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お願いします (10) The village chief greets the Egyptian traders with the question: "How have you arrived at this land unknown to the men of Egypt? Have you come down from the roads of the Heavens?" The chief's wife and children accompany him. The Egyptians give the natives gifts of beads and bracelets. The native guides lead the Egyptian traders into the heart of Punt, where they all work together collecting ebony and incense to bring home to Hatshepsut. Hatshepsut brags on her temple walls about all the wonderful things Egypt will enjoy because of her leadeship:  The loading of the ships very heavily with marvels of the country of Punt; all goodly fragrant woods...with ebony and pure ivory, with...eye-cosmetics, with apes, monkeys, dogs and with skins of the southern panther, with natives and their children. Never was brought the like of this for any king who has been scince the beginning. (11) Once back in Egypt the sailors unload. They wrestle with full-grown trees that have been transplanted into baskets and slung over poles for transport. Others shoulder pots and some herd animals. Hatshepsut accepts it all as her due, in the name of Egypt and her godly father Amun. A small figure in the background of one of the last scenes offers incense to the great god Amun. It is Thutmose III. But Thutmose III would not stay in the background forever. His turn on the throne was coming. (12) Just as Hatshepsut had a favorite story that showed us the character of her time in power, so did Thutmose III. His was the battle of Megiddo. Thutmose III's military victories were inscribed on the inner walls of the sanctuary at Karnak. The stories come from the journal entries of an army scribe. The scribe tells us, "I recorded the victories the king won in every land, putting them in writting according to the facts."

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(10) 村長は、エジプトの交易商を迎え、次の様な質問をします: 「エジプト人には知られていないこの土地に、どのようにして、あなたたちは、到着したのですか? あなたたちは、天の道から降りてきたのですか?」、村長の妻と子供たちが、彼に付き添っています。 エジプト人は、土地の人々にビーズやブレスレットの贈り物を与えます。現地の案内人が、エジプトの交易商をプントの中心地に案内します、そこで、彼ら全員は、協力して、ハトシェプストの元に持ち帰るための黒檀や香を集めます。 ハトシェプストは、エジプトが、彼女の指導力のおかげで、享受するであろうすべての素晴らしいものについて、彼女の寺院の壁に自慢しています: プントの国の驚くべきものを満載した船の積み荷は; ありとあらゆる素晴らしい香木 ... 黒檀、正真正銘の象牙 ... 目の化粧品、類人猿、猿、犬、南方のヒョウのなめし皮、現地人とその子供たちなり。 歴代のどの王のためにも、これに類するものが、もたらされたことは、一度たりとてなし。 (11) ひとたびエジプトに戻ってくると、水夫たちは、積み荷を降ろします。 彼らは、かごに移植されて、輸送のために棒からつるされた成熟した木々をやっとの思いで運びます。 つぼや群れをなす動物を肩に担ぐ人々もいます。 ハトシェプストは、エジプトと彼女の神なる父アメンの名において、そのすべてを当然彼女が与えられるべきものとして受け取ります。最後の場面の1つの背景にいる小柄な人物は、偉大なる神アメンに香を供えています。 それは、トトメス3世です。 しかし、トトメス3世は、永遠に背景にいることはないでしょう。 彼が王位を引き継ぐ順番が、迫っていました。 (12) まさにハトシェプストが、彼女の在位期間中の特徴を我々に示すお気に入りの物語を持っていた様に、トトメス3世も同様のことをしました。 彼の物語は、メジッドの戦いでした。 トトメス3世の軍事的勝利は、カルナックの神殿の内壁に刻まれました。 <参考> カルナック神殿 http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E3%82%AB%E3%83%AB%E3%83%8A%E3%83%83%E3%82%AF%E7%A5%9E%E6%AE%BF

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  • 日本語訳を! 1-(7)

