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日本語訳を!c9-1

お願いします! Have you ever learned a new word,a word you are sure you have never seen before? But after you learn it,this brand-new word suddenly pops up everywhere-in English and history books,on TV,on the radio,and on billboards,until you feel as though it is following you around? The discovery of the Indus Valley civilizations in the 1920s worked a little bit like that,too.Archaeologists looking at sites that dated around 2000 BCE everywhere from Mesopotamia to Oman to Central Asia began noticing little clues left here and there by members of the previously unknown Indus Valley civilization. In Mesopotamia,for example,archaeologists dug up the tomb of Queen Puabi of Ur.Unlike the practical Harappans,who buried their dead with a few meaningful ornaments and some pottery but kept most of their things for the living to use,Mesopotamian burials were extravagant.In the case of Queen Puabi,for example,more than 20 servants,including armed guards and musicians,went with her into her grave.Her clothing and jewelry and those of her attendants were decorated with copper,carnelian,and lapis lazuli beads and shell inlay-even though Mesopotamia did not have copper miner or sources for the precious stones and shell.She was also buried with a sled and other wooden furniture-even though Mesopotamia did not have large trees for lumber.So where on earth did the copper,beads,wood,and shell inlay come from? This inscription on a tablet was the first clue.According to the records the Mesopotamians kept,these goods came from a land called Meluhha.The reat Mesopotamian king Sargon boasted that traders from all over came to his city,calked Agade: The ships from Meluhha, the ships from Magan, The ships from Dilmun He made tie-up alongside The quay of Agade.

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  • 回答No.2
  • sayshe
  • ベストアンサー率77% (4555/5903)

☆sayshe です。訂正です。 第1段落最後、 >メソポタミアからオマーンそして中央アジアにかけて至る所で紀元前2000年頃に始まった文明の遺跡を調べている考古学者は、それまで知られていなかったインダス渓谷文明の人々によってあちこちに残された手掛かりがほとんど無いことに気づき始めました。 の部分を、 メソポタミアからオマーンそして中央アジアにかけての至る所で紀元前2000年頃に始まった文明の遺跡を調べている考古学者は、それまで知られていなかったインダス渓谷文明の人々によってあちこちに残された小さな手掛かりに気づき始めました。 に変更します。失礼しました。 ☆ところで、chiyotomo さんの訳もかなりしましたね。タイプミスは、比較的少ないので助かります。この歴史書は面白いですよ。

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  • 日本語訳を!c9-2

    お願いします!続き At first,no modern scholar knew where Meluhha was.Then archaeologists realized that “Meluhha”must be the Akkadian (a Mesopotamian language) word for the land we know as the Indus Valley.Harappan merchants must have brought the precious stones and beautiful dark wood to Mesopotamia.These merchants would do almost anything for a profit,including sailing to Mesopotamia on the last winds of the winter monsoon. Imagine a sea captain from Dholavira,on India's northeastern coast,making the last preparations for his annual winter voyage to Mesopotamia.The northeast winds of the retreating monsoon were picking up,and he was anxious to roll the last big pottery storage jars into the hold of his ship.Although no boats from this period have survived,we know from seals and clay models that his boat was probably made of wood and included mast,sail,and central cabin.Shallow-bottomed riverboats,which did not have masts or sails,were also made of wood or of reed waterproofed with tar-in fact,some bits of tar with the impression of reeds still survive in Oman. Our captain's crew set up a small kitchen with a cooking area in a corner of the boat protected from the wind.They hung strings of onions and garlic from the roof,and stowed small clay pots filled with ginger,salt,and spices on shelves built along the kitchen's back wall.They piled stacks of firewood and dried cow dung chips for cooking fuel on the deck,wherever they could find room in between long black beams of shisham wood(Indian rosewood) for which the Mesopotamian carpenters and shipbuilders would pay a high price.

