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お願いします (5) Although he was still an inexperienced teenager, Octavius was suddenly a public figure. He would soon be plunged into the cutthroat world of Roman politics. His mother and stepfather saw how dangerous this could be. They tried to persuade him to stay away from Rome. But Octavius was determined, and he set out to claim his inheritance. As a first step, he took his adoptive father's name and combined it with his own birth name. He became Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus. (6) Rome, meanwhile, was in the hands of Caesar's deputy, Mark Antony. He had seen the assassination and moved quickly to grab power. Octavian was not yet in Rome, so Antony delivered Caesar's funeral oration. His speech helped to persuade people that the dictator's assassins were the enemies of Rome. With lightning speed, Antony took over Caesar's money, property, and all of his official papers. (7) This was not what Caesar had wanted. In his will, he promised a generous gift of money to every Roman citizen. But Antony refused to honor the murdered hero's wish. (8) When Octavian reached Rome, he honored his great-uncle by giving his own money to the citizens. With the help of Cicero's speeches and with Caesar's veterans marching behind him, Octavian earned the support of the Senate. Not only was he elected to the Senate, he also became a consul─even though, according to Roman law, he was too young to hold these offices. Octavian bragged about it when he later wrote his memoirs.

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(5) まだ経験の浅い十代の少年でしたが、オクタウィウスは、突然、公人となりました。彼は、ローマ政治の非情な世界に、すぐに、跳び込むことになるのです。彼の母と継父は、このことが、どれほど危険になりうるか分かっていました。彼らは、ローマに近づかないように彼を説得しようとしました。しかし、オクタウィウスは、決意を固めていました、そして、彼は、遺産を要求するために出発しました。第一歩として、彼は、彼の養父の名前をとって、それを彼自身の出生時以来の名前と組み合わせました。 彼は、ガイウス・ユリウス・カエサル・オクタウィウスになったのです。 (6) その間、ローマは、シーザーの代理のマーク・アントニーの手にありました。彼は、暗殺を目撃して、権力を掌握するために、素早く動きました。オクタウィウスが、ローマにまだ到着していなかったので、アントニーが、シーザーの追悼演説を行いました。彼の演説は、独裁者の暗殺者が、ローマの敵であると人々を説得する助けとなりました。矢継ぎ早に、アントニーは、シーザーのお金、資産、公文書の全てを引き継ぎました。 (7) これは、シーザーが望んだことではありませんでした。彼の遺言で、彼は、気前のよいお金の贈り物を全ローマ市民に約束していました。しかし、アントニーは、殺された英雄の願いに敬意を表して履行することを拒否しました。 (8) オクタウィウスが、ローマに到着したとき、彼は市民に彼自身のお金を与えることによって大叔父にたいする敬意を表わしました。キケロの演説の助けを借りて、また、彼に従って行軍して来たシーザーの歴戦の兵士の助けを借りて、オクタウィウスは、元老院の支持を獲得しました。 彼は、元老院議員に選出されたばかりでなく、執政官にもなりました ― しかし、ローマ法によれば、こうした役職に就くには、彼は、若すぎたのです。オクタウィウスは、後に回顧録を書いたとき、このことを誇っています。

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  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (9) For about a year, Octavian and Antony battled for control, but they finally became allies. They joined with Caesar's general Lepidus to from a triple alliance, the Second Triumvirate. The three men, called triumvirs, were determined to hunt down Brutus and the other conspirators in Caesar's murder. Some suggested that Brutus be decapitated, and his head brought back to Rome and thrown at the feer of Julius Caesar's statue. (10) Antony and Octavian left Lepidus in charge of the government while they went off with their armies to find the assassins of Julius Caesar. At Philippi in northern Greece, the triumvirs were victorious and Brutus committed suicide. Even though Antony was the more successful general and Octavian was sick during the decisive battle, all three men claimed victory and divided the empire among themselves. (11) Octavian and Antony may have been partners, but they were never friends for long. While Antony was busy reorganizing Roman territories in the East (and meeting Egypt's queen, Cleopatra), Octavian confiscated land in the Italian countryside and gave it to retired soldiers as a reward for their services. Because of these landgrabs, trouble flared again between the two leaders. Antony's wife and brother led a rebellion against Octavian while Antony was away. When Antony heard about it, he had to come home to deal with the crisis. (12) By 30 BCE, the war had ended. Antony was dead, and Octavian had defeated all of his rivals. At 33 years of age, he was suddenly the master of the Roman world.