    お願いします。  Despite Harkhuf's major expeditions and all the riches he and other traders brought back to Egypt―from Nubia with all its gold, Sinai with all its turquoise, and Punt with all its incense―it was this dancing pygmy that captured the heart of Pepi II. And the letter written by the boy-king remained so important to Harkhuf that at he end of his days he chose to record it on his tomb. If you were the supreme ruler of Egypt 4,000 years ago, what kinds of letters would you write? What songs would you sing to the Nile? Think about it while your servants fan you with ostrich feathers. But you might want to be careful how you order your teachers around.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (7) But perhaps the story that Hatshepsut would most want us to know is about the trade expedition to Punt. The story is drawn in detail on the walls of the temple where she was worshipped after death. The story shows how Hatshepsut added to Egypt's wealth by focusing her reign on trade and exploration. It shows that with Hatshepsut as king, there was a whole lot of flourishing going on in Egypt. There was ma'at. A series of pictures and captions tell the story of the journey to Punt. (8) Five sailing ships manned with soldiers, officials, and rowers leave Egypt. Whe they arrive off foreign shores they anchor and all climb into small boats loaded with trinkets for trade. While making their way through the jungle of ebony and palm tree, the Egyptian traders come across a village. Beehive-shaped huts made from woven palm fronds sit up on stilts so far above the ground that the only way to get inside is to climb ladders leading from the ground up to the doorways. (9) The exact location of Punt is not known, but the animals in the scenes are clearly African. There are leopards, rhinoceros, and giraffes. The carvings show trees full of monkeys. Scholars believe that the expedition took place in the spring because the birds in the pictures are nesting.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (4) As a queen, Hatshepsut's powers were limited. When a king took the throne, he became a god and the middleman (or middlegod?) between the heavenly gods and the people. One of his most important jobs was to please the gods. That guaranteed the desired balance known as ma'at. Egypt could then flourish. No king meant no ma'at, which meant no flourishing. Egyptians would be doomed to the chaos of the Intermediate Perimds. If Hatshepsut hoped to maintain ma'at, she must first become a king. She needed to show the people that the gods were pleased with her as the ruler, that the gods recognized her as king, and that she herself was indeed divine. What better way to prove her divinity than to claim that it was the gods' idea in the first place? Who would question a choice made by the gods? (5) Hatshepsut set out to show Egypt that she was no mere mortal, but the daughter of the great god Amun, who personally chose her to be king. To justify her kingship, Hatshepsut made up a story of her birth and commissioned artists to illustrate it. In the final scene Hatshepsut is presented to all the gods, who recognize her as king. To be sure there was no doubt about her destiny, Hatshepsut included in the text these words, supposedly from Amun himself, "This daughter of mine...I have appointed successor upon my throme.... It is she who will lead you. Obey her words and unite yourselves at her command." (6) In just seven years Hatshepsut transformed herself from a dutiful co-ruler into a deity. She wore a king's crown and clothing. She carried the king's staff. She even hung the king's ceremonial hairpiece, a braided beard, from her ears with string.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (4) Ramesses III's inscription tells us that he raced with his army toward southern Palestine to stop the Sea Peoples before they stepped on Egyptian soil. Every ship was sent to the mouth of the Nile, until Ramesses III had filled "the harbor-mouths, like a strong wall, with warships, galleys and barges." Ramesses III knew that he must draw a defensive line. The Egyptians believed this enemy had toppled empires. Egypt would not be one of them. He spared nothing outfitting his fleet. "They were manned completely from bow to stern with valiant warriors bearing their arms, soldiers of the choicest of Egypt..." Along the shore, Ramesses III positioned charioteers. "Their horses were quivering in their every limb, ready to crush the countries under their feet." (5) The Sea Peoples approached from the northeast. They came in waves. A vast horde advanced by land, a massive fleet bore down by sea―all headed straight for Egypt. Thousands marched―young, old, families with wagons piled high with their belongings pulled by humpbacked oxen, soldiers in chariots, soldiers on foot―driven by the common goal of claiming Egypt's prosperous land for their own. (6) The first wave of Sea People attacked by land. From the scenes drawn at Ramesses III's mortuary temple, we see the chaotic mass of enemy soldiers as they launched themselves at the Egyptians. Some wore horned helmets. Others wore feathered helmets. Charioteers, three to a chariot, forced their horses into the fray. Swordsmen charged, slashing long, tapered swords. The infantry thrust their javelins and spears. Against them Ramesses III stood firm. King, chariot, and horses are shown in perfect alignment whereas the Sea Peoples are a chaotic jumble, facing slaughter, surrender, or flight. Ramesses III's troops fought with chins raised and lips pressed together in grim determination. The Sea Peoples scattered. Their soldiers turned and fled.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (27) Antony commanded his slaves to lift him up. Plutarch says that they carried Antony to the tomb, but even then, Cleopatra would not allow the doors to be opened, but she showed herself at a window and let down cords and ropes to the ground. The slaves fastened Antony to these and the queen pulled him up.... Cleopatra... laid him upon a bed... and smeared her face with his blood. She called him her lord and husband and commander. Antony died in the aims of the queen. (28) With Antony dead and Cleopatra defeated, Octavian was the undisputed ruler of the known world. Cleopatra tried to make him fall in love with her. He could have been her third great Roman─but he wasn't interested. Instead, Octavian planned to take Cleopatra, the last Ptolemaic ruler of Egypt, to Rome as his slave. (29) Rather than be humiliated, Cleopatra chose death. She tried to kill herself, but Octavian's guards caught and stopped her. However, in the end she succeeded with a trick. The queen humbly asked the conqueror to allow her to mourn Antony's death and to give his body a proper farewell. Octavian agreed. (30) Cleopatra ordered a bath to be made ready and when she had bathed, she put on her royal robes and ate a fancy meal. Soon an Egyptian peasant arrived with a basket of figs. The guard inspected it but didn't see the asp, a poisonous snake, hidden beneath the fruit. Cleopatra sent away all of her servants except two women whom she especially trusted and loved. These servants locked the doors of the tomb, obeying the queen's command. Cleopatra had planned to let the asp come upon her when she wasn't looking. But according to one story by Plutarch, as soon as she saw the snake, she grabbed it and pressed it onto her bare arm, inviting a fatal bite.