  • 日本語訳を!c9-4

    お願いします!続き After about a month of travel,the ship from Dholavira arrived at the delta of the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers.Here they paused until the captain could hire a local fisherman to help guide the ship through the treacherous channels of the delta before it arrived at last in the great city of Ur. Many people of the Indus Valley had made the trip before,and some of them had probably settled there to live.The captain most likely would have contacted a merchant originally from the Indus Valley to help convert Mesopotamian weights and measures and interpret for his Akkadian-speaking customers. The people of southern Mesopotamia may have paid for some of their goods with fine embroidered woolen shawls and blankets.They might also have traded in silver from Anatolia,which was widely used in Mesopotamia,and perhaps even in the more valuable gold bangles from Egypt.These simple,round bracelets were a convenient way to measure and carry gold,and could be melted down and made into other objects. On the slower return journey,the captain stopped at Dilmun,the island that today is called Bahrain,and traded Mesopotamian silver and textiles for pearls from the Persian Gulf.He also stopped at Magan,in what is now Oman,for copper and large,heavy seashells. Finally,around the beginning of June,the captain would have seen the long red flag at the top of his mast begin to flap in the southwesterly winds.That meant it was time to set sail and catch the winds before the monsoon became too strong.After filling the water pots,he and his crew headed east to the mouth of the Indus and the Gulf of Kutch.The whole trip took almost five months,but he was coming home with a ship full of valuable things that he could sell for a good profit in Dholavira and up the Indus River at Mohenjo Daro.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (10) The village chief greets the Egyptian traders with the question: "How have you arrived at this land unknown to the men of Egypt? Have you come down from the roads of the Heavens?" The chief's wife and children accompany him. The Egyptians give the natives gifts of beads and bracelets. The native guides lead the Egyptian traders into the heart of Punt, where they all work together collecting ebony and incense to bring home to Hatshepsut. Hatshepsut brags on her temple walls about all the wonderful things Egypt will enjoy because of her leadeship:  The loading of the ships very heavily with marvels of the country of Punt; all goodly fragrant woods...with ebony and pure ivory, with...eye-cosmetics, with apes, monkeys, dogs and with skins of the southern panther, with natives and their children. Never was brought the like of this for any king who has been scince the beginning. (11) Once back in Egypt the sailors unload. They wrestle with full-grown trees that have been transplanted into baskets and slung over poles for transport. Others shoulder pots and some herd animals. Hatshepsut accepts it all as her due, in the name of Egypt and her godly father Amun. A small figure in the background of one of the last scenes offers incense to the great god Amun. It is Thutmose III. But Thutmose III would not stay in the background forever. His turn on the throne was coming. (12) Just as Hatshepsut had a favorite story that showed us the character of her time in power, so did Thutmose III. His was the battle of Megiddo. Thutmose III's military victories were inscribed on the inner walls of the sanctuary at Karnak. The stories come from the journal entries of an army scribe. The scribe tells us, "I recorded the victories the king won in every land, putting them in writting according to the facts."

  • 回答No.1
  • sayshe
  • ベストアンサー率77% (4555/5903)

これまで一度も見たことがないと確信する語、すなわち、新語をあなたはこれまでに学んだことがありますか?しかし、あなたがそれを学んだあと、この新語が、至る所 ― 英語や歴史書のなか、テレビ、ラジオ、そして、ビルボードに現れ、ついには、まるでそれがあなたを追いかけまわしているように感じたことがありますか?1920年代のインダス渓谷文明の発見もまた、それと少し似た働きをしました。メソポタミアからオマーンそして中央アジアにかけて至る所で紀元前2000年頃に始まった文明の遺跡を調べている考古学者は、それまで知られていなかったインダス渓谷文明の人々によってあちこちに残された手掛かりがほとんど無いことに気づき始めました。 例えば、メソポタミアでは、考古学者はウルのプアビ女王の墓を発掘しました。2、3の意味がある装飾と多少の陶器類で彼らの死者を葬ったが、死者の物のほとんどを生きている人が使用するために残しておいた実質的なハラッパの人々と違って、メソポタミアの人々の埋葬は盛大でした。例えば、プアビ女王の場合、武装した警護の者や音楽家を含む20人以上の使用人が、彼女の墓に彼女と一緒に埋葬されました。彼女の衣服と宝石類、そして、彼女の随員の衣服と宝石類は、銅、紅玉髄、ラピスラズリのビーズや貝殻のはめ込み細工で飾られていました ― メソポタミアに銅鉱山や宝石や貝殻の産地がなかったにもかかわらずです。彼女は、また、そりやその他の木製の家具類と共に埋葬されていました ― しかし、メソポタミアには材木にするための大きな木はなかったのです。それでは、いったいどこから、銅、ビーズ、木材、貝殻のはめ込み細工は来たのでしょうか?粘土版に記されたこの銘が、最初の手掛かりでした。メソポタミアの人々が残した記録によると、これらの品物は、メルーハと呼ばれてる土地から来ました。実在したメソポタミアの王サルゴンは、各地の交易商人がアゲイドと呼ばれる彼の都にやって来ることを自慢しました: メルーハからの船、 マガンからの船、 ディルムンからの船、 が、アゲイドの波止場に 停泊した。

