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日本語訳を!!12

お願いします (1) Ptolemy XII was pharaoh of Egypt, the wealthiest country in the Mediterranean world. Ptolemy loved to party─he was called “The Flute Player” because he was so fond of music. But Ptolemy was not just a playful fellow. He was also a troublesome one, so troublesome that his own people wanted him out. They booted him from power in 58 BCE and put his eldest daughter, Berenice, on the throne instead. (2) Ptolemy fought back. He traveled to Rome and bribed the general Ptolemy to support him against Berenice. Ptolemy took troops to Egypt, defeated Berenice's supporters, and returned the playboy king to his throne. In gratitude, Ptolemy named Ptolemy as legal guardian to his eldest son. Ptolemy then gave orders for Berenice to be beheaded. (3) Who was this man who ordered his own daughter's death? (4) Ptolemy XII was actually a Greek. His long-ago ancestor, the first Ptolemy, had served as a general under Alexander the Great, who, in 331 BCE, had conquered a huge empire─including Egypt. When Alexander died, his three top generals divided the empire among themselves. The one who chose Egypt made himself its king and called himself Ptolemy I. By the time Ptolemy XII came to the throne, his family had ruled Egypt for almost 250 years. But they still spoke Greek and considered themselves part of the Greek world. (5) Although Ptolemy had executed his eldest daughter, there was another whom he especially loved─a bright, lively girl named Cleopatra VII. The king seems to have found her the most interesting of all his children. He proclaimed her a goddess when she was about four years old.

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(1) プトレマイオス12世は、地中海界で最も裕福な国エジプトのファラオでした。彼は、宴を開くのが大好きでした ― 彼は、音楽がとても好きだったので、「フルート奏者」と呼ばれました。しかし、プトレマイオスは、単に遊び好きの人ではありませんでした。彼は、厄介な人でもありました、あまりにも厄介だったので、彼自身の人民が彼に出て行ってほしいと思ったほどでした。彼らは、紀元前58年に彼を権力の座から退け、その代わりに、彼の長女ベレニスを王座に付けました。 (2) プトレマイオスは、反撃しました。彼は、ローマへ行って、プトレマイオス将軍を買収して、彼を助けてベレニスに対抗させました。プトレマイオス(将軍)は、軍隊をエジプトへ派遣して、ベレニスの支持者を破り、遊び好きの王を王座に戻しました。感謝して、プトレマイオス(12世)は、プトレマイオス(将軍)を彼の長男の法定上の後見人に指名しました。それから、プトレマイオス(12世)は、ベレニスが打ち首にされる命令を出しました。 (3) 自分自身の娘の死を命じたこの男は、何者だったのでしょうか? (4) プトレマイオス12世は、実はギリシア人でした。彼の昔の先祖初代プトレマイオスは、アレキサンダー大王に仕えた将軍でした、アレキサンダー大王は、紀元前331年に、エジプトを含む ― 巨大な帝国を征服しました。アレキサンダーが、死んだとき、彼の3人の最高位の将軍は、帝国を彼ら自身で分割しました。エジプトを選んだ将軍は、自らエジプトの王になって、自分自身をプトレマイオス1世と呼びました。プトレマイオス12世が、王に即位する頃までには、彼の一族は、ほぼ250年間エジプトを統治していました。 しかし、彼らは、まだギリシア語を話して、彼ら自身をギリシア世界の一員と考えていました。 (5) プトレマイオスは、彼の長女を処刑しましたが、彼には、特に大好きなもう一人の娘がいました ― クレオパトラ7世と言う名の聡明で元気のよい女の子でした。王は、彼女が彼のすべての子供たちの中で最も面白いと思っていたようです。彼女が、4才頃のとき、彼は、彼女を女神であると宣言しました。

