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お願いします (1) Everyone in first-century BCE Rome knew Marcus Tullius Cicero's name. He served as a consul―Rome's top office―and his fiery speeches drew crowds of listeners. When Cato the Younger, the great grandson of Cato the Censor, called Cicero“the father of his country,”everyone cheered. Yet Cicero's letters show that he sometimes couldn't decide what to do. And he worried a lot about his children. When his daughter Tullia died, he was heartbroken. He wrote to his best friend, Atticus, about his sadness: I have isolated myself, in this lonely region.... In the morning, I hide myself in the dense...forest and don't come out until night.... My only form of communication now is through books, but even my reading is interrupted by fits of crying. (2) Cicero wrote hundreds, maybe thousands, of letters. Amazingly, 900 of them have survived, more than 2,000 years later. They include letters to his friends and to other politicians, in addition to those that he wrote to his brother and his unruly, playboy son. In them, we learn about family problems, deaths, and divorces―not to mention his opinions on almost everything. (3) Like many grown-ups, Cicero liked to give advice, and his letters are generously sprinkled with hints, warnings, and words of wisdom. He was often pompous, even conceited, but he showed his feelings in his writing, even when his honesty made him seem weak or afraid. (4) Some of Cicero's letters report on the latest happenings in Rome. His words give us the best picture we have of life in the 1st century BCE. He wrote about simple things: the weather, gladiatorial games, and the price of bread. But he also described wars, riots, scandals, and the plots of scheming politicians.

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(1) 紀元前1世紀のローマでは誰もが、マークス・ツリウス・キケロの名前を知っていました。彼は、ローマの最高の役職である ― 執政官 ― を務めました、そして、彼の熱烈な演説は、多くの聴衆をひきつけました。監査官カトーのひ孫である、カトー・ザ・ヤンガーが、キケロを「建国の父」と呼んだ時、みんなが喝采しました。しかし、キケロの手紙は、彼が何をするべきか、時々決めることができなかったことを示しています。そして、彼は、子供たちについてたいへん悩んでいました。彼の娘ツリアが死んだとき、彼は悲嘆に暮れました。彼は、悲しみについて親友のアッティクスに手紙を書きました: この寂しい場所で、私は一人ぼっちになってしまいました .... 朝、私は、深い森に隠れ ... 夜まで出て来ません .... 私が意思を通わせる唯一の形態は、今では、読書ですが、私の読書でさえ発作的な泣きたい気持ちによってさえぎられます。 (2) キケロは、何百通もの手紙、もしかすると何千通もの手紙を書きました。驚くべきことに、2000年以上も後でさえ、それらのうちの900通が、残っています。それらには、彼が兄弟や彼の手に負えない放蕩息子に宛てて書いた手紙に加えて、彼の友人や他の政治家に書いた手紙が含まれます。それらの中で、我々は、ほとんどすべてのことに関する彼の意見は言うまでもなく、家族の問題や死や離婚について知ることができます。 (3) 多くの大人と同様に、キケロは、忠告をするのが好きでした、それで、彼の手紙には、暗示や警告や名言が、ふんだんに散りばめられています。彼は、しばしば、もったいぶったり、うぬぼれてさえいました、しかし、彼の正直さのために彼が弱く恐れているように思える時でさえ、彼は、これらの文書で自分の感情を示しました。 (4) キケロの手紙のいくつかは、ローマの最新の出来事について伝えています。彼のことばは、紀元前1世紀の生活について我々が得られる最もすぐれた情景を与えてくれます。彼は、天気、剣闘士の試合、パンの値段の様な、ありふれたことについて書きました。しかし、彼は、また、戦争、暴動、スキャンダル、権謀術数の政治家の陰謀についても記述しました。

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  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (21) During his own lifetime, Cicero was known as a great statesman, orator, and man of action. But he died a bitterly disappointed man. He had failed to do what he most wanted to accomplish: to save the Roman Republic. Not even Cicero's enemies, though, could doubt his love for Rome. Plutarch, writing many years after Cicero's death, tells a story about Octavian─after he had risen to