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お願いします (27) Antony commanded his slaves to lift him up. Plutarch says that they carried Antony to the tomb, but even then, Cleopatra would not allow the doors to be opened, but she showed herself at a window and let down cords and ropes to the ground. The slaves fastened Antony to these and the queen pulled him up.... Cleopatra... laid him upon a bed... and smeared her face with his blood. She called him her lord and husband and commander. Antony died in the aims of the queen. (28) With Antony dead and Cleopatra defeated, Octavian was the undisputed ruler of the known world. Cleopatra tried to make him fall in love with her. He could have been her third great Roman─but he wasn't interested. Instead, Octavian planned to take Cleopatra, the last Ptolemaic ruler of Egypt, to Rome as his slave. (29) Rather than be humiliated, Cleopatra chose death. She tried to kill herself, but Octavian's guards caught and stopped her. However, in the end she succeeded with a trick. The queen humbly asked the conqueror to allow her to mourn Antony's death and to give his body a proper farewell. Octavian agreed. (30) Cleopatra ordered a bath to be made ready and when she had bathed, she put on her royal robes and ate a fancy meal. Soon an Egyptian peasant arrived with a basket of figs. The guard inspected it but didn't see the asp, a poisonous snake, hidden beneath the fruit. Cleopatra sent away all of her servants except two women whom she especially trusted and loved. These servants locked the doors of the tomb, obeying the queen's command. Cleopatra had planned to let the asp come upon her when she wasn't looking. But according to one story by Plutarch, as soon as she saw the snake, she grabbed it and pressed it onto her bare arm, inviting a fatal bite.

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(27) アントニーは、彼の奴隷に彼を持ち上げるように命じました。プルタークは、彼らがアントニーを墓へ運んだと言います、しかし、そのときでも、クレオパトラは、扉が開けられることを許そうとはしませんでした、しかし、彼女は、窓の所に姿を現し、地面に紐とロープをおろさせました。奴隷が、アントニーをこれらに結びつけると、女王は、彼を引き上げました。クレオパトラは、ベッドに彼を横たえると、彼女の顔に彼の血を塗りました。彼女は、彼を彼女の主人、夫、指揮官と呼びました。 アントニーは、女王の腕の中で死にました。 (28) アントニーが死に、クレオパトラが敗れたので、オクタビアヌスは、事実上世界の誰もが認める支配者となりました。クレオパトラは、彼を彼女と恋に落ちさせようとしました。彼は、彼女の3番目の偉大なローマ人となっていたかも知れません ─ しかし、彼は、興味を示しませんでした。それどころか、オクタビアヌスは、エジプトの最後のプトレマイオス朝の統治者クレオパトラを彼の奴隷としてローマへ連れて行く計画をしていました。 (29) 恥辱を受けるよりもむしろ、クレオパトラは、死を選びました。 彼女は、自殺しようとしました、しかし、オクタビアヌスの護衛が彼女を見つけて、止めました。しかし、結局、彼女は、計略を使って自殺を果たしました。女王は、彼女がアントニーの死を悼んで、彼の遺体に正式な別れを告げるのを許可するように、征服者に謙虚に頼みました。オクタビアヌスは、同意しました。 (30) クレオパトラは、お風呂を沸かすよう命じました、そして、入浴を終えると、彼女は、国王のローブを着て、豪勢な食事をとりました。間もなく、エジプトの農夫が、イチジクの一かごを持ってやって来ました。衛兵は、それを調べましたが、毒蛇のエジプトコブラが、果物の下に隠されているのに気付きませんでした。クレオパトラは、彼女が特に信頼し、可愛がっていた2人の女の召使以外、彼女の召使全員を退けました。これらの召使は、女王の命令に従って、墓の扉に鍵をかけました。クレオパトラは、彼女が見ていない内に、コブラを彼女の上に来させる計画でした。しかし、プルタークのある物語によれば、彼女は、ヘビを見るとすぐに、彼女は、それをつかんで、裸の腕の上へそれを押し付け、咬みつかせて死を招いたそうです。

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  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (31) When Octavian's messengers broke into the tomb, they found Cleopatra and one of her handmaidens already dead. The other servant was dying─like her mistress, poisoned by the asp. Octavian was angry to have lost his prize, but he admired the queen's courage and determination. (32) Plutarch writes that Octavian commanded that she be “buried with royal splendor and magnificence, and her body laid beside Antony's.” He then gave orders for Caesarion's execution. For Octavian, the great Julius Caesar could have only one heir─himself. (33) What gave Cleopatra such power? She wasn't the most beautiful woman the world has ever known, but she must have been fascinating Poets and historians, both Greek and Roman, described her as a goddess. Her fame continues. Countless plays, operas, and movies have been produced about her. William Shakespeare's play Antony and Cleopatra is still performed today all over the world. Cleopatra's dramatic death has been the subject of dozens of paintings. Yet no one knows what she really felt about her Roman loves. Did she truly care about Caesar or was he just a tool of her ambition? Did she fall in love with the handsome Mark Antony or did she use him in a desperate attempt to save the throne of Egypt? (34) These mysteries surround the Cleopatra of history. We may never know the answers.