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    お願いします (26) In the end, he was killed at the height of the powers by men he thought were his friends. It was particularly sad that Brutus was among the assassins. According to Suetonius, Caesar, as he wasdying, turned to Brutus and said, “You too, my son?” (27) Brutus didn't feel guilty about betraying Caesar. He was proud of it. His ancestor was the Brutus who had expelled the last King, Tarquin the Proud, from Rome. Brutus issued a coin to celebrate the Ides of March as Caesar's assassination day. The coin shows the deadly daggers that had killed Caesar and the “cap of liberty” traditionally worn by slaves after they were freed. Brutus bragged that he had saved Rome from slavery. (28) But the murder of Julius Caesar did Rome no good. The city faced another 13 years of civil unrest and war. Assassination did help Caesar's reputation, though. In his will, Caesar left a gift of money to every Roman citizen. More that ever, he was the common man's hero, so admired that later rules of Rome adopted the name Caesar. (29) Brutus and his friends thought they were serving Rome and saving the Republic by killing a man who had become too powerful, a man they feared might make himself king. They were shortsighted. The Republic was already dying...almost dead. Rome would soon be dominated by a single ruler. That man would be Caesar's great-nephew and heir, Augustus Caesar.

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    お願いします (16) Pompey would have liked more time to train his troops; they were not as battle- ready as Caesar's army. When Caesar's troops entered Italy, Pompey's soldiers panicked and many deserted. Pompey gathered what troops he could and escaped from Rome just before Caesar arrived. Caesar had Pompey on the run. (17) Caesar entered Rome for the first time in nine years. He found the government in chaos. Again, he didn't hold back but set to work right away. He asked the Senate to join forces with him to avoid more bloodshed. He chose Mark Antony as his chief lieutenant─next in command. Then, delegating power to other trusted generals, Caesar himself set out for Greece. There he defeated Pompey's army in 48 BCE. (18) Plutarch reports that when Caesar saw the dead Romans lying on the field, he groaned and said: “They made this happen;they drove me to it.” (19) News of Caesar's victory was greeted back home with wild excitement. His popularity soared, and Rome elected him to a second consulship. (20) Meanwhile Pompey had escaped to Egypt, arriving in the midst of a civil war between 15-year-old King Ptolemy XIII and his older sister, Cleopatra VII. Ptolemy believed that Caesar would follow his rival to Egypt, and he was right. So he prepared a surprise for the general. Hoping to please Caesar and lure him to his side against Cleopatra, Ptolemy's advisors captured Pompey and cut off his head. Then they pickled it in brine. They expected Caesar to be delighted, but they were wrong. (21) When Caesar arrived in Egypt, Ptolemy presented Caesar with Pompey's pickled head─the head of the noble Roman who had been his rival but also his friend and former son-in-law. Disgusted and pained, Caesar turned away and wept. He commanded that Pompey's body be buried with honor. And he ordered the execution of the Egyptians who had murdered a great leader of the Roman people.

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    お願いします (20) Antony was married, but he fell for Cleopatra like a fish taking the bait. He spent the winter with her in Alexandria. It seemed that she could get anything she wanted from him. He even began to wear Eastern clothes instead of the traditional Roman toga. sometimes, for fun, Antony and Cleopatra dressed as slaves or servants and roamed the streets playing pranks on anyone they met. According to Plutarch, the people of Alexandria were charmed at the sight of a Roman general behaving in such a silly way. “The Alexandrians...enjoyed taking part in these amusements.... They liked Antony personally and used to say that he put on his tragic mask for the Romans, but kept the comic one for them.” (21) Meanwhile, Caesar's heir, Octavian was still in Rome. He and Antony had been partners. They had defeated and killed Caesar's assassins and were now supposedly ruling the empire together. But when Antony's wife became involved in a civil war against Octavian, Antony had to leave Cleopatra and return to Rome to deal with the crisis. His wife became ill and died, leaving Antony free to marry again. He could have chosen Cleopatra, but he made a political marriage instead. He married Octavian's sister, Octavia─a beautiful, intelligent widow. She and Antony had a daughter. Back in Egypt, though, Cleopatra had already given birth to Antony's children, a twin boy and girl. (22) Even though Octavia was expecting their second child, Mark Antony suddenly went back to Alexandria...and Cleopatra, whom he married under Egyptian law. Octavian was furious. His sister had been rejected and shamed. He declared war against Antony and Cleopatra.

