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お願いします (11) In 48 BCE, while Cleopatra was away, Pompey came back to Egypt, this time fleeing from Julius Caesar. Since Pompey was Ptolemy's legal guardian, the general thought that the could count on the young king of Egypt to protect him. Instead, Ptolemy allowed his advisors to murder and behead the Roman general. (12) Caesar arrived in Alexandria four days later with 3,200 foot soldiers and 800 cavalrymen. After having Pompey's murderers executed, Caesar took over the royal palace and immediately began giving orders. This news reached Cleopatra in Syria, and she realized that control of Egypt hung in the balance. If power was changing hands, she did not intend to miss out. She smuggled herself back into Alexandria, passing though enemy lines rolled up in a carpet. She was delivered─in the carpet─to Caesar. Imagine his surprise when the carpet was unrolled, and there, before him, was the beautiful young queen of Egypt! (13) Caesar had summoned both Ptolemy and Cleopatra to appear before him. The next morning, when Ptolemy arrived at the palace, he discovered that Cleopatra had gotten there first. It soon became clear to 15-year-old Ptolemy that Caesar and Cleopatra had formed a close alliance. They had, in fact, become lovers. Ptolemy could easily see that Caesar would support Cleopatra's claim to the throne, not his. Shouting that he had been betrayed, Ptolemy stormed out into the streets of Alexandria and started to organize a mob against his sister. (14) Ptolemy gathered an army of 20,000 men. His troops surrounded Caesar, but the great Roman overcame them with his own troops and executed their general. The boy-king drowned in the Nile River while trying to escape.

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(11) 紀元前48年に、クレオパトラがいない間に、ポンぺイウスは、エジプトに戻って来ました、今回は、ジュリアス・シーザーから逃がれて来たのでした。ポンぺイウスは、プトレマイオスの後見人であったので、将軍(ポンぺイウス)は、この若いエジプトの王(プトレマイオス)が、彼を守ってくれるとあてにすることが出来ると考えました。それどころか、プトレマイオスは、彼の顧問たちが、ローマの将軍(ポンぺイウス)を殺害して打ち首にするのを許したのでした。 (12) シーザーは、3,200人の歩兵と800人の騎兵を伴って4日後に、アレキサンドリアに到着しました。 ポンぺイウスの殺害者を処刑させた後、シーザーは、王宮を支配して、すぐに命令を出し始めました。この知らせ、シリアにいるクレオパトラに届きました、そして、彼女は、エジプトの支配権が予断を許さない状態であると理解しました。権力の持ち主が変わりかけているのであれば、彼女は、それを逃すつもりはありませんでした。彼女は、密かにアレキサンドリアに戻りました、敵の前線をカーペットにくるまって通過したのでした。彼女は、カーペットにくるまって ― シーザーのもとに届けられたのでした。 カーペットが、広げられたときの彼の驚きを想像してください、彼の前の、そこには、エジプトの美しい若い女王がいたのでした! (13) シーザーは、プトレマイオスとクレオパトラを彼の前に出向くように呼び出しました。翌朝、プトレマイオスが宮殿に到着したとき、彼は、クレオパトラが先にそこに到着したということを知りました。シーザーとクレオパトラが、緊密な同盟をつくっていることが、すぐに、15才のプトレマイオスに明らかになりました。彼らは、実際、恋人になっていたのでした。彼の要求ではなく、クレオパトラの王座の要求をシーザーが支持することを、プトレマイオスは、容易に理解できました。裏切られたと叫んで、プトレマイオスは、アレキサンドリアの通りに飛び出して、彼の姉に対して暴徒を組織し始めました。 (14) プトレマイオスは、20,000人の軍を招集しました。彼の軍隊は、シーザーを包囲しました、しかし、偉大なローマ人(シーザー)は、彼らを彼自身の軍隊で圧倒して、彼らの将軍を処刑しました。 逃げようとしている間に、その少年王(プトレマイオス)は、ナイル川でおぼれました。

