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お願いします (20) Antony was married, but he fell for Cleopatra like a fish taking the bait. He spent the winter with her in Alexandria. It seemed that she could get anything she wanted from him. He even began to wear Eastern clothes instead of the traditional Roman toga. sometimes, for fun, Antony and Cleopatra dressed as slaves or servants and roamed the streets playing pranks on anyone they met. According to Plutarch, the people of Alexandria were charmed at the sight of a Roman general behaving in such a silly way. “The Alexandrians...enjoyed taking part in these amusements.... They liked Antony personally and used to say that he put on his tragic mask for the Romans, but kept the comic one for them.” (21) Meanwhile, Caesar's heir, Octavian was still in Rome. He and Antony had been partners. They had defeated and killed Caesar's assassins and were now supposedly ruling the empire together. But when Antony's wife became involved in a civil war against Octavian, Antony had to leave Cleopatra and return to Rome to deal with the crisis. His wife became ill and died, leaving Antony free to marry again. He could have chosen Cleopatra, but he made a political marriage instead. He married Octavian's sister, Octavia─a beautiful, intelligent widow. She and Antony had a daughter. Back in Egypt, though, Cleopatra had already given birth to Antony's children, a twin boy and girl. (22) Even though Octavia was expecting their second child, Mark Antony suddenly went back to Alexandria...and Cleopatra, whom he married under Egyptian law. Octavian was furious. His sister had been rejected and shamed. He declared war against Antony and Cleopatra.

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(20) アントニーは、結婚していましたが、彼は、餌に食いつく魚のようにクレオパトラに魅かれました。彼は、アレキサンドリアで彼女と冬を過ごしました。彼女は、望むものは何でも彼から得ることができるようでした。彼は、伝統的なローマのトーガの代わりに、東方の服を身に付け始めさえしました。時々、面白半分に、アントニーとクレオパトラは、奴隷や召使の身なりをして、彼らが出会う人々みんなをからかいながら、通りをうろつきました。プルタークによると、そのように愚かにふるまっているローマの将軍を見て、アレキサンドリアの人々は、魅了されたそうです。「アレキサンドリアの人々は、これらの娯楽に参加して楽しみました。彼らは、個人的にアントニーが好きで、彼は、ローマ人のために彼の悲劇の仮面をつけているが、彼らのために喜劇の仮面を残してあると言ったものでした。」 (21) 一方、シーザーの相続人、オクタビアヌスは、まだ、ローマにいました。彼とアントニーは、パートナーでした。彼らは、シーザーの暗殺者を打ち負かして殺害し、今では一緒に帝国を統治していることになっていました。 しかし、アントニーの妻が、オクタビアヌスに対して内戦に関与しだしたとき、アントニーは、危機に対処するために、クレオパトラのもとを去って、ローマに戻らなければなりませんでした。彼の妻は病気になって、死に、アントニーは、再び自由に結婚できる立場になりました。彼は、クレオパトラを選ぶこともできましたが、彼は、その代わりに、政略結婚を行いました。彼は、オクタビアヌスの妹の ― 美しく知的な未亡人 ― オクタビアと結婚したのです。彼女とアントニーには、娘が生まれました。しかし、エジプトに戻ると、クレオパトラは、アントニーの子供たち、双子の男の子と女の子を、すでに生んでいました。 (22) オクタビアが、彼らの2人目の子供を妊娠していたにもかかわらず、マーク・アントニーは、突然、アレキサンドリアに ... そして、クレオパトラのもとに戻りました、そして、クレオパトラと、エジプトの法律のもとで結婚しました。オクタビアヌスは、激怒しました。彼の妹が、拒絶されて、侮辱されたからでした。彼は、アントニーとクレオパトラに宣戦布告しました。

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    お願いします (23) In 31 BCE, Octavian's navy defeated Mark Antony in Greece. Morale sank among Antony's troops. Many soldiers deserted and joined Octavian. Supplies of food and water grew scarce for Antony's army. His forces suffered a fatal blow when Octavian crushed them in the Battle of Actium, a city on the western coast of Greece. Cleopatra, seeing the disaster from a distance, ordered her ships to return to Egypt. Antony saw her purple sails in retreat and ordered his sailors to follow. But Antony's ground forces continued to fight. They couldn't believe at first that their beloved leader had abandoned them. When they realized it was true, they simply laid down their weapons and surrendered. (24) The final battle between Antony and Octavian began near Alexandria on the first of August, 30 BCE. Antony ordered his fleet to attack, and his men obediently rowed toward the enemy ships. Then, instead of attacking, they saluted the enemy's leader: Octavian. Antony's cavalry deserted as well. Only the foot soldiers remained loyal to their general, but they were easily defeated. (25) Antony was infuriated that Cleopatra had ordered her troops to abandon the battle and return to Egypt. Plutarch writes that the defeated general “retreated into Alexandria, crying out in his rage that Cleopatra had betrayed him to the very men he had fought for her sake.” Cleopatra, fearing her lover's anger, hid in a huge, two-story tomb and sent a servant to tell Antony that she was dead. (26) When Antony heard the news, he was devastated. He said he had no reason to live. The war was lost and Cleopatra was dead. So he stabbed himself, by falling on his own sword. He was dying, but not yet dead, whenCleopatra's second messenger arrived, inviting Antony to come to her hiding place. The queen was alive after all. She had changed her mind and wanted to see Antony. But it was almost too late.

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    お願いします (27) Antony commanded his slaves to lift him up. Plutarch says that they carried Antony to the tomb, but even then, Cleopatra would not allow the doors to be opened, but she showed herself at a window and let down cords and ropes to the ground. The slaves fastened Antony to these and the queen pulled him up.... Cleopatra... laid him upon a bed... and smeared her face with his blood. She called him her lord and husband and commander. Antony died in the aims of the queen. (28) With Antony dead and Cleopatra defeated, Octavian was the undisputed ruler of the known world. Cleopatra tried to make him fall in love with her. He could have been her third great Roman─but he wasn't interested. Instead, Octavian planned to take Cleopatra, the last Ptolemaic ruler of Egypt, to Rome as his slave. (29) Rather than be humiliated, Cleopatra chose death. She tried to kill herself, but Octavian's guards caught and stopped her. However, in the end she succeeded with a trick. The queen humbly asked the conqueror to allow her to mourn Antony's death and to give his body a proper farewell. Octavian agreed. (30) Cleopatra ordered a bath to be made ready and when she had bathed, she put on her royal robes and ate a fancy meal. Soon an Egyptian peasant arrived with a basket of figs. The guard inspected it but didn't see the asp, a poisonous snake, hidden beneath the fruit. Cleopatra sent away all of her servants except two women whom she especially trusted and loved. These servants locked the doors of the tomb, obeying the queen's command. Cleopatra had planned to let the asp come upon her when she wasn't looking. But according to one story by Plutarch, as soon as she saw the snake, she grabbed it and pressed it onto her bare arm, inviting a fatal bite.

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