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  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (11) In 48 BCE, while Cleopatra was away, Pompey came back to Egypt, this time fleeing from Julius Caesar. Since Pompey was Ptolemy's legal guardian, the general thought that the could count on the young king of Egypt to protect him. Instead, Ptolemy allowed his advisors to murder and behead the Roman general. (12) Caesar arrived in Alexandria four days later with 3,200 foot soldiers and 800 cavalrymen. After having Pompey's murderers executed, Caesar took over the royal palace and immediately began giving orders. This news reached Cleopatra in Syria, and she realized that control of Egypt hung in the balance. If power was changing hands, she did not intend to miss out. She smuggled herself back into Alexandria, passing though enemy lines rolled up in a carpet. She was delivered─in the carpet─to Caesar. Imagine his surprise when the carpet was unrolled, and there, before him, was the beautiful young queen of Egypt! (13) Caesar had summoned both Ptolemy and Cleopatra to appear before him. The next morning, when Ptolemy arrived at the palace, he discovered that Cleopatra had gotten there first. It soon became clear to 15-year-old Ptolemy that Caesar and Cleopatra had formed a close alliance. They had, in fact, become lovers. Ptolemy could easily see that Caesar would support Cleopatra's claim to the throne, not his. Shouting that he had been betrayed, Ptolemy stormed out into the streets of Alexandria and started to organize a mob against his sister. (14) Ptolemy gathered an army of 20,000 men. His troops surrounded Caesar, but the great Roman overcame them with his own troops and executed their general. The boy-king drowned in the Nile River while trying to escape.

  • 日本語訳を! 8-(6)

    お願いします。 (17) But just when he was sure he was a goner, Sinuhe was rescued by a tribe of nomads. The head of the tribe tells Sinuhe, "stay with me; I shall do you good." True to his word, the headsman made Sinuhe a wealthy and important man. But when Sinuhe grew old he began to miss his beloved homeland. Sinuhe wanted to be buried in Egypt. He wanted to build his tomb―his resting place for eternity―in his own country. Sinuhe writes to Senwosert, now king of Egypt; "Whatever God fated this flight―be gracious, and buring e home! Surely You will let me see the place where my heart still stays! What matters more than my being buried in the land where I was born?" King Senwosert answers, "Return to Egypt! And you will see the Residence where you grew up." (18) Back in Egypt, the king gave Sinuhe a home and food and fine linen. All his needs were taken care of: "A pyramid of stone was built for me...the masons who construct the pyramid measured out its foundations; the draughtsman drew in it; the overseer of sculptors carved in it." Sinuhe's tale, like Egypt itself, was in for a happy ending. Using "landing" as a metaphor for death―an appropriate word choice for a tale of journey―Sinuhe ends his story by saying, "I was in the favors of the king's giving, until the day of landing came." And now Egypt was in the favors of the king, too. It had traveled from monarchy to anarchy and back again.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (4) The mere mention of a name can be significant. In Year 10, a scarab was distributed announcing the arrival of a foreign princess to join Amenhotep's harem. But even on this scarab commemorating another woman, Queen Tiy's name is the name most closely linked to the king. Putting their names together clearly announces to the world her position as first queen. The last scarab, put out in Year 11, confirms their close relationship. It describes how a devoted Amenhotep III orders a lake made for his queen, Tiy. The lake was more than a mile long and a quarter of a mile wide. Some scholars estimate it may have been dug in just 15 days. "His Majesty celebrated the feast of the opening of the lake" by sailing witg his queen on the royal barge named his favorite name―the Dazzing Sun Disk. (5) Amenhotep the Magnificent was a very lucky king. He came to the throne when Egypt's treasury bulged with surplus harvests, the spoils of war, and goods from grade missions. And although the king would take sole credit for the country's good fortune, the man responsible for keeping things running smoothly was the vizier. Next to the king, the vizier was the most powerful person in Egypt. He, too, had many names, or titles. He was known as "Second to the King" and "Heart of the Lord" and "Eyes and Ears of the Sovereign." It was his job to keep law and order. He was in charge of taxes, all the records, troop movement, and even keeping track of the level of the Nile. The governors of every district reported to the vizier and the vizier reported to the king.