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    お願いします (16) Pompey would have liked more time to train his troops; they were not as battle- ready as Caesar's army. When Caesar's troops entered Italy, Pompey's soldiers panicked and many deserted. Pompey gathered what troops he could and escaped from Rome just before Caesar arrived. Caesar had Pompey on the run. (17) Caesar entered Rome for the first time in nine years. He found the government in chaos. Again, he didn't hold back but set to work right away. He asked the Senate to join forces with him to avoid more bloodshed. He chose Mark Antony as his chief lieutenant─next in command. Then, delegating power to other trusted generals, Caesar himself set out for Greece. There he defeated Pompey's army in 48 BCE. (18) Plutarch reports that when Caesar saw the dead Romans lying on the field, he groaned and said: “They made this happen;they drove me to it.” (19) News of Caesar's victory was greeted back home with wild excitement. His popularity soared, and Rome elected him to a second consulship. (20) Meanwhile Pompey had escaped to Egypt, arriving in the midst of a civil war between 15-year-old King Ptolemy XIII and his older sister, Cleopatra VII. Ptolemy believed that Caesar would follow his rival to Egypt, and he was right. So he prepared a surprise for the general. Hoping to please Caesar and lure him to his side against Cleopatra, Ptolemy's advisors captured Pompey and cut off his head. Then they pickled it in brine. They expected Caesar to be delighted, but they were wrong. (21) When Caesar arrived in Egypt, Ptolemy presented Caesar with Pompey's pickled head─the head of the noble Roman who had been his rival but also his friend and former son-in-law. Disgusted and pained, Caesar turned away and wept. He commanded that Pompey's body be buried with honor. And he ordered the execution of the Egyptians who had murdered a great leader of the Roman people.

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    お願いします (6) Cleopatra went to the palace school with theother royal princes and princesses. She became fluent in nine languages and was the first member of her family who could speak Egyptian. Cleopatra had tremendous appeal. Even the Greek biographer Plutarch, who disapproved of her behavior, describes her in glowing terms: “The charm of her presence was irresistible, but there was an attraction in her person and conversation, together with a force of character, which showed in her every word and action. Everyone who met her fell under her spell.” (7) When Ptolemy died in 51 BCE, he left his kingdom to the 18-year-old Cleopatra. Even though she was old enough to rule, according to Egyptian law, she couldn't rule alone. Ptolemy's will set up joint rule by Cleopatra and her 12-year-old brother, Ptolemy X III. (8) According to Egyptian tradition, pharaohs married their siblings or children to keep sower within the royal family. Cleopatra had to marry a brother or a son, and this consort would be her official husband. It would be a marriage of politics, not love. Cleopatra had no sons when she came to the throne, so her first co-ruler was Ptolemy XIII. (9) Cleopatra and Ptolemy ruled together for several years, but Cleopatra wasn't very good at sharing. She left her brother's name out of official documents─on purpose─and had her own picture and name stamped on Egyptian coins. This didn't go over very well with Ptolemy. Nor did it please the court officials of Alexandria, the capital city. (10) Alexandria's officials decided that Ptolemy would be easier to control than Cleopatra. so they plotted to overthrow the strong-willed queen. Knowing that her life was in danger, Cleopatra escaped to Syria, where she raised an army to help her regain power.

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    お願いします (1) Ptolemy XII was pharaoh of Egypt, the wealthiest country in the Mediterranean world. Ptolemy loved to party─he was called “The Flute Player” because he was so fond of music. But Ptolemy was not just a playful fellow. He was also a troublesome one, so troublesome that his own people wanted him out. They booted him from power in 58 BCE and put his eldest daughter, Berenice, on the throne instead. (2) Ptolemy fought back. He traveled to Rome and bribed the general Ptolemy to support him against Berenice. Ptolemy took troops to Egypt, defeated Berenice's supporters, and returned the playboy king to his throne. In gratitude, Ptolemy named Ptolemy as legal guardian to his eldest son. Ptolemy then gave orders for Berenice to be beheaded. (3) Who was this man who ordered his own daughter's death? (4) Ptolemy XII was actually a Greek. His long-ago ancestor, the first Ptolemy, had served as a general under Alexander the Great, who, in 331 BCE, had conquered a huge empire─including Egypt. When Alexander died, his three top generals divided the empire among themselves. The one who chose Egypt made himself its king and called himself Ptolemy I. By the time Ptolemy XII came to the throne, his family had ruled Egypt for almost 250 years. But they still spoke Greek and considered themselves part of the Greek world. (5) Although Ptolemy had executed his eldest daughter, there was another whom he especially loved─a bright, lively girl named Cleopatra VII. The king seems to have found her the most interesting of all his children. He proclaimed her a goddess when she was about four years old.

