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お願いします (22) Caesar then restored Cleopatra to her throne and defeated her brother in battle. On his way back to Rome, Caesar passed through Asia. There, he squashed a rebellion in Asia Minor (modern Turkey). In a letter to a friend, he made light of the victory. The letter had only three words: “Veni, vidi, vici.” (“I came, I saw, I conquered.”) Plutarch says that this brief message matched “the sharpness and speed of the battle itself.” Caesar's fans later made placards with these three words written on them, which they carried in his triumphal procession into Rome. (23) When Caesar returned to Rome, he was proclaimed dictator. Then he began the work of healing Rome's terrible war wounds. He gave 100 denarii to every citizen and pardoned his own enemies, even those who had supported Pompey against him, including Cicero and Brutus. (Caesar was especially fond of Brutus. In his youth, Caesar had been in love with Brutus's mother, and he always looked out for her son. Brutus did not return the favor.) (24) During four years of almost absolute power, Caesar passed many laws to control debt, reduce unemployment, and regulate traffic in Rome. He levied taxes on foreign imports to boost Rome's economy. He put unemployed Romans to work building a new Forum and a large public building named in his family's honor: the Basilica Julia. He planned the first public library and built embankments along the Tiber to protect the city against floods. He revised the old Roman calendar, replacing it with the one that we use today, beginning with January. (25) Julius Caesar was perhaps the most extraordinary of all ancient Romans─a senator, military leader, and dictator of Rome. But he was also a poet, a brilliant historian who wrote about his military victories, and the only orator of his day who could compete with Cicero. His personal charm brought him the loyalty of men and the love of women.

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(22) それから、シーザーはクレオパトラを彼女の王座に戻して、戦いで彼女の弟を破りました。彼がローマへ帰る途中で、シーザーはアジアを通過しました。そこでは、彼は小アジア(現代のトルコ)で、反乱を鎮圧しました。友人への手紙では、彼はその勝利を何でもないものの様に言っていました。手紙には、「Veni, vidi, vici」(「来た、見た、勝った。」)と言う、3つの言葉しかありませんでした。この短いメッセージが「戦いそのものの厳しさと速さ」によく調和していると、プルタークは言います。「シーザーの信奉者は、後に、これらの3つの言葉を書いたプラカードを作りました、そして、彼らは、シーザーがローマに凱旋した際に、そのプラカードを掲げました。 (23) シーザーがローマに戻ったとき、人々は、彼がディクタトル(独裁官)であると宣言しました。それから、彼は、ローマのひどい戦傷を癒やす仕事を開始しました。彼はあらゆる市民にデナリウス(銀貨)100枚を与えて、彼自身の敵、キケロやブルータスを含めて、シーザーに対抗するポンペイウスを支持した人々にさえ、特赦を与えました。(シーザーは、特にブルータスが好きでした。青年時代に、シーザーはブルータスの母に恋をしていました、それで、彼は常に彼女の息子に気を配りました。ブルータスは、その好意に報いませんでした。) (24) ほとんど絶対的な権力の4年間に、シーザーは、負債を抑制し、失業を減らし、ローマの交通を規制する多くの法律を通しました。彼は、ローマの経済を後押しするために、外国からの輸入に税を課しました。彼は、仕事のないローマ人に新しいフォーラム(広場)や彼の一族に敬意を表して名付けられた大きな公共建造物、バシリカ・ユリア(フォロ・ロマーノの建造物)の建設作業に従事させました。彼は、最初の公立図書館を計画して、街を洪水から守るために、テベレ川に沿って堤防を築きました。彼は、古いローマ暦を修正して、それを1月から始まる、我々が今日使っている暦に換えました。 (25) ジュリアス・シーザーは、おそらく全ての古代ローマ人の中で最も傑出した人物でした ― 執政官、将軍、ローマのディクタトル(独裁官)を務めたのです。しかし、彼は、また、詩人であり、自身の軍事的勝利について記した才能のある歴史家でもあり、キケロと競うことができた彼の時代のただ一人の雄弁家でもありました。彼の個人的魅力は、彼に男性からの忠誠と女性からの愛情をもたらしました。 ☆ http://okwave.jp/qa/q8110905.html の(10)の訳に訂正があります。 (10) 三頭政治は、政治的取引でした。各々のメンバーは、それから何かを得ました。クラッススは、彼の裕福な友人が、【行政区 ⇒ 属州】 ─ イタリア半島の外にあるローマの所有地 ― で税を徴収できるように手配しました。... に変更して下さい。失礼しました。