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  • 回答No.1

安易に聞いているので安易に答えますね。 (1) プトレマイオスXIIはエジプト(地中海の世界で最も裕福な国)のファラオでした。 音楽が非常に好きだったので、party─heに愛されていたプトレマイオスは「フルート奏者」と呼ばれました。 しかし、プトレマイオスは単にふざけた男ではありませんでした。 彼はさらに面倒でした、自分の人々が彼を追い出したがっていたように面倒。 それらは58 BCEの力から彼を追い出し、王座に、彼の長女(ベレニケ)を代わりに置きます。 (2) プトレマイオスは反撃しました。 彼はローマへ旅行し、ベレニケに対して彼を支援するように一般的なプトレマイオスを賄賂で誘惑しました。 プトレマイオスはエジプトに軍隊を持っていき、ベレニケの支持者を破り、彼の王座にプレイボーイ王を返しました。 謝意では、プトレマイオスはプトレマイオスを長男への法定後見人として指名しました。 その後、プトレマイオスは、ベレニケの首が切られる命令を与えました。 (3) 自分の娘の死を命じたこの人は誰でしたか。 (4) プトレマイオスXIIは実際にギリシャ人でした。 彼の昔の先祖(最初のプトレマイオス)はアレクサンドロス大王の下の将軍を務めました。この人は331 BCEで、巨大なempire─includingエジプトを征服しました。 アレグサンダーが死んだ時、彼のトップの3人の将軍はそれら自身の中で帝国を分割しました。 エジプトを選んだ人は自分にその王を作り、自分をプトレマイオス1世と呼びました。 プトレマイオスXIIが王位に就いた時には、彼の家族がほとんど250年間エジプトを支配していました。 しかし、彼らはまだギリシャ語を話し、それら自身をギリシャの世界の地域と考えました。 (5) プトレマイオスは長女を処刑しましたが、別のものがありました、誰、彼、クレオパトラVIIという名のloved─a(特に)頭がよく活発な少女。 王は、彼女に彼のすべての子どもたちの中で最も面白いものを見つけたように見えます。 彼女が約4歳だった時、彼は彼女を女神と宣言しました。 OKでしょうか?

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  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (16) Pompey would have liked more time to train his troops; they were not as battle- ready as Caesar's army. When Caesar's troops entered Italy, Pompey's soldiers panicked and many deserted. Pompey gathered what troops he could and escaped from Rome just before Caesar arrived. Caesar had Pompey on the run. (17) Caesar entered Rome for the first time in nine years. He found the government in chaos. Again, he didn't hold back but set to work right away. He asked the Senate to join forces with him to avoid more bloodshed. He chose Mark Antony as his chief lieutenant─next in command. Then, delegating power to other trusted generals, Caesar himself set out for Greece. There he defeated Pompey's army in 48 BCE. (18) Plutarch reports that when Caesar saw the dead Romans lying on the field, he groaned and said: “They made this happen;they drove me to it.” (19) News of Caesar's victory was greeted back home with wild excitement. His popularity soared, and Rome elected him to a second consulship. (20) Meanwhile Pompey had escaped to Egypt, arriving in the midst of a civil war between 15-year-old King Ptolemy XIII and his older sister, Cleopatra VII. Ptolemy believed that Caesar would follow his rival to Egypt, and he was right. So he prepared a surprise for the general. Hoping to please Caesar and lure him to his side against Cleopatra, Ptolemy's advisors captured Pompey and cut off his head. Then they pickled it in brine. They expected Caesar to be delighted, but they were wrong. (21) When Caesar arrived in Egypt, Ptolemy presented Caesar with Pompey's pickled head─the head of the noble Roman who had been his rival but also his friend and former son-in-law. Disgusted and pained, Caesar turned away and wept. He commanded that Pompey's body be buried with honor. And he ordered the execution of the Egyptians who had murdered a great leader of the Roman people.