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    お願いします (23) In 31 BCE, Octavian's navy defeated Mark Antony in Greece. Morale sank among Antony's troops. Many soldiers deserted and joined Octavian. Supplies of food and water grew scarce for Antony's army. His forces suffered a fatal blow when Octavian crushed them in the Battle of Actium, a city on the western coast of Greece. Cleopatra, seeing the disaster from a distance, ordered her ships to return to Egypt. Antony saw her purple sails in retreat and ordered his sailors to follow. But Antony's ground forces continued to fight. They couldn't believe at first that their beloved leader had abandoned them. When they realized it was true, they simply laid down their weapons and surrendered. (24) The final battle between Antony and Octavian began near Alexandria on the first of August, 30 BCE. Antony ordered his fleet to attack, and his men obediently rowed toward the enemy ships. Then, instead of attacking, they saluted the enemy's leader: Octavian. Antony's cavalry deserted as well. Only the foot soldiers remained loyal to their general, but they were easily defeated. (25) Antony was infuriated that Cleopatra had ordered her troops to abandon the battle and return to Egypt. Plutarch writes that the defeated general “retreated into Alexandria, crying out in his rage that Cleopatra had betrayed him to the very men he had fought for her sake.” Cleopatra, fearing her lover's anger, hid in a huge, two-story tomb and sent a servant to tell Antony that she was dead. (26) When Antony heard the news, he was devastated. He said he had no reason to live. The war was lost and Cleopatra was dead. So he stabbed himself, by falling on his own sword. He was dying, but not yet dead, whenCleopatra's second messenger arrived, inviting Antony to come to her hiding place. The queen was alive after all. She had changed her mind and wanted to see Antony. But it was almost too late.

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    お願いします (20) Antony was married, but he fell for Cleopatra like a fish taking the bait. He spent the winter with her in Alexandria. It seemed that she could get anything she wanted from him. He even began to wear Eastern clothes instead of the traditional Roman toga. sometimes, for fun, Antony and Cleopatra dressed as slaves or servants and roamed the streets playing pranks on anyone they met. According to Plutarch, the people of Alexandria were charmed at the sight of a Roman general behaving in such a silly way. “The Alexandrians...enjoyed taking part in these amusements.... They liked Antony personally and used to say that he put on his tragic mask for the Romans, but kept the comic one for them.” (21) Meanwhile, Caesar's heir, Octavian was still in Rome. He and Antony had been partners. They had defeated and killed Caesar's assassins and were now supposedly ruling the empire together. But when Antony's wife became involved in a civil war against Octavian, Antony had to leave Cleopatra and return to Rome to deal with the crisis. His wife became ill and died, leaving Antony free to marry again. He could have chosen Cleopatra, but he made a political marriage instead. He married Octavian's sister, Octavia─a beautiful, intelligent widow. She and Antony had a daughter. Back in Egypt, though, Cleopatra had already given birth to Antony's children, a twin boy and girl. (22) Even though Octavia was expecting their second child, Mark Antony suddenly went back to Alexandria...and Cleopatra, whom he married under Egyptian law. Octavian was furious. His sister had been rejected and shamed. He declared war against Antony and Cleopatra.

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    お願いします (15) Ptolemy's death left Cleopatra alone on the throne, but only for a little while. She had to marry another brother in order to pacify the priests and government officials of Alexandria. This brother, her second consort, was also named Ptolemy─Ptolemy XIV. (16) Most historians agree that Caesar planned to place Cleopatra on the throne of Egypt. But scholars disagree about why. Was he in love with hir? Or did he just believe that he could control her...that she would be a useful puppet-queen for Rome? No one knows. (17) When Caesar returned to Rome in 46 BCE, Cleopatra followed him. Even though he already had a wife, the dictator kept Cleopatra and their infant son, Caesarion, in another home. There, she lived in great luxury and, one way or another, managed to offend almost everyone in Rome. (18) The assassination of Caesar two years later left Cleopatra in danger. She knew that no one in Rome would defend her, so she sailed back to Alexandria, taking Caesarion with her. Once there, she arranged for her brother, Ptolemy XIV, to be assassinated. She made young Caesarion her new co-ruler. (19) Cleopatra found Egypt in a bad state, weakened by drought and years of poor harvests. The people were hungry, but the royal treasury was nearly empty. Cleopatra knew that she must connect herself to a source of power. And power, in 41 BCE, meant Rome. So when Mark Antony invited her to meet him in Tarsus (an ancient city in what is now Turkey), she accepted. Even though her country was teetering on the edge of financial collapse, she put on an extravagant show to impress and woo him. Plutarch describes how she sailed up the...river in a flat-bottomed boat...with its purple sails outstretched, pulled by silver oars.... She herself reclined under a gold-embroidered awning, dressed like Venus.... Her slaves, dressed as cupids, fanned her on each side.