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  • 日本語訳を!c9-3

    お願いします!続き The crew filled some of the big storage jars with fresh water for the long trip,and packed the others with dried cheese,butter,honey,and beer.They stowed large sacks of wheat and barley toward the front end of the boat,where the sacks were less likely to get wet.Next to the grain,they stacked bales of cotton cloth,bleached white or dyed red or blue.The captain would have bought the cloth from traders who had floated down the shallow rivers that led to the center of the bountry on their flat-bottomed boats. As you might have guessed from Puabi's tomb,the boat's most valuable cargo was long carnelian beads.These beads were in great demand in Mesopotamia,and the captain wrapped them in soft cotton and packed them carefully in a basket so that they would not get broken during the trip. After he tied some branches from the sacred pipal tree to the mast to ward off evil spirits,the captain would have loaded his passengers:monkeys,peacocks,and sleek reddish brown gunting dogs to sell as pets,as well as a couple of traders who wanted passage to Mesopotamia. From Dholavira the captain sailed west across the delta,or the mouth,of the Indus River.With the delta behind him,he faced one of the most dangerous parts of his trip.The coast became very rocky and the crew had to watch for submerged islands as they sailed slowly through waters filled with fish and black-and-gold sea snakes.Once he had made it through that dangerous stretch,the captain could have sailed across the Arabian Sea for a quick stop along the coast of Oman,or chosen to sail directly to Mesopotamia,north through the Persian Gulf.Oman would have been a tempting side trip.The people there were willing to trade their copper,seashells,and pearls,all of which were in high demand in Mesopotamia,for the captain's wood and cotton cloth-but the first traders to arrive in Mesopotamia could charge the highest prices for their goods.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (7) Ever the fastidious record keepers, Egyptians registered the child's name. All births, marriages, and deaths were recorded by the diligent scribes. Just as marriage required only a simple announcement to the proper authorities, so it was with a new child. To register a child the parents merely had to say something like what one princess said: "I gave birth to this baby that you see, who was named Merab and whose name was entered into the registers of the House of Life." (8) For the first three years a mother carried her baby around in a sling. One scribe tells children they should be appreciative. "Repay your mother for all her care. Give her as much bread as the needs, and carry her as she carried you, for you were a heavy burden to her." Breastfeeding for those first three years protected children from parasites in the drinking water. Digestive diseases were the most common illnesses for children. Mothers of sick children might recite this spell to ward off the evil spirit they thought to be the root of the problem: "Come on out, visitor from the darkness.... Have you come to do it harm? I forbid this! I have made ready for its protection a potion from the poisonous afat herb, from garlic which is bad for you, from honey which is sweet for the living but bitter for the dead."

  • 日本語訳を!!c6-3

    お願いします!!続き Archaeologists know that the Indus script probably used both symbol-pictures and letters standing for different sounds.They have made out between 400 and 450 symbols,which are too few for a language without an alphabet and too many for a language with an alphabet.The script of the Mesopotamians,for example,used more than 600 symbols,each of which stood for a syllable and sometimes also for a whole word.The Canaanites,who lived to the west of Mesopotamia,later developedan alphabet of fewer than 50 symbols,each standing for a specific consonant. A lot of the examples we have of Indus script come from inscriptions on seals.The square seals of the Indus cities were made from a soft stone called steatite,or soapstone.The original color of the stone ranges from gray or tan to white.If the steatite was going to be used for a seal,the seal maker bleached it with a chemical solution and fired it in a kiln to make it hard and white.(For 100 years,archaeologists have been trying to figure out what that solution was,but no luck yet.) Some sealr were made from faience paste that could be molded,fired,and glazed.Faience is made from ground quartz that is melted and then reground to make a glassy paste.It can be colored with copper to make a blue-green or turquoise color,and then fired at high temperatures to make a shiny glazed object.

