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お願いします (18) A few years later Cicero landed in trouble once again. By this time, all three members of the Triumvirate were dead, and Mark Antony held the reins of power in Rome. Cicero, outspoken as usual and still fighting to save the Republic, delivered passionate speeches against Antony. He spoke, privately and publicly, against him. He begged Antony to put the good of the Republic above his own desires. He used his own record to try to convince Antony: ”I defended the Republic as a young man. I will not abandon it now that I am old .... Nor will I tremble before your sword. No, I would cheerfully offer myself to its blade, if the liberty of the city could be restored by my death.” (19) Mark Antony was not impressed by Cicero's brave, unselfish words. Instead, Antony convinced his ally, Caesar's great-nephew Octavian, that Cicero was a threat and should be killed. Antony's soldiers tracked down the aging orator at his seaside villa and murdered him. Then, in an act of terrible cruelty, the general gave orders for Cicero's head and hands to be cut off and displayed in the Forum where he had so often spoken. (20) Cicero's voice was silenced, and yet his writings remained. He is honored today as a man of genius and a master of words. He was both. Perhaps he was in the right place at the wrong time. Generals, not orators, ruled Rome in the 1st century BCE.

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(18) 数年後に、キケロはもう一度窮地に陥りました。この頃までに、三頭政治に関わった3人は全員死んでいました、そして、マーク・アントニーが、ローマの権力を掌握しました。キケロは、あいかわらず歯に衣を着せずに物を言い、共和国を救うためにまだ戦っていましたが、アントニーに対抗して熱のこもった演説をしました。彼は、公私ともに、彼に反対の立場を述べました。彼は、アントニーに彼自身の欲望より共和国の利益を優先するように懇願しました。 彼は、アントニーを説得しようとして、彼自身の経歴を利用しました:「余は、青年の頃、共和国を守りたり。今や年老いたと言えども、余は共和国を見捨てない .... 汝の剣の前で余は震えもしない。否、この町の自由が余の死によって回復できるなら、余はその刃に自らを喜んで提供するものなり。」 (19) マーク・アントニーは、キケロの勇敢で、私心のない言葉に感動しませんでした。それどころか、アントニーは、彼の盟友でシーザーの甥の息子オクタウィアヌスに、キケロは脅威で、殺すべきだと説きました。アントニーの兵士は、年老いた雄弁家を彼の海辺の別荘に追い詰め、彼を殺害しました。それから、恐ろしい残虐行為のさなか、キケロの頭と手を切り取り、キケロが、あれほどしばしば演説を行った広場に曝すように、その将軍(=アントニー)は、命令を下しました。 (20) キケロの声は抹殺されましたが、彼の著作は残りました。彼は、今日、天才を備えた人物、雄弁家として名誉を与えられています。彼は、その両方を備えていました。おそらく、彼は、適切な場所にいたのですが、時代がふさわしくなかったのでしょう。雄弁家ではなく、将軍たちが、紀元前1世紀のローマを統治しました。

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  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (21) During his own lifetime, Cicero was known as a great statesman, orator, and man of action. But he died a bitterly disappointed man. He had failed to do what he most wanted to accomplish: to save the Roman Republic. Not even Cicero's enemies, though, could doubt his love for Rome. Plutarch, writing many years after Cicero's death, tells a story about Octavian─after he had risen to great power as the emperor Augustus Caesar. The emperor found his grandson reading a book written by Cicero. Knowing that his grandfather had agreed to let Mark Antony's soldiers murder Cicero, “The boy was afraid and tried to hide it under his gown. Augustus...took the book from him, and began to read it.... When he gave it back to his grandson, he said,‘My child, this was a learned man, and a lover of his country.’”