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    お願いします (6) Cleopatra went to the palace school with theother royal princes and princesses. She became fluent in nine languages and was the first member of her family who could speak Egyptian. Cleopatra had tremendous appeal. Even the Greek biographer Plutarch, who disapproved of her behavior, describes her in glowing terms: “The charm of her presence was irresistible, but there was an attraction in her person and conversation, together with a force of character, which showed in her every word and action. Everyone who met her fell under her spell.” (7) When Ptolemy died in 51 BCE, he left his kingdom to the 18-year-old Cleopatra. Even though she was old enough to rule, according to Egyptian law, she couldn't rule alone. Ptolemy's will set up joint rule by Cleopatra and her 12-year-old brother, Ptolemy X III. (8) According to Egyptian tradition, pharaohs married their siblings or children to keep sower within the royal family. Cleopatra had to marry a brother or a son, and this consort would be her official husband. It would be a marriage of politics, not love. Cleopatra had no sons when she came to the throne, so her first co-ruler was Ptolemy XIII. (9) Cleopatra and Ptolemy ruled together for several years, but Cleopatra wasn't very good at sharing. She left her brother's name out of official documents─on purpose─and had her own picture and name stamped on Egyptian coins. This didn't go over very well with Ptolemy. Nor did it please the court officials of Alexandria, the capital city. (10) Alexandria's officials decided that Ptolemy would be easier to control than Cleopatra. so they plotted to overthrow the strong-willed queen. Knowing that her life was in danger, Cleopatra escaped to Syria, where she raised an army to help her regain power.

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    お願いします (9) For about a year, Octavian and Antony battled for control, but they finally became allies. They joined with Caesar's general Lepidus to from a triple alliance, the Second Triumvirate. The three men, called triumvirs, were determined to hunt down Brutus and the other conspirators in Caesar's murder. Some suggested that Brutus be decapitated, and his head brought back to Rome and thrown at the feer of Julius Caesar's statue. (10) Antony and Octavian left Lepidus in charge of the government while they went off with their armies to find the assassins of Julius Caesar. At Philippi in northern Greece, the triumvirs were victorious and Brutus committed suicide. Even though Antony was the more successful general and Octavian was sick during the decisive battle, all three men claimed victory and divided the empire among themselves. (11) Octavian and Antony may have been partners, but they were never friends for long. While Antony was busy reorganizing Roman territories in the East (and meeting Egypt's queen, Cleopatra), Octavian confiscated land in the Italian countryside and gave it to retired soldiers as a reward for their services. Because of these landgrabs, trouble flared again between the two leaders. Antony's wife and brother led a rebellion against Octavian while Antony was away. When Antony heard about it, he had to come home to deal with the crisis. (12) By 30 BCE, the war had ended. Antony was dead, and Octavian had defeated all of his rivals. At 33 years of age, he was suddenly the master of the Roman world.