  • 16-1日本語訳

    お願いします。  It was the summer of 327 BCE,and Ambhi,king of Taxila,was not a happy camper.For one thing,Taxila was no longer as powerful and wealthy as it had been when the Persians ruled there.He was glad the Persians had gone,of course.Every once in a while,they'd send someone around asking for taxes,but as long as he paid them,the Persians pretty much left King Ambhi and his people alone.Nevertheless,he probably wished that the powerful Persians army was still in town.He could have used its help.Taxila's neighbor to the southeast,King Porus,was a brave and intelligent man who wanted Ambhi's kingdom for himself.  Still,the gossip was that the Persian army itself had fallen on hard times.Some young Greek felkow named Sikander had popped up out of nowhere-Macedonia,actually,but that was as good as nowhere-and was busily conquering the whole world.The rumor was that this Sikanddr character had never lost a battle.Of course,you couldn't believe everything you heard.A young boy still in his 20s couldn't possibly have conquered everything from the Nile River to Afghanistan,not to mention the mighty Persians-but still...the stories might be true.  King Ambhi's heart must have sunk when a messenger arrived with news of the horrible defeat of one of Taxila's neighbors.When the Greek Sikander and his troops had arrived in his kingdom,the neighboring king had foolishly tried to fight.But resistance had been futile.Not only had the king lost,but his city had been burned and looted.And that,the messenger would have told King Ambhi,was no rumor.He'd seen the terrible scene himself.Now Sikander's army was on the move again.Next stop:Taxila.  For one desperate moment,King Ambhi must have wished that he and his people could somehow jump out of Sikander's way.And then he realized that,in a way,they could.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (5) Brutus kept his promise. He and Lucretia's husband won the loyalty of the army and drove out Sextus's father, the tyrant Tarquin the Proud―Rome's third Etruscan king. They condemned him and his whole family to life in exile, never again to see Rome. And that was the end of kingship in Rome. From this point on, kingship became so unpopular that rex (king) became a term of hatred and dishonor. The arrogant king Tarquin had always been unpopular. But the Romans prized high morals above all, and his son's attack on a woman's honor was the last straw. (6) The story of Lucretia is one explanation for how kingship ended in Rome. But how had it begun? The Romans believed that Romulus became Rome's first king when he founded the city in 753 BCE. They believed that six more kings ruled Rome until Brutus forced Tarquin the Proud from his throne in 509 BCE. According to tradition, the first three kings who followed Romulus to the throne were Romans. But Roman kingship was not passed down in a royal family, as it is in Great Britain, for example. Instead, when a Roman king died, the Senate―a group of wealthy men who owned land―elected the next ruler. Even a foreigner could rule if he could gather enough support among the senators. And that's exactly what happened when the Senate elected an Etruscan, as the fifth king of Rome. Tarquinius Priscus, later known as Tarquinius the Elder, ruled well and brought Etruscan engineering and artistry to Rome. But his grandson Lucius Tarquinius, also called Tarquin the Proud, was another story. He was the tyrant who ruled as Rome's seventh and last king.

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    お願いします (22) In his fervor for the Aten, Akhenaten forgot Egypt. The city of Amarna was like the royal firstborn son who took all the attention. The rest of Egypt became the second son, ignored and neglected. Egyptians outside Amarna were paying taxes to build a city they would never see, dedicated to a god they did not want. (23) Egypt's foreign subjects fell one by one to outside conquerors. The Amarna letters flooded in with pleas for help. They fell on deaf ears. One poor prince wrote at least 64 times, "Why will you neglect our land?" (24) Akhenaten had inherited an empire but left a country in decline. After his death the new capital was abandoned. The kings who followed Akhenaten demolished his temples and erased his name. Once Amarna had been stripped of stone it was forgotten and left to crumble. The sun had set on he Amarna Period.

  • 日本語訳を! 3-(7)

    お願いします。  Today when archaeologists dig up the bodies of pyramid builders it is clear that many survived serious injuries thanks to Imhotep and his long list of cures. But many did not. And, during the Old Kingdom, life everlasting was not for the common man. He could only hope to play his part in the cycle of life and death by building a tribute to his king and in doing so add to the grandeur of Egypt.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (16) What happened next depends on whom you believe. Ramesses claimed the Hittite king begged for a truce by saying, "O victorious king, peace is better than war, Give us breath." The Hittite king claimed it was Ramesses who buckled under. The fact that Qadesh remained under Hittite control makes the Hittite king's version of the story more believable. (17) It took 16 years, but in Year 21 of Ramesses II's reign the two nations negotiated peace. The treaty is the earliest recorded document of its type preserved in its entirety. Inscribed on two matching silver tablets are the pledges of the king of Egypt and the king of Hatti to one another. "If a foreign enemy marches against the country of Hatti and if the king of Hatti sends me this message:‘Come to my help'...the king of the Egyptian country has to send his troops and his chariots to kill this enemy...." The Hittite king made a similar vow to defend Egypt. The treaty also pledged support if the enemy were to come from within. The Hittite king swore that if Ramesses should "rise in anger against his citizens after they have committed a wrong against him...the king of the country of Hatti, my brother, has to send his troops and his chariots...." Ramesses promised to stand by the Hittite king in the same circumstances. The treaty was honored until the fall of the Hittite Empire. Even when tested, Ramesses stood by his ally, announcing to the world, "Today there is a fraternity between the Great King of Egypt and the king of Hatti."