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    お願いします (5) Although he was still an inexperienced teenager, Octavius was suddenly a public figure. He would soon be plunged into the cutthroat world of Roman politics. His mother and stepfather saw how dangerous this could be. They tried to persuade him to stay away from Rome. But Octavius was determined, and he set out to claim his inheritance. As a first step, he took his adoptive father's name and combined it with his own birth name. He became Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus. (6) Rome, meanwhile, was in the hands of Caesar's deputy, Mark Antony. He had seen the assassination and moved quickly to grab power. Octavian was not yet in Rome, so Antony delivered Caesar's funeral oration. His speech helped to persuade people that the dictator's assassins were the enemies of Rome. With lightning speed, Antony took over Caesar's money, property, and all of his official papers. (7) This was not what Caesar had wanted. In his will, he promised a generous gift of money to every Roman citizen. But Antony refused to honor the murdered hero's wish. (8) When Octavian reached Rome, he honored his great-uncle by giving his own money to the citizens. With the help of Cicero's speeches and with Caesar's veterans marching behind him, Octavian earned the support of the Senate. Not only was he elected to the Senate, he also became a consul─even though, according to Roman law, he was too young to hold these offices. Octavian bragged about it when he later wrote his memoirs.

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    お願いします (15) When Cicero was elected consul in 63 BCE, he was conceited enough to believe that his consulship would be the turning point for the ailing Republic. Could its troubles all be over? He thought so. Once elected, he opposed the populares, who supported the reforms of the Gracchi brothers. He spoke for the aristocrats in the Senate and tried to create an alliance of the rich─nobles and businessmen─against the poor. One popularis politician, Lucius Catiline, organized a rebellion. Cicero squelched it and executed the rebel leaders without a trial. He later paid a high price for his actions. His enemies watched and waited. In the end, Cicero's old friend Pompey deserted him and made new alliances. Cicero told him: “You have given us a strong hope of peace. We have this good news because of you. And I've told everyone so. But I must warn you that your old enemies are now posing as your friends.” (16) Pompey paid no attention to Cicero's words. By 60 BCE, he had teamed up with the popularis politician Julius Caesar and the millionaire Crassus. The three formed a triumvirate and shared the power among themselves. Together, they controlled the Senate, the people...Rome itself. Many Romans, including Cicero, were shocked to learn of it. But, arrogant as ever, Cicero refused to cooperate with this First Triumvirate. He called it “a three- headed monster.” Now Cicero's longtime enemies saw their chance, and they persuaded the Assembly to banish Cicero from Rome. Later Pompey intervened on his behalf, and Cicero was called back in 57 BCE. (17) Cicero stayed loyal to Pompey and fought at his side when a civil war broke out between Pompey and Caesar. Caesar won and became the most powerful man in Rome. After Pompey's death, Caesar pardoned Cicero and allowed him to return to his beloved Rome.

  • 日本語訳を!!10

    お願いします (1) Everyone in first-century BCE Rome knew Marcus Tullius Cicero's name. He served as a consul―Rome's top office―and his fiery speeches drew crowds of listeners. When Cato the Younger, the great grandson of Cato the Censor, called Cicero“the father of his country,”everyone cheered. Yet Cicero's letters show that he sometimes couldn't decide what to do. And he worried a lot about his children. When his daughter Tullia died, he was heartbroken. He wrote to his best friend, Atticus, about his sadness: I have isolated myself, in this lonely region.... In the morning, I hide myself in the dense...forest and don't come out until night.... My only form of communication now is through books, but even my reading is interrupted by fits of crying. (2) Cicero wrote hundreds, maybe thousands, of letters. Amazingly, 900 of them have survived, more than 2,000 years later. They include letters to his friends and to other politicians, in addition to those that he wrote to his brother and his unruly, playboy son. In them, we learn about family problems, deaths, and divorces―not to mention his opinions on almost everything. (3) Like many grown-ups, Cicero liked to give advice, and his letters are generously sprinkled with hints, warnings, and words of wisdom. He was often pompous, even conceited, but he showed his feelings in his writing, even when his honesty made him seem weak or afraid. (4) Some of Cicero's letters report on the latest happenings in Rome. His words give us the best picture we have of life in the 1st century BCE. He wrote about simple things: the weather, gladiatorial games, and the price of bread. But he also described wars, riots, scandals, and the plots of scheming politicians.