  • 日本語訳を!!11

    お願いします (1) In February of 44 BCE, the Roman Senate declared Julius Caesar dictator of Rome for life. According to the Greek writer Plutarch, the Senate also offered Caesar a crown, but he turned it down. Caesar knew how much Romans had hated the idea of kinds since the reign of Tarquin the Proud, 500 years before. (2) One month later, Julius Caesar was dead, murdered in the Senate. Why? This ancient coin may provide the answer. (3) On it, we see the face of Julius Caesar, a thin, handsome man with fine features, the perfect image of a noble Roman. Caesar himself had ordered the coin to be made, so it probably looks very much like him. He was the first living Roman to be depicted on a coin─by tradition, leaders and heroes received this honor only after their deaths. On the dictator's head is a laurel wreath, a symbol of victory. When Caesar's enemies was this coin, they began to question his plans. Did he intend to become Rome's king after all? Did he plan to set up a monarchy with his children and grandchildren ruling after him? This fear haunted many senators as they watched Caesar's power and popularity grow. (4) Soon after the coin appeared, a group of senators met to plot his murder. (5) In early March, people reported bizarre happenings: strange birds seen in the Forum and odd sounds heard there. Then, when Caesar was sacrificing to the gods, one of the animals was found to have no heart! Many believed that these happenings were omens─warnings of disasters to come.

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    お願いします (1)“When I was 18 years old…I raised an army and used it to bring freedom back to the Roman state. I spent my own money to do it…. Because of this, the Senate passed a special resolution to make me a senator.” These words were written by Julius Caesar's great-nephew: the first person to serve as a Roman general and member of the Senate while he was still a teenager. (2) Julius Caesar, who had no legitimate sons of his own, was especially fond of his sister's grandson, Gaius Octavius. When his sister Julia died, the dictator chose 12-year-old Octavius to deliver his grandmother's funeral oration. Five years later, in 46 BCE, Octavius rode with his great-uncle in his triumphal procession into Rome. The next year, the young man joined Caesar's military campaign in Spain. The dictator believed that someday his great-nephew would do great things for Rome. (3) After his victories in Spain, Caesar planned a war against the rebellious tribes of Illyria, a region across the Adriatic Sea. Putting young Octavius in charge, he sent the army to Illyria with instructions to wait for him there. Then Caesar returned to Rome to begin reforming the government─a big job. Caesar set to work with energy and determination. But his plans were foiled by the daggers of his enemies, when he was assassinated on the Idea of March. (4) Eighteen- year-old Octavius was in Illyria when he got news of his uncle's death. He made up his mind to return to Rome. While he was packing to leave, a second messenger came with the surprising news that, in his will, Caesar had adopted Octavius as his son and made him the heir to an enormous fortune. This news was sure to raise eyebrows─and perhaps some swords─in Rome.

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    お願いします (13) By 50 BCE, the Triumvirate had ended. Crassus had been killed in battle, and Pompey had become very jealous of Caesar's military success and his great popularity. Pompey had married Caesar's daughter, Julia, but when she died in childbirth, the bond between the two men was broken. Before Caesar returned from Gaul, Pompey sided wit the Senate to declare his former father-in-law an enemy of the State. The Senate demanded that Caesar give up his army and return to Rome. Knowing that he would be arrested if he obeyed, he refused. But now his life and career were at stake. Did he dare go back to Italy at all? (14) In January of 49 BCE, Caesar's forces were camped just north of the Rubicon, the river that marked the boundary between Gaul and Ital. As soon as Caesar heard the Senate's ruling, he slipped away from the camp with a few trusted men. It was night, and everyone else was feasting. No one noticed that he was missing. When he reached the banks of the Rubicon, he paused, thinking about his next step. After a moment, he declared, “The die is cast” and crossed the river. This was his way of saying that his mind was made up and wouldn't be changed. Now he was ready to meet his former ally, the great general Pompey, in battle. (15) Caesar was never one to stand around, waiting for someone else to do something. Decisive as always, he began his march right away. He set out in the dead of winter with a single legion of soldiers. He knew that by marching on Rome he would start a civil war. What he didn't know─and couldn't have known─was that this war would last for nearly two decades and destroy the Republic.