  • 日本語訳を!!c7-3

    お願いします!!続き Say you were a merchant from Oman,in what is now known as the Middle East,come to Harappa to trade alabaster vases and fine woolen cloth for shell bangles and stone beads.The first thing you would have noticed was what wasn't there-no great temples or monuments,like the ones you had seen in the cities of Mesopotamia and Persia.You probably would have thought Harappa a poor place,without the grandeur of home.But hen you would have noticed the tidy,neat streets.Even as a stranger in a strange city,you didn't have to leave extra time in case you got lost in the maze of streets every time you went to the market.The streets were straight and predictable,and quieter than you were used to.Houses weren't open to the stredt,so you didn't hear every word that people were saying inside as you walked by.Instead,the main doorway of eabh house was located along a side street and had an entryway that screened the inside from curious eyes.The windows opened onto the courtyard at its center. You'd have noticed that the city smelled better than most cities you visited.Major streets had built-in garbage bins.Each block of houses had a private well and bathrooms with drains.The small drains leading from the bathing areas and toilets emptied hnto slightly larger drains in the side streets that flowed into huge covered sewer in the main streets,big enough for people to climb inside and clean.These big city sewers emptied outside of the city wall into gullies and were washed out every year by the rains.

  • 日本語訳を! 7-(5)

    お願いします。 (14) When you arrive at the barracks, the smell of fresh baking bread makes your mouth water. Bakers pull loaves out of ovens large enough for you to stand in. You take some bread for yourself and then some fore your grandfather's Ka. You wander to the west side of the pyramid looking for his tomb. Your mother told you that his tomb is a miniature version of King Khufu's mer, except grandfather's is made from mud brick instead of stone. You pass the tomb of a husband and wife who worked on the Great Pyramid. You are one of the fdw who can read bits and pieces of hieroglyphs. What you read makes you quicken your pace past the tomb. It is cursed. "O all people who enter this tomb who will make evil against this tomb and destroy it; may the crocodile be against them on water, and snakes be against them on land; may the hippopotamus be against them on water, the scorpion against them on land." Even though you would never rob a tomb, the curse gives you the creeps, and you watch the ground ahead for snakes and scorpions. (15) Maybe you had better head back. The Overseer of All the King's Works will have assigned your job and you are anxious to see what you will be doing. Most of the farmers have to do all the heavy lifting, but maybe you will be lucky since you can read a little. Maybe you will be assigned a more skilled job. You hope that you can work on one of the boats in one of the boat pits. Wouldn't it be faaulous to be a boat builder for the afterlife? To help build the boat that King Khufu will use to navigate the stars?

  • 日本語訳教えてください。

    日本語訳教えてください。 You have to value yourself more and value what you think and what you want to do. The way I see it, Got made lots and lots of people. Why? Because it’s a good thing to have all different types of people. Each person has his or her own individuality and character, and the most important thing it to express that 