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    お願いします (22) Caesar then restored Cleopatra to her throne and defeated her brother in battle. On his way back to Rome, Caesar passed through Asia. There, he squashed a rebellion in Asia Minor (modern Turkey). In a letter to a friend, he made light of the victory. The letter had only three words: “Veni, vidi, vici.” (“I came, I saw, I conquered.”) Plutarch says that this brief message matched “the sharpness and speed of the battle itself.” Caesar's fans later made placards with these three words written on them, which they carried in his triumphal procession into Rome. (23) When Caesar returned to Rome, he was proclaimed dictator. Then he began the work of healing Rome's terrible war wounds. He gave 100 denarii to every citizen and pardoned his own enemies, even those who had supported Pompey against him, including Cicero and Brutus. (Caesar was especially fond of Brutus. In his youth, Caesar had been in love with Brutus's mother, and he always looked out for her son. Brutus did not return the favor.) (24) During four years of almost absolute power, Caesar passed many laws to control debt, reduce unemployment, and regulate traffic in Rome. He levied taxes on foreign imports to boost Rome's economy. He put unemployed Romans to work building a new Forum and a large public building named in his family's honor: the Basilica Julia. He planned the first public library and built embankments along the Tiber to protect the city against floods. He revised the old Roman calendar, replacing it with the one that we use today, beginning with January. (25) Julius Caesar was perhaps the most extraordinary of all ancient Romans─a senator, military leader, and dictator of Rome. But he was also a poet, a brilliant historian who wrote about his military victories, and the only orator of his day who could compete with Cicero. His personal charm brought him the loyalty of men and the love of women.

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    お願いします (13) Marius defeated the foreign invaders, but the victory turned into a disaster for the Republic. Men who had once roamed the city in angry mobs now eagerly joined the army. There, they would be fed and paid. And they knew that after the war was over, their generals would give them a reward of land or money. No wonder the soldiers felt a greater loyalty to their generals than to the Roman state that had failed them! Ruthless generals took advantage of the situation. They led their armies against one another, each hoping to gain control of the city. These civil wars rocked the Republic again and again. (14) Cicero was determined to save the Roman Republic. He gathered strong allies, especially men who could recruit soldiers. One of the men whom he enlisted in the cause was Pompey, a powerful general. Pompey and Cicero had been friends since they were both 17 years old, and they had helped each other over the years. Cicero's orations in the Forum helped Pompey to gain support for his military ambitious. After Cicero spoke on Pompey's behalf, the Assembly gave Pompey a fleet of 500 ships and an army of 125,000 men to command against the pirates who threatened Rome in the eastern Mediterranean. He was victorious within a few months and became Rome's leading commander─thanks to Cicero's speech.

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    お願いします (26) In the end, he was killed at the height of the powers by men he thought were his friends. It was particularly sad that Brutus was among the assassins. According to Suetonius, Caesar, as he wasdying, turned to Brutus and said, “You too, my son?” (27) Brutus didn't feel guilty about betraying Caesar. He was proud of it. His ancestor was the Brutus who had expelled the last King, Tarquin the Proud, from Rome. Brutus issued a coin to celebrate the Ides of March as Caesar's assassination day. The coin shows the deadly daggers that had killed Caesar and the “cap of liberty” traditionally worn by slaves after they were freed. Brutus bragged that he had saved Rome from slavery. (28) But the murder of Julius Caesar did Rome no good. The city faced another 13 years of civil unrest and war. Assassination did help Caesar's reputation, though. In his will, Caesar left a gift of money to every Roman citizen. More that ever, he was the common man's hero, so admired that later rules of Rome adopted the name Caesar. (29) Brutus and his friends thought they were serving Rome and saving the Republic by killing a man who had become too powerful, a man they feared might make himself king. They were shortsighted. The Republic was already dying...almost dead. Rome would soon be dominated by a single ruler. That man would be Caesar's great-nephew and heir, Augustus Caesar.