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  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (15) When Cicero was elected consul in 63 BCE, he was conceited enough to believe that his consulship would be the turning point for the ailing Republic. Could its troubles all be over? He thought so. Once elected, he opposed the populares, who supported the reforms of the Gracchi brothers. He spoke for the aristocrats in the Senate and tried to create an alliance of the rich─nobles and businessmen─against the poor. One popularis politician, Lucius Catiline, organized a rebellion. Cicero squelched it and executed the rebel leaders without a trial. He later paid a high price for his actions. His enemies watched and waited. In the end, Cicero's old friend Pompey deserted him and made new alliances. Cicero told him: “You have given us a strong hope of peace. We have this good news because of you. And I've told everyone so. But I must warn you that your old enemies are now posing as your friends.” (16) Pompey paid no attention to Cicero's words. By 60 BCE, he had teamed up with the popularis politician Julius Caesar and the millionaire Crassus. The three formed a triumvirate and shared the power among themselves. Together, they controlled the Senate, the people...Rome itself. Many Romans, including Cicero, were shocked to learn of it. But, arrogant as ever, Cicero refused to cooperate with this First Triumvirate. He called it “a three- headed monster.” Now Cicero's longtime enemies saw their chance, and they persuaded the Assembly to banish Cicero from Rome. Later Pompey intervened on his behalf, and Cicero was called back in 57 BCE. (17) Cicero stayed loyal to Pompey and fought at his side when a civil war broke out between Pompey and Caesar. Caesar won and became the most powerful man in Rome. After Pompey's death, Caesar pardoned Cicero and allowed him to return to his beloved Rome.

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    お願いします (1)“When I was 18 years old…I raised an army and used it to bring freedom back to the Roman state. I spent my own money to do it…. Because of this, the Senate passed a special resolution to make me a senator.” These words were written by Julius Caesar's great-nephew: the first person to serve as a Roman general and member of the Senate while he was still a teenager. (2) Julius Caesar, who had no legitimate sons of his own, was especially fond of his sister's grandson, Gaius Octavius. When his sister Julia died, the dictator chose 12-year-old Octavius to deliver his grandmother's funeral oration. Five years later, in 46 BCE, Octavius rode with his great-uncle in his triumphal procession into Rome. The next year, the young man joined Caesar's military campaign in Spain. The dictator believed that someday his great-nephew would do great things for Rome. (3) After his victories in Spain, Caesar planned a war against the rebellious tribes of Illyria, a region across the Adriatic Sea. Putting young Octavius in charge, he sent the army to Illyria with instructions to wait for him there. Then Caesar returned to Rome to begin reforming the government─a big job. Caesar set to work with energy and determination. But his plans were foiled by the daggers of his enemies, when he was assassinated on the Idea of March. (4) Eighteen- year-old Octavius was in Illyria when he got news of his uncle's death. He made up his mind to return to Rome. While he was packing to leave, a second messenger came with the surprising news that, in his will, Caesar had adopted Octavius as his son and made him the heir to an enormous fortune. This news was sure to raise eyebrows─and perhaps some swords─in Rome.

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    お願いします (13) By 50 BCE, the Triumvirate had ended. Crassus had been killed in battle, and Pompey had become very jealous of Caesar's military success and his great popularity. Pompey had married Caesar's daughter, Julia, but when she died in childbirth, the bond between the two men was broken. Before Caesar returned from Gaul, Pompey sided wit the Senate to declare his former father-in-law an enemy of the State. The Senate demanded that Caesar give up his army and return to Rome. Knowing that he would be arrested if he obeyed, he refused. But now his life and career were at stake. Did he dare go back to Italy at all? (14) In January of 49 BCE, Caesar's forces were camped just north of the Rubicon, the river that marked the boundary between Gaul and Ital. As soon as Caesar heard the Senate's ruling, he slipped away from the camp with a few trusted men. It was night, and everyone else was feasting. No one noticed that he was missing. When he reached the banks of the Rubicon, he paused, thinking about his next step. After a moment, he declared, “The die is cast” and crossed the river. This was his way of saying that his mind was made up and wouldn't be changed. Now he was ready to meet his former ally, the great general Pompey, in battle. (15) Caesar was never one to stand around, waiting for someone else to do something. Decisive as always, he began his march right away. He set out in the dead of winter with a single legion of soldiers. He knew that by marching on Rome he would start a civil war. What he didn't know─and couldn't have known─was that this war would last for nearly two decades and destroy the Republic.

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    お願いします (1) In February of 44 BCE, the Roman Senate declared Julius Caesar dictator of Rome for life. According to the Greek writer Plutarch, the Senate also offered Caesar a crown, but he turned it down. Caesar knew how much Romans had hated the idea of kinds since the reign of Tarquin the Proud, 500 years before. (2) One month later, Julius Caesar was dead, murdered in the Senate. Why? This ancient coin may provide the answer. (3) On it, we see the face of Julius Caesar, a thin, handsome man with fine features, the perfect image of a noble Roman. Caesar himself had ordered the coin to be made, so it probably looks very much like him. He was the first living Roman to be depicted on a coin─by tradition, leaders and heroes received this honor only after their deaths. On the dictator's head is a laurel wreath, a symbol of victory. When Caesar's enemies was this coin, they began to question his plans. Did he intend to become Rome's king after all? Did he plan to set up a monarchy with his children and grandchildren ruling after him? This fear haunted many senators as they watched Caesar's power and popularity grow. (4) Soon after the coin appeared, a group of senators met to plot his murder. (5) In early March, people reported bizarre happenings: strange birds seen in the Forum and odd sounds heard there. Then, when Caesar was sacrificing to the gods, one of the animals was found to have no heart! Many believed that these happenings were omens─warnings of disasters to come.

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