made from.

  • 日本語訳を!c13-6

    お願いします!続き  Back among mere mortals,the Brahmin men were taught the sacred scriptures and conducted sacrifices. And that was the main job they were born to do. In early Vedic times,every kind of responsibility was delegated to a particular group,or varna.For example,people of the Kshatriya group owned land,fought wars,and ran the government.The members of the Vaishya varna became craftsmen and traders.The Shudra group worked the land,swept the streets,emptied the latrines,and collected garbage and dumped it outside the city.Although at first it was possible for people to move from one varna to another,changing places was discouraged,and after about 1000 BCE,it was not allowed at all.  Based on what varna you were born into,your career was decided for you.Any say you had in the matter was narrowed even further by whether you were a boy or a girl.Brahmin boys learned the rituals and scriptures that their fathers,brothers,and uncles did.Brahmin girls and women fed and clothed their families and cared for the young,the elderly,and the sick.They also performed religious rituals,especially the daily worship of the female deity who protects the home and family.Many aspects of women's worship was not part of the early Vedic scriptures-it was handed down from mother to daughter from very ancient times.  We don't know very much about women and men from the lower classes,because the records we have,the Vedas,the Mahabharata,and the Ramayana,are about the upper classes.Many scholars believe that the need to earn a living meant that men and women worked together more equally among the other classes than they did among the Brahmins.Non-Brahmin women were allowed and even encouraged to get an education and sometimes were trained in warfare.

  • 日本語訳を!c10-4

    お願いします!続き After the discovery of some unburied skeletons on the highest,and therefore latest,street levels at Mohenjo Daro,some scholars assumed that the forts that Indra was destroying were the walled cities of the Indus Valley.But the Late Harappan cities were never destroyed by warfare,and there is no evidence of large groups of people coming from outside South Asia.Historians believe that the mysterious skeletons were people who died from contagious diseases.They were left unburied in abandoned parts of the city so they would not infect the grave diggers. So what happened around 1900 BCE? For many years,historians believed that invaders called Aryans poured into the Indus Valley and,with the help of the horse and bronze or iron weapons,destroyed the Late Harappan civilization. But archaeologists can't find evidence of major warfare,and the body types of the people living in the Indus Valley did not change during this time period.More likely,the disappearing Saraswati River stqained the Late Harappan way of life past the breaking point.Satellite photos of the dried riverbed and excavations along its banks show that the river was huge at one time,almost five miles across.As old ways of living and trade broke down,the people of the Indus Valley began to look around for other ways to stay alive.People from the countryside and highlands who spoke the Indo-Aryan language,people who had known amd traded with the Harappans for many years,became more powerful over time until they could challenge the Harappans' power.

  • 日本語訳を!c14-4

    お願いします!  Not all followers of Jain traditions practice the strict rules that Mahavira laid out.At first,Jain teaching did not allow people to worship statues or paintings of deities,a common practice among early Hindus,or even to worship in temples.But in time,a few Jains began to take on some of the traditions of the early Hindus.Around the first century CE,Jains began building temples with stories illustrating the lives of their saints carved in stone.In the fifth century CE,Jains began to build white marble temples with golden spires and even began offering sacrifices to their ford makers.Becaure Jains did not believe in animal sacrifice,they offered gifts of flowers and fruit to the deities and decorated their statues with a paste made from sweet-smelling sandalwood.The largest Jain image today is a huge-about 60 feet(18 meters) tall-statue of a saint in South India.On special occasions,thousands of gallons of milk,sweet-smelling wood and spices,and bright red vermilion,a red powder that stands for purity,are poured over the statue's head and allowed to run down its body.Then pilgrims collect the leftover offerings and ure them to wash their bodies.They believe this will purify them.

  • 日本語訳を!!c6-4

    お願いします!!続き Seals were important symbols of power. Once an ancient South Asian“sealed”a box or a door with a piece of clay he had stamped with his seal,no one could open it without the sealer's permission.People who did not own anything of great value had no need for seals,so scholars suspect that they were used only by wealthy traders,landowners,or religious leaders.Because seals were so valuable,working like a signature that could be used to approve payments and trade,the city government probably controlled seal making. Once a seal was made,probably only one person used it.But sometimes a father might pass a seal down to his son,or a mother to her daughter.After a seal had been used for a while,its edges would get worn and rounded.It would no longer make very clear impressions.Since people wouldn't want anyone else using their seal,they were very careful about getting rid of their worn-out seals.Archaeologists at Harappa have uncovered heavily worn seals buried in the floor of a house.Lots of broken seals and tablets have also been discovered in the litter filling the streets or in trash pits.The ansient Indus people either buried their old seals or broke them into small pieces before they threw them away,the same way people today cut up their old credit cards. But the ancient South Asians have nothing to fear from the archaeologists who found them-at least until someone figures out how to read the script the seals are written in! Until someone finally gets to the bottom of that script,we'll never know the whole story of Harappa and her sister cities.No matter how carefully we look at the puzzle pieces,some of them are still missing.Even so,archaeologists have a lot of fun trying to put them together.