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お願いします (23) In 31 BCE, Octavian's navy defeated Mark Antony in Greece. Morale sank among Antony's troops. Many soldiers deserted and joined Octavian. Supplies of food and water grew scarce for Antony's army. His forces suffered a fatal blow when Octavian crushed them in the Battle of Actium, a city on the western coast of Greece. Cleopatra, seeing the disaster from a distance, ordered her ships to return to Egypt. Antony saw her purple sails in retreat and ordered his sailors to follow. But Antony's ground forces continued to fight. They couldn't believe at first that their beloved leader had abandoned them. When they realized it was true, they simply laid down their weapons and surrendered. (24) The final battle between Antony and Octavian began near Alexandria on the first of August, 30 BCE. Antony ordered his fleet to attack, and his men obediently rowed toward the enemy ships. Then, instead of attacking, they saluted the enemy's leader: Octavian. Antony's cavalry deserted as well. Only the foot soldiers remained loyal to their general, but they were easily defeated. (25) Antony was infuriated that Cleopatra had ordered her troops to abandon the battle and return to Egypt. Plutarch writes that the defeated general “retreated into Alexandria, crying out in his rage that Cleopatra had betrayed him to the very men he had fought for her sake.” Cleopatra, fearing her lover's anger, hid in a huge, two-story tomb and sent a servant to tell Antony that she was dead. (26) When Antony heard the news, he was devastated. He said he had no reason to live. The war was lost and Cleopatra was dead. So he stabbed himself, by falling on his own sword. He was dying, but not yet dead, whenCleopatra's second messenger arrived, inviting Antony to come to her hiding place. The queen was alive after all. She had changed her mind and wanted to see Antony. But it was almost too late.

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(23) 紀元前31年に、オクタビアヌスの海軍は、ギリシャでマーク・アントニーを破りました。アントニーの軍隊の士気は、下がりました。多くの兵士が、任務を放棄して、オクタビアヌスに加わりました。食物や水と言った必需品が、アントニーの軍に不足してきました。オクタビアヌスが、ギリシャの西海岸の都市アクティウムの海戦で、アントニー軍を粉砕したとき、彼の軍隊は致命的な打撃を受けました。クレオパトラは、遠くから大敗を見ると、彼女の船にエジプトに戻るよう命令しました。 アントニーは、彼女の紫の帆が退却するのを見て、彼の船員にあとに続くよう命令しました。しかし、アントニーの地上軍は、戦い続けました。彼らは、最初、最愛の司令官が彼らを見捨てたと信じることができませんでした。それが真実であると理解したとき、彼らは、ただ武器を置いて、降伏しました。 (24) アントニーとオクタビアヌスの最後の戦いは、紀元前30年8月1日にアレキサンドリアの近くで始まりました。アントニーは、彼の艦隊に攻撃を命じました、 そして、彼の部下は、素直に、敵の船の方へ漕ぎ寄せました。すると、攻撃する代わりに、彼らは、敵の司令官オクタビアヌスに敬礼しました。アントニーの騎兵隊も、同様に義務を放棄しました。歩兵だけが、彼らの将軍に変わらす忠実でした、しかし、彼らは簡単に打ち負かされました。 (25) クレオパトラが、彼女の軍隊に戦いを断念して、エジプトに帰国するよう命令したと、アントニーは、激怒しました。敗軍の将は、「アレキサンドリアへ撤退すると、クレオパトラが、自分を彼女のために戦っていた正にその相手に売り渡したのだと、激怒して叫びました。」と、プルタークは、書いています。クレオパトラは、彼女の愛人の怒りを恐れて、巨大な二階建ての墓に隠れると、召使を差し向け、アントニーに彼女が死んだと伝えさせました。 (26) アントニーは、その知らせを聞くと、打ちのめされました。彼は、生きる理由がなくなったと言いました。戦に敗れ、クレオパトラは死にました。それで、彼は、自身の剣に倒れこんで、自身を突き刺しました。クレオパトラの2人目の使者が到着して、アントニーに彼女の隠れ場所に来るように誘った時、彼は、死にかけていましたが、まだ、死んではいませんでした。結局、女王は生きていました。彼女は、考えを変えて、アントニーに会いたいと思いました。しかし、ほとんど手遅れでした。

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  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (20) Antony was married, but he fell for Cleopatra like a fish taking the bait. He spent the winter with her in Alexandria. It seemed that she could get anything she wanted from him. He even began to wear Eastern clothes instead of the traditional Roman toga. sometimes, for fun, Antony and Cleopatra dressed as slaves or servants and roamed the streets playing pranks on anyone they met. According to Plutarch, the people of Alexandria were charmed at the sight of a Roman general behaving in such a silly way. “The Alexandrians...enjoyed taking part in these amusements.... They liked Antony personally and used to say that he put on his tragic mask for the Romans, but kept the comic one for them.” (21) Meanwhile, Caesar's heir, Octavian was still in Rome. He and Antony had been partners. They had defeated and killed Caesar's assassins and were now supposedly ruling the empire together. But when Antony's wife became involved in a civil war against Octavian, Antony had to leave Cleopatra and return to Rome to deal with the crisis. His wife became ill and died, leaving Antony free to marry again. He could have chosen Cleopatra, but he made a political marriage instead. He married Octavian's sister, Octavia─a beautiful, intelligent widow. She and Antony had a daughter. Back in Egypt, though, Cleopatra had already given birth to Antony's children, a twin boy and girl. (22) Even though Octavia was expecting their second child, Mark Antony suddenly went back to Alexandria...and Cleopatra, whom he married under Egyptian law. Octavian was furious. His sister had been rejected and shamed. He declared war against Antony and Cleopatra.

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    お願いします (27) Antony commanded his slaves to lift him up. Plutarch says that they carried Antony to the tomb, but even then, Cleopatra would not allow the doors to be opened, but she showed herself at a window and let down cords and ropes to the ground. The slaves fastened Antony to these and the queen pulled him up.... Cleopatra... laid him upon a bed... and smeared her face with his blood. She called him her lord and husband and commander. Antony died in the aims of the queen. (28) With Antony dead and Cleopatra defeated, Octavian was the undisputed ruler of the known world. Cleopatra tried to make him fall in love with her. He could have been her third great Roman─but he wasn't interested. Instead, Octavian planned to take Cleopatra, the last Ptolemaic ruler of Egypt, to Rome as his slave. (29) Rather than be humiliated, Cleopatra chose death. She tried to kill herself, but Octavian's guards caught and stopped her. However, in the end she succeeded with a trick. The queen humbly asked the conqueror to allow her to mourn Antony's death and to give his body a proper farewell. Octavian agreed. (30) Cleopatra ordered a bath to be made ready and when she had bathed, she put on her royal robes and ate a fancy meal. Soon an Egyptian peasant arrived with a basket of figs. The guard inspected it but didn't see the asp, a poisonous snake, hidden beneath the fruit. Cleopatra sent away all of her servants except two women whom she especially trusted and loved. These servants locked the doors of the tomb, obeying the queen's command. Cleopatra had planned to let the asp come upon her when she wasn't looking. But according to one story by Plutarch, as soon as she saw the snake, she grabbed it and pressed it onto her bare arm, inviting a fatal bite.

  • 日本語訳を!!

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