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(4)

    お願いします。 (11) Osiris and Isis were two of the original nine gods. They were the children of the goddess of the sky and the god of the earth. Osiris became king of Egypt. He married the great love of his life, his sister Isis. His brother, Seth, was jealous. Seth wanted everything that Osiris had. He wanted to be king. He wanted his power. He wanted Isis. Seth pushed sibling rivalry into the evil zone. He plotted to destroy Osiris. Plutarch writes, "Seth secretly measured the body of Osiris and had made to the corresponding size a beautiful chest which was exquisitely decorated. He brought the chest to a banquet, and when the guests showed pleasure and admiration at the sight of it, Seth promised playfully that whoever would lie down in it and show that he fitted it, should have the chest as a gift." Then, in true Cinderella-and-the-glass-slipper fashion, everyone tried the coffinlike chest on for size. Some were so fat they couldn't squeeze into the box. Others were so small they slid right out. But, finally, when Osiris tried the coffin, the fit was just right. Plutarch writes that Seth "ran and slammed the lid on, and after securing it with bolts from the outside and with molten lead poured on, they took it to the river and let it go to the sea... "Osiris drowned. Death came to Egypt for the first time. (12) Seth enjoyed everything that once belonged to Osiris. But whereas Osiris was kind, Seth was cruel. There was no ma'at in Egypt with Seth in charge. There was war and hunger and lawlessness. Only Isis was unafraid of Seth. She found Osiris's body and turned herself into a bird and sang to him. In a fury, Seth cut Osiris into pieces and scattered him all over Egypt. Isis and her sister searched "in a papyrus boat, sailing through the marshes" for all his parts. They collectedthe pieces of Osiris, and with the help of Anubis, god of the dead, they sewed him back together.

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    お願いします (15) Ptolemy's death left Cleopatra alone on the throne, but only for a little while. She had to marry another brother in order to pacify the priests and government officials of Alexandria. This brother, her second consort, was also named Ptolemy─Ptolemy XIV. (16) Most historians agree that Caesar planned to place Cleopatra on the throne of Egypt. But scholars disagree about why. Was he in love with hir? Or did he just believe that he could control her...that she would be a useful puppet-queen for Rome? No one knows. (17) When Caesar returned to Rome in 46 BCE, Cleopatra followed him. Even though he already had a wife, the dictator kept Cleopatra and their infant son, Caesarion, in another home. There, she lived in great luxury and, one way or another, managed to offend almost everyone in Rome. (18) The assassination of Caesar two years later left Cleopatra in danger. She knew that no one in Rome would defend her, so she sailed back to Alexandria, taking Caesarion with her. Once there, she arranged for her brother, Ptolemy XIV, to be assassinated. She made young Caesarion her new co-ruler. (19) Cleopatra found Egypt in a bad state, weakened by drought and years of poor harvests. The people were hungry, but the royal treasury was nearly empty. Cleopatra knew that she must connect herself to a source of power. And power, in 41 BCE, meant Rome. So when Mark Antony invited her to meet him in Tarsus (an ancient city in what is now Turkey), she accepted. Even though her country was teetering on the edge of financial collapse, she put on an extravagant show to impress and woo him. Plutarch describes how she sailed up the...river in a flat-bottomed boat...with its purple sails outstretched, pulled by silver oars.... She herself reclined under a gold-embroidered awning, dressed like Venus.... Her slaves, dressed as cupids, fanned her on each side.