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします  Dear Geezer,  This is Egypt. Women have more legal rights than anywhere else in the world. You own your own property and can do what you want with it. Cut the ungrateful kids out of your will.        Bes  Dear Bes,  My neighbor keeps stealing the grain we keep up on the roof. Is there anything we can do to stop her?         Sincerely,         Hungry in Hermopolis  Dear Hungry,  Theft is a big problem in village life. You probably can't stop her from stealing, but you could have a little fun and make her hair fall out. Try this recipe from the Ebers Medical Papyrus: "To cause the gahair to fall out: burnt leaf of lotus is put in oil and applied to the head of a hated woman."        Bes (17) Our magazine wouldn't have a wedding section. There is no evidence that ancient Egyptians had a marriage ceremony―no religious ceremony, no legal ceremony, no vows or rings, no wedding gown. A woman moved into her husband's house and took over from the mother the title of "woman of the house." Bes would get a lot of letters asking advice about how to get along with the mother-in-law! A marriage contract listed what the woman brought with her so that if there was a divorce the property could be split up properly. If divorced, women were entitled to what they brought into the marriage plus a share of the joint property. (18) Our magazine would have book reviews. Thumbs up for The Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor, the action-packed adventure of a sailor marooned on a deserted island. Or is ht deserted? When a giant human-headed serpent appears the sailor realizes he's not alone. "Then I heard a noise of thunder; I thought it was a wave of sea, for the trees were splintering, the earth shaking. I uncovered my face and found it was a serpent coming." Twist ending leaves the reader hanging.

  • 日本語訳教えてください。

    日本語訳教えてください。 You have to value yourself more and value what you think and what you want to do. The way I see it, Got made lots and lots of people. Why? Because it’s a good thing to have all different types of people. Each person has his or her own individuality and character, and the most important thing it to express that 

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (10) It is not surprising that Rhodopis enjoyed music. Tombs and temple walls are covered with images of dancers and musicians. There were percussion instruments―drums, cymbals, and tambourines. There were wind instruments―flutes and trumpets. And there were stringed instruments―harps, lyres, and lutes. Everyone enjoyed music, from the pharaoh to the field worker. No one loved a festival more than the Egyptians. Crowds sang and clpped along with the musicians who paraded through the streets. Dancers performed for the revelers, moving with the grace of gymnasts―cartwheeling, twirling, flipping, and gyrating to the rhythm. Music and dance were integral to Egyptian daily life. Workers labored to the beat, priests praised the gods in music and motion. Musicians and dancers entertained at banquests and ushered the dead at funerals. So, for a young servant girl to sing to the animals at day's end is not surprising at all. (11) Rhodopis twirled so lightly her feet barely grazed the ground. Unknown to Rhodopis, she was dancing near the tree where the old man slept and her movement woke him. He was so taken by her grace that he decided right then and there that her feet should have the finest shoes in the kingdom. "He ordered her a special pair of slippers. The shoes were gilded with rose-red gold and the soles were leather. Now the servant girls really disliked her for they were jealous of her beautiful slippers." (12) News traveled to their village that the king was having a party. The entire kingdom was invited. On the day of the party the servant girls put on their finest clothes. They gave Rhodopis a long list of chores and handed her mounds of laundry to be washed in the river. They laughed at her washing the clothes as they poled down the river to the king's banquet.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (13) Throughout history, alliances have been made through marriage. Amenhotep III married several foreign princesses in the name of diplomacy. But the Amarna Letters show that Amenhotep III didn't consider these diplomatic unions a give-and-take situation. When the king of Babylon asked for an Egyptian princess, Amenhotep III flat out refused, even though he gad taken the king of Babylon's sister as a bride. The angry king of Babylon wrote, "When I wrote to you about marrying your daughter you wrote to me saying ‘From time immemorial no daughter of the king of Egypt has been given in marriage to anyone.’Why do you say this? You are the king and you may do as you please. If you were to give a daughter, who would say anything about it?" But Amenhotep III wasn't budging. Egypt did not give away princesses. (14) The marriages allied rulers, not countries. If either husband or father-in-law should die, negotiations started all over again. This letter from the King of Hatti to Amenhotep III's son, after Amenhotep III died, shows that things didn't always continue as they had in the past: "your father never neglected... the wishes I expressed, but granted me everything. Why have you... refused to send me... gifts of friendship, I wish good friendship to exist between you and md." (15) Some of the letters were sent to people close to the king and pleaded for help. This letter from the king of Mittani to Queen Tiy shows how influential she must have been, not only during her husband's reign, but also during her son's:  You are the one who knows that I have always felt friendship for... your husband... but you have not sent me yet the gift of homage... your husband, has ordered be sent to me. I have asked... your husband for massive gold statues.... But your son has goldplated statues of wood. As gold is like dust in the country of your son, why... [hasn't] your son... given them to me?