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    お願いします (22) Caesar then restored Cleopatra to her throne and defeated her brother in battle. On his way back to Rome, Caesar passed through Asia. There, he squashed a rebellion in Asia Minor (modern Turkey). In a letter to a friend, he made light of the victory. The letter had only three words: “Veni, vidi, vici.” (“I came, I saw, I conquered.”) Plutarch says that this brief message matched “the sharpness and speed of the battle itself.” Caesar's fans later made placards with these three words written on them, which they carried in his triumphal procession into Rome. (23) When Caesar returned to Rome, he was proclaimed dictator. Then he began the work of healing Rome's terrible war wounds. He gave 100 denarii to every citizen and pardoned his own enemies, even those who had supported Pompey against him, including Cicero and Brutus. (Caesar was especially fond of Brutus. In his youth, Caesar had been in love with Brutus's mother, and he always looked out for her son. Brutus did not return the favor.) (24) During four years of almost absolute power, Caesar passed many laws to control debt, reduce unemployment, and regulate traffic in Rome. He levied taxes on foreign imports to boost Rome's economy. He put unemployed Romans to work building a new Forum and a large public building named in his family's honor: the Basilica Julia. He planned the first public library and built embankments along the Tiber to protect the city against floods. He revised the old Roman calendar, replacing it with the one that we use today, beginning with January. (25) Julius Caesar was perhaps the most extraordinary of all ancient Romans─a senator, military leader, and dictator of Rome. But he was also a poet, a brilliant historian who wrote about his military victories, and the only orator of his day who could compete with Cicero. His personal charm brought him the loyalty of men and the love of women.

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    お願いします (18) A few years later Cicero landed in trouble once again. By this time, all three members of the Triumvirate were dead, and Mark Antony held the reins of power in Rome. Cicero, outspoken as usual and still fighting to save the Republic, delivered passionate speeches against Antony. He spoke, privately and publicly, against him. He begged Antony to put the good of the Republic above his own desires. He used his own record to try to convince Antony: ”I defended the Republic as a young man. I will not abandon it now that I am old .... Nor will I tremble before your sword. No, I would cheerfully offer myself to its blade, if the liberty of the city could be restored by my death.” (19) Mark Antony was not impressed by Cicero's brave, unselfish words. Instead, Antony convinced his ally, Caesar's great-nephew Octavian, that Cicero was a threat and should be killed. Antony's soldiers tracked down the aging orator at his seaside villa and murdered him. Then, in an act of terrible cruelty, the general gave orders for Cicero's head and hands to be cut off and displayed in the Forum where he had so often spoken. (20) Cicero's voice was silenced, and yet his writings remained. He is honored today as a man of genius and a master of words. He was both. Perhaps he was in the right place at the wrong time. Generals, not orators, ruled Rome in the 1st century BCE.

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    お願いします (31) When Octavian's messengers broke into the tomb, they found Cleopatra and one of her handmaidens already dead. The other servant was dying─like her mistress, poisoned by the asp. Octavian was angry to have lost his prize, but he admired the queen's courage and determination. (32) Plutarch writes that Octavian commanded that she be “buried with royal splendor and magnificence, and her body laid beside Antony's.” He then gave orders for Caesarion's execution. For Octavian, the great Julius Caesar could have only one heir─himself. (33) What gave Cleopatra such power? She wasn't the most beautiful woman the world has ever known, but she must have been fascinating Poets and historians, both Greek and Roman, described her as a goddess. Her fame continues. Countless plays, operas, and movies have been produced about her. William Shakespeare's play Antony and Cleopatra is still performed today all over the world. Cleopatra's dramatic death has been the subject of dozens of paintings. Yet no one knows what she really felt about her Roman loves. Did she truly care about Caesar or was he just a tool of her ambition? Did she fall in love with the handsome Mark Antony or did she use him in a desperate attempt to save the throne of Egypt? (34) These mysteries surround the Cleopatra of history. We may never know the answers.