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    お願いします (5) Although he was still an inexperienced teenager, Octavius was suddenly a public figure. He would soon be plunged into the cutthroat world of Roman politics. His mother and stepfather saw how dangerous this could be. They tried to persuade him to stay away from Rome. But Octavius was determined, and he set out to claim his inheritance. As a first step, he took his adoptive father's name and combined it with his own birth name. He became Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus. (6) Rome, meanwhile, was in the hands of Caesar's deputy, Mark Antony. He had seen the assassination and moved quickly to grab power. Octavian was not yet in Rome, so Antony delivered Caesar's funeral oration. His speech helped to persuade people that the dictator's assassins were the enemies of Rome. With lightning speed, Antony took over Caesar's money, property, and all of his official papers. (7) This was not what Caesar had wanted. In his will, he promised a generous gift of money to every Roman citizen. But Antony refused to honor the murdered hero's wish. (8) When Octavian reached Rome, he honored his great-uncle by giving his own money to the citizens. With the help of Cicero's speeches and with Caesar's veterans marching behind him, Octavian earned the support of the Senate. Not only was he elected to the Senate, he also became a consul─even though, according to Roman law, he was too young to hold these offices. Octavian bragged about it when he later wrote his memoirs.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (1) All Rome knew Lucretia for her beauty and goodness. No one doubted that she loved her husband and was faithful to him. In the eyes of the average Roman, this made her a perfect woman. But to Sextus. the king's ruthless son, Lucretia's goodness was a challenge. As the Roman historian Livy tells the tale, Sextus couldn't see such perfect devotion without wanting to destroy it. Sextus went to Lucretia's house when he knew that her husband was out of town. Because Sextus was a prince and also her husband's cousin, Lucretia and her servants welcomed him and served him dinner. They didn't suspect his cruel plan. (2) When everyone else was asleep, Sextus crept, sword in hand, into Lucretia's bedroom. He threatened to kill her and spread a rumor that she had been unfaithful to her husband, if she refused to do what he wanted. Lucretia was not afraid of death, but she didn't want to die with her husband thinking that she hadn't been faithful to him. So she obeyed Sextus―she felt that she had no choice. (3) The next morning, overcome with grief and shame, Lucretia sent messengers to her husband and her father. She asked them to come right away―something terrible had happened. The men came as quickly as they could. Lucretia's husband brought along his friend Brutus. When Lucretia saw them, she began to cry and told them what Sextus had done. According to Livy, she said,“Give me your right hand in faith that you will not allow the guilty to escape.” (4) Lucretia's husband and Brutus believed in Lucretia's innocence and promised to get even with Sextus. Brutus made this solemn promise.“By this blood, which was so pure...I swear before you, O gods, to chase out the king...with his criminal wife and all their children,...and never to tolerate kings in Rome evermore.”

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    お願いします (11) In 48 BCE, while Cleopatra was away, Pompey came back to Egypt, this time fleeing from Julius Caesar. Since Pompey was Ptolemy's legal guardian, the general thought that the could count on the young king of Egypt to protect him. Instead, Ptolemy allowed his advisors to murder and behead the Roman general. (12) Caesar arrived in Alexandria four days later with 3,200 foot soldiers and 800 cavalrymen. After having Pompey's murderers executed, Caesar took over the royal palace and immediately began giving orders. This news reached Cleopatra in Syria, and she realized that control of Egypt hung in the balance. If power was changing hands, she did not intend to miss out. She smuggled herself back into Alexandria, passing though enemy lines rolled up in a carpet. She was delivered─in the carpet─to Caesar. Imagine his surprise when the carpet was unrolled, and there, before him, was the beautiful young queen of Egypt! (13) Caesar had summoned both Ptolemy and Cleopatra to appear before him. The next morning, when Ptolemy arrived at the palace, he discovered that Cleopatra had gotten there first. It soon became clear to 15-year-old Ptolemy that Caesar and Cleopatra had formed a close alliance. They had, in fact, become lovers. Ptolemy could easily see that Caesar would support Cleopatra's claim to the throne, not his. Shouting that he had been betrayed, Ptolemy stormed out into the streets of Alexandria and started to organize a mob against his sister. (14) Ptolemy gathered an army of 20,000 men. His troops surrounded Caesar, but the great Roman overcame them with his own troops and executed their general. The boy-king drowned in the Nile River while trying to escape.

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    お願いします (16) Pompey would have liked more time to train his troops; they were not as battle- ready as Caesar's army. When Caesar's troops entered Italy, Pompey's soldiers panicked and many deserted. Pompey gathered what troops he could and escaped from Rome just before Caesar arrived. Caesar had Pompey on the run. (17) Caesar entered Rome for the first time in nine years. He found the government in chaos. Again, he didn't hold back but set to work right away. He asked the Senate to join forces with him to avoid more bloodshed. He chose Mark Antony as his chief lieutenant─next in command. Then, delegating power to other trusted generals, Caesar himself set out for Greece. There he defeated Pompey's army in 48 BCE. (18) Plutarch reports that when Caesar saw the dead Romans lying on the field, he groaned and said: “They made this happen;they drove me to it.” (19) News of Caesar's victory was greeted back home with wild excitement. His popularity soared, and Rome elected him to a second consulship. (20) Meanwhile Pompey had escaped to Egypt, arriving in the midst of a civil war between 15-year-old King Ptolemy XIII and his older sister, Cleopatra VII. Ptolemy believed that Caesar would follow his rival to Egypt, and he was right. So he prepared a surprise for the general. Hoping to please Caesar and lure him to his side against Cleopatra, Ptolemy's advisors captured Pompey and cut off his head. Then they pickled it in brine. They expected Caesar to be delighted, but they were wrong. (21) When Caesar arrived in Egypt, Ptolemy presented Caesar with Pompey's pickled head─the head of the noble Roman who had been his rival but also his friend and former son-in-law. Disgusted and pained, Caesar turned away and wept. He commanded that Pompey's body be buried with honor. And he ordered the execution of the Egyptians who had murdered a great leader of the Roman people.