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    お願いします (6) On March 15, the day known in Rome as the Ides of March, Caesar went to a meeting of the Senate. As usual, he had no bodyguards. On the way, a soothsayer─a “truth teller” who can tall the future─stopped him with a warning: “Caesar, beware the Ides of March.” (The Romans called the middle day of the month the “Ides”; it usually fell on the 15th.) The dictator ignored him and walked on. But when he arrived at the meeting place, a group of senators─mostly old friends and men he had pardoned and promoted─surrounded him. They quickly closed in and, drawing their knives, began to stab him. Bleeding from 23 brutal wounds, Caesar fell and died at the base of a statue he had commissioned: a statue of Pompey─his rival and friend. (7) Who was this man who stirred such a powerful mix of love, admiration,fear, and hatred? (8) Julius Caesar was born into a noble family, but he always supported the rights of the common people. He was the plebeian's favorite politician. They believed that he understood and cared about their needs. He did, but he was no saint. He was practical, strong willed, and hungry for power. Street-smart, he made very few mistakes, and he knew how to take advantage of the mistakes of his enemies. (9) In 60 BCE, Julius Caesar wanted to become a consul, but he was broke. He had already spent everything he had (or could borrow) to pay for his political career up to that point. He needed money and he needed help. So he made a bargain with two other men who also needed something: Cicero's friend Pompey and Crassus, the richest man in Rome. The three formed the First Triumvirate.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (22) Caesar then restored Cleopatra to her throne and defeated her brother in battle. On his way back to Rome, Caesar passed through Asia. There, he squashed a rebellion in Asia Minor (modern Turkey). In a letter to a friend, he made light of the victory. The letter had only three words: “Veni, vidi, vici.” (“I came, I saw, I conquered.”) Plutarch says that this brief message matched “the sharpness and speed of the battle itself.” Caesar's fans later made placards with these three words written on them, which they carried in his triumphal procession into Rome. (23) When Caesar returned to Rome, he was proclaimed dictator. Then he began the work of healing Rome's terrible war wounds. He gave 100 denarii to every citizen and pardoned his own enemies, even those who had supported Pompey against him, including Cicero and Brutus. (Caesar was especially fond of Brutus. In his youth, Caesar had been in love with Brutus's mother, and he always looked out for her son. Brutus did not return the favor.) (24) During four years of almost absolute power, Caesar passed many laws to control debt, reduce unemployment, and regulate traffic in Rome. He levied taxes on foreign imports to boost Rome's economy. He put unemployed Romans to work building a new Forum and a large public building named in his family's honor: the Basilica Julia. He planned the first public library and built embankments along the Tiber to protect the city against floods. He revised the old Roman calendar, replacing it with the one that we use today, beginning with January. (25) Julius Caesar was perhaps the most extraordinary of all ancient Romans─a senator, military leader, and dictator of Rome. But he was also a poet, a brilliant historian who wrote about his military victories, and the only orator of his day who could compete with Cicero. His personal charm brought him the loyalty of men and the love of women.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (14) About the time that Amenhotep IV took the throne, he also took a wife―Nefertiti, which means "The Beautiful Woman Has Come." His parents' unusually close relationship could have been the model that led Amehotep IV to break tradition again and share his power with "the Foremost Wife of the King, whom he loves, the Mistress of the Two Lands,... Nefertiti, living and young, forever and ever." Amenhotep IV's devotion to Nefertiti was displayed on temple walls. Traditional paintings of the king as a muscled, fierce warrior were replaced with paintings of the king as a loving, doting famiky man―Amenhotep kissing his wife, Amenhotep with a daughter on his knee, Amenhotep surrounded by his family. (15) Soon Amenhotep IV found another obsession. He latched onto an obscure sun god that his father had fancied, Aten, which means "the disk." In the fifth year of Amenhotep IV's reign, he changed his name to Akhenaten which means "Spirit of the Sun Disk." The name change was not as shocking as what followed. Akhenaten announced that the gods Egyptians had been worshiping for thousands of years no longer existed. The Aten was the one and only. Akhenaten cut off funds to the temples. There would be no more tributes to these false gods, no more temples built in Thebes, no more revenues funneled into the priesthood. Those riches woukd now go directly to the Aten and (perhaps rather shrewdly) to his representative on Earth, the king himself―Akhenaten. (16) The Aten needed his own city, a new capital built on new ground. Akhenaten sailed the Nile in search of the right spot to build the city. On the east bank of the Nike, halfway between Memphis and Thebes, a semicircle of cliffs rose above an arc of windswept desert. It was there, on an isolated strip of land, that Akhenaten built the city we know as Amarna.