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(2)

    お願いします。 (4) Different towns in Egypt worshipped differnt gods. The leaders of the town would try to convince everyone that their god was the most powerful. If their god was powerful, it meant they were powerful, too. Before Upper and Lower Egypt were unified, each had its own capital with its own goddess. Upper Egypt's goddess looked like a vulture. Lower Egypt's goddess looked like a cobra. After Upper and Lower Egypt unified, the kings wore a crown with both a vulture and a cobra to symbolize the joining of the regions. (5) One of the pharaoh's most important jobs was to take care of the gods. If the gods were happy, the Egyptians figured they would be happy, too. The crops would grow, the Nile would flood to the right level, and Egypt would be at peace with its neighbors. Life would be in balance, or ma'at. The pharaohs built great temples to show respect to the gods. Inside each temple, in the innermost room, they placed a shrine. And inside the shrine, they kept a statue of the god for whom the temple had been built. Every day the priests served the statue as if it were alive. (6) One pharaoh, King Neferhotep (who ruled about 1741 to 1730 BCE), paid special attention to the temple at Abydos. King Neferhotep wanted to be sure the priests were taking care of the statue exactly as they were supposed to take care of it. After all, those priests were the king's representatives. So if they displeased the gods, then the gods were displeased with the king as well. Ma'at would be thrown all out of whack.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (6) Cleopatra went to the palace school with theother royal princes and princesses. She became fluent in nine languages and was the first member of her family who could speak Egyptian. Cleopatra had tremendous appeal. Even the Greek biographer Plutarch, who disapproved of her behavior, describes her in glowing terms: “The charm of her presence was irresistible, but there was an attraction in her person and conversation, together with a force of character, which showed in her every word and action. Everyone who met her fell under her spell.” (7) When Ptolemy died in 51 BCE, he left his kingdom to the 18-year-old Cleopatra. Even though she was old enough to rule, according to Egyptian law, she couldn't rule alone. Ptolemy's will set up joint rule by Cleopatra and her 12-year-old brother, Ptolemy X III. (8) According to Egyptian tradition, pharaohs married their siblings or children to keep sower within the royal family. Cleopatra had to marry a brother or a son, and this consort would be her official husband. It would be a marriage of politics, not love. Cleopatra had no sons when she came to the throne, so her first co-ruler was Ptolemy XIII. (9) Cleopatra and Ptolemy ruled together for several years, but Cleopatra wasn't very good at sharing. She left her brother's name out of official documents─on purpose─and had her own picture and name stamped on Egyptian coins. This didn't go over very well with Ptolemy. Nor did it please the court officials of Alexandria, the capital city. (10) Alexandria's officials decided that Ptolemy would be easier to control than Cleopatra. so they plotted to overthrow the strong-willed queen. Knowing that her life was in danger, Cleopatra escaped to Syria, where she raised an army to help her regain power.

  • 日本語訳を! 3-(1)

    お願いします。  The king who followed Narmer was named Aha. Aha means "the fighter." That should give you a clue as to what life was like in Egypt after the "unification." Either no one had bothered to get the word out to the Egyptians that they were now unified, or not everyone bought into the deal, because for next several hundred years, from about 3100 to 2670 BCE, the kings of Egypt spent most of their time squelching turf wars that flared up like forest fires. Every town with muscle and a headsman with attitude challenged the king. Each province struggled to hang on to its power. It took several hundred years and a king with a name that meant "divine body" to truly unify Egypt. A king named Djoser.  Egypt's list of kings is a long one. What makes the list run even longer is that most of the kings had several names. Take this one king, for example:  Hor Ka-nakht tut-mesut, Nebti Nefer-hepu Segereh-tawy, Sehetep-netjeru Nebu, Hor Neb Wetjes-khau Sehetep-netjeru, Nesut Bit Nebkheperure, Sa re Tutankhamun Heqaiunushema. In English, this name means:  The Horus Strong Bull, Fitting from Created Forms, He of the Two Ladies, Dynamic of Laws, Who Propitiates all the Gods, the Golden Horus Who Displays the Regalia, Who Propitiates the Gods, King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Lord of Manifestations is Re, Son of Re, Living Image of Amun, Ruler of Upper Egyptian Iunu. Fortunately for us, we know him as King Tut.  You can imagine how unwieldy the list became with more than 170 kings. Most of their names would have been lost if it weren't for an Egyptian priest and historian named Manetho, who lived in the third century BCE. He sorted out the entire disaster by collecting the records from various temples and putting them in order. To organize the list into something manageable, Manetho grouped the kings into thirty ruling families that we call dynasties.