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お願いします (15) When Cicero was elected consul in 63 BCE, he was conceited enough to believe that his consulship would be the turning point for the ailing Republic. Could its troubles all be over? He thought so. Once elected, he opposed the populares, who supported the reforms of the Gracchi brothers. He spoke for the aristocrats in the Senate and tried to create an alliance of the rich─nobles and businessmen─against the poor. One popularis politician, Lucius Catiline, organized a rebellion. Cicero squelched it and executed the rebel leaders without a trial. He later paid a high price for his actions. His enemies watched and waited. In the end, Cicero's old friend Pompey deserted him and made new alliances. Cicero told him: “You have given us a strong hope of peace. We have this good news because of you. And I've told everyone so. But I must warn you that your old enemies are now posing as your friends.” (16) Pompey paid no attention to Cicero's words. By 60 BCE, he had teamed up with the popularis politician Julius Caesar and the millionaire Crassus. The three formed a triumvirate and shared the power among themselves. Together, they controlled the Senate, the people...Rome itself. Many Romans, including Cicero, were shocked to learn of it. But, arrogant as ever, Cicero refused to cooperate with this First Triumvirate. He called it “a three- headed monster.” Now Cicero's longtime enemies saw their chance, and they persuaded the Assembly to banish Cicero from Rome. Later Pompey intervened on his behalf, and Cicero was called back in 57 BCE. (17) Cicero stayed loyal to Pompey and fought at his side when a civil war broke out between Pompey and Caesar. Caesar won and became the most powerful man in Rome. After Pompey's death, Caesar pardoned Cicero and allowed him to return to his beloved Rome.

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(15) キケロが、紀元前63年に執政官に選ばれたとき、彼が執政職に就いたことが、病んでいる共和国の分岐点になると信じるほど、彼はうぬぼれていました。ローマの抱える問題は、すべて終わりをつげるのでしょうか? 彼は、終わると思いました。ひとたび選出されると、彼は、ポプラレスに反対しました、なぜならば、彼らが、グラックス兄弟の改革を支持したからでした。キケロは、元老院で貴族を代弁して、貧しい者に対して、金持ち ─ すなわち、貴族と実業家 ─ の同盟をつくろうとしました。 ポプラレスの政治家の一人、ルキウス・カティリニが、反乱を組織しました。キケロはその反乱を抑え込み、裁判をせずに反乱の首謀者を処刑しました。彼は、後に、その行動に対して大きな代償を払うことになりました。彼の敵は、じっと成り行きを見守っていました。結局、キケロの旧友のポンぺイウスは、彼を見捨てて、新しい同盟の一員になりました。キケロは、彼に言いました:「そなたは、我々に平和の強い希望を与えた。そなたのおかげで、我々には、この良き知らせがある。そして、余は、皆にそう伝えたり。しかし、そなたの宿敵が、今は、そなたの友人のふりをしていると、余はそなたに警告せずばなるまい。」 (16) ポンぺイウスは、キケロのことばに注意を払いませんでした。紀元前60年までには、彼はポプラレスの政治家ジュリアス・シーザーと大富豪クラッススと協力関係を築いていました。三人は、三頭政治を組織して、権力を彼ら自身で分けあいました。力を合わせて、彼らは、元老院、人民、... ローマそのものを支配しました。多くのローマ人が、キケロを含めて、それを知って衝撃を受けました。 しかし、相変わらず尊大であった、キケロは、この第一次三頭政治と協力することを拒みました。彼は、それを「三つの頭を持つ怪物」と呼びました。今や、キケロの長年の敵は、彼らの好機を見出しました、そして、彼らは、議会を促して、キケロをローマから追放させました。後に、ポンぺイウスが、彼のために仲介者となって、キケロは、紀元前57年に呼び戻されました。 (17) ポンぺイウスとシーザーの間で内戦が始まったとき、キケロは、ポンぺイウスに対する忠誠を変えず、彼の味方となって戦いました。 シーザーが、勝利を収めて、ローマで最も権力を持つ男になりました。ポンぺイウスの死後、シーザーは、キケロに特赦を与え、彼が、彼の愛するローマに戻るのを許しました。

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    お願いします (18) A few years later Cicero landed in trouble once again. By this time, all three members of the Triumvirate were dead, and Mark Antony held the reins of power in Rome. Cicero, outspoken as usual and still fighting to save the Republic, delivered passionate speeches against Antony. He spoke, privately and publicly, against him. He begged Antony to put the good of the Republic above his own desires. He used his own record to try to convince Antony: ”I defended the Republic as a young man. I will not abandon it now that I am old .... Nor will I tremble before your sword. No, I would cheerfully offer myself to its blade, if the liberty of the city could be restored by my death.” (19) Mark Antony was not impressed by Cicero's brave, unselfish words. Instead, Antony convinced his ally, Caesar's great-nephew Octavian, that Cicero was a threat and should be killed. Antony's soldiers tracked down the aging orator at his seaside villa and murdered him. Then, in an act of terrible cruelty, the general gave orders for Cicero's head and hands to be cut off and displayed in the Forum where he had so often spoken. (20) Cicero's voice was silenced, and yet his writings remained. He is honored today as a man of genius and a master of words. He was both. Perhaps he was in the right place at the wrong time. Generals, not orators, ruled Rome in the 1st century BCE.