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    お願いします (15) Ptolemy's death left Cleopatra alone on the throne, but only for a little while. She had to marry another brother in order to pacify the priests and government officials of Alexandria. This brother, her second consort, was also named Ptolemy─Ptolemy XIV. (16) Most historians agree that Caesar planned to place Cleopatra on the throne of Egypt. But scholars disagree about why. Was he in love with hir? Or did he just believe that he could control her...that she would be a useful puppet-queen for Rome? No one knows. (17) When Caesar returned to Rome in 46 BCE, Cleopatra followed him. Even though he already had a wife, the dictator kept Cleopatra and their infant son, Caesarion, in another home. There, she lived in great luxury and, one way or another, managed to offend almost everyone in Rome. (18) The assassination of Caesar two years later left Cleopatra in danger. She knew that no one in Rome would defend her, so she sailed back to Alexandria, taking Caesarion with her. Once there, she arranged for her brother, Ptolemy XIV, to be assassinated. She made young Caesarion her new co-ruler. (19) Cleopatra found Egypt in a bad state, weakened by drought and years of poor harvests. The people were hungry, but the royal treasury was nearly empty. Cleopatra knew that she must connect herself to a source of power. And power, in 41 BCE, meant Rome. So when Mark Antony invited her to meet him in Tarsus (an ancient city in what is now Turkey), she accepted. Even though her country was teetering on the edge of financial collapse, she put on an extravagant show to impress and woo him. Plutarch describes how she sailed up the...river in a flat-bottomed boat...with its purple sails outstretched, pulled by silver oars.... She herself reclined under a gold-embroidered awning, dressed like Venus.... Her slaves, dressed as cupids, fanned her on each side.

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    お願いします (31) When Octavian's messengers broke into the tomb, they found Cleopatra and one of her handmaidens already dead. The other servant was dying─like her mistress, poisoned by the asp. Octavian was angry to have lost his prize, but he admired the queen's courage and determination. (32) Plutarch writes that Octavian commanded that she be “buried with royal splendor and magnificence, and her body laid beside Antony's.” He then gave orders for Caesarion's execution. For Octavian, the great Julius Caesar could have only one heir─himself. (33) What gave Cleopatra such power? She wasn't the most beautiful woman the world has ever known, but she must have been fascinating Poets and historians, both Greek and Roman, described her as a goddess. Her fame continues. Countless plays, operas, and movies have been produced about her. William Shakespeare's play Antony and Cleopatra is still performed today all over the world. Cleopatra's dramatic death has been the subject of dozens of paintings. Yet no one knows what she really felt about her Roman loves. Did she truly care about Caesar or was he just a tool of her ambition? Did she fall in love with the handsome Mark Antony or did she use him in a desperate attempt to save the throne of Egypt? (34) These mysteries surround the Cleopatra of history. We may never know the answers.

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    お願いします (27) Antony commanded his slaves to lift him up. Plutarch says that they carried Antony to the tomb, but even then, Cleopatra would not allow the doors to be opened, but she showed herself at a window and let down cords and ropes to the ground. The slaves fastened Antony to these and the queen pulled him up.... Cleopatra... laid him upon a bed... and smeared her face with his blood. She called him her lord and husband and commander. Antony died in the aims of the queen. (28) With Antony dead and Cleopatra defeated, Octavian was the undisputed ruler of the known world. Cleopatra tried to make him fall in love with her. He could have been her third great Roman─but he wasn't interested. Instead, Octavian planned to take Cleopatra, the last Ptolemaic ruler of Egypt, to Rome as his slave. (29) Rather than be humiliated, Cleopatra chose death. She tried to kill herself, but Octavian's guards caught and stopped her. However, in the end she succeeded with a trick. The queen humbly asked the conqueror to allow her to mourn Antony's death and to give his body a proper farewell. Octavian agreed. (30) Cleopatra ordered a bath to be made ready and when she had bathed, she put on her royal robes and ate a fancy meal. Soon an Egyptian peasant arrived with a basket of figs. The guard inspected it but didn't see the asp, a poisonous snake, hidden beneath the fruit. Cleopatra sent away all of her servants except two women whom she especially trusted and loved. These servants locked the doors of the tomb, obeying the queen's command. Cleopatra had planned to let the asp come upon her when she wasn't looking. But according to one story by Plutarch, as soon as she saw the snake, she grabbed it and pressed it onto her bare arm, inviting a fatal bite.