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    お願いします (5) Many of Cicero's speeches and essays have also survived. They tell us what he thought about friendship, education, law, patriotism, and loyalty―to name a few of his topics. In an essay on duty, he described what a gentleman should and should not do. According to Cicero, it was just fine for a gentleman to own a farm, but he mustn't do the actual digging, planting, or plowing himself. In fact, a true gentleman would never work with his hands.(6) Cicero was a snob. He looked down on workers―even shopkeepers. He said that“they couldn't make a profit unless they lied a lot. And nothing is more shameful than lying.” He disdained fishermen, butchers, cooks, poultry sellers, perfume makers, and dancers because their work appealed to the senses of taste, sight, and smell. What would he say about hairdressers, movie stars, and rock stars if he were alive today? (7) Cicero was born in 106 BCE in the small town of Arpinum, not far from Rome. He came from a wealthy family that was well known in the region. But because none of his ancestors had ever served in the Roman Senate, Cicero was considered a“new man”―an outsider, not a genuine aristocrat. (8) As a teenager, Cicero traveled and studied in Greece, North Africa and Asia. While in Athens, he began his training as an orator―a skilled public speaker―convinced that this would be important in his political career. He was right. He understood that an orator needs a good memory and a huge store of information. But he said that it wasn't enough just to spout off a string of facts. An orator should use an actor's skills to put across his ideas. The words of a speech,“must be reinforced by bodily movement, gesture, facial expression, and by changes in the voice itself.”

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    お願いします (20) Antony was married, but he fell for Cleopatra like a fish taking the bait. He spent the winter with her in Alexandria. It seemed that she could get anything she wanted from him. He even began to wear Eastern clothes instead of the traditional Roman toga. sometimes, for fun, Antony and Cleopatra dressed as slaves or servants and roamed the streets playing pranks on anyone they met. According to Plutarch, the people of Alexandria were charmed at the sight of a Roman general behaving in such a silly way. “The Alexandrians...enjoyed taking part in these amusements.... They liked Antony personally and used to say that he put on his tragic mask for the Romans, but kept the comic one for them.” (21) Meanwhile, Caesar's heir, Octavian was still in Rome. He and Antony had been partners. They had defeated and killed Caesar's assassins and were now supposedly ruling the empire together. But when Antony's wife became involved in a civil war against Octavian, Antony had to leave Cleopatra and return to Rome to deal with the crisis. His wife became ill and died, leaving Antony free to marry again. He could have chosen Cleopatra, but he made a political marriage instead. He married Octavian's sister, Octavia─a beautiful, intelligent widow. She and Antony had a daughter. Back in Egypt, though, Cleopatra had already given birth to Antony's children, a twin boy and girl. (22) Even though Octavia was expecting their second child, Mark Antony suddenly went back to Alexandria...and Cleopatra, whom he married under Egyptian law. Octavian was furious. His sister had been rejected and shamed. He declared war against Antony and Cleopatra.

  • 日本語訳を!!13

    お願いします (1)“When I was 18 years old…I raised an army and used it to bring freedom back to the Roman state. I spent my own money to do it…. Because of this, the Senate passed a special resolution to make me a senator.” These words were written by Julius Caesar's great-nephew: the first person to serve as a Roman general and member of the Senate while he was still a teenager. (2) Julius Caesar, who had no legitimate sons of his own, was especially fond of his sister's grandson, Gaius Octavius. When his sister Julia died, the dictator chose 12-year-old Octavius to deliver his grandmother's funeral oration. Five years later, in 46 BCE, Octavius rode with his great-uncle in his triumphal procession into Rome. The next year, the young man joined Caesar's military campaign in Spain. The dictator believed that someday his great-nephew would do great things for Rome. (3) After his victories in Spain, Caesar planned a war against the rebellious tribes of Illyria, a region across the Adriatic Sea. Putting young Octavius in charge, he sent the army to Illyria with instructions to wait for him there. Then Caesar returned to Rome to begin reforming the government─a big job. Caesar set to work with energy and determination. But his plans were foiled by the daggers of his enemies, when he was assassinated on the Idea of March. (4) Eighteen- year-old Octavius was in Illyria when he got news of his uncle's death. He made up his mind to return to Rome. While he was packing to leave, a second messenger came with the surprising news that, in his will, Caesar had adopted Octavius as his son and made him the heir to an enormous fortune. This news was sure to raise eyebrows─and perhaps some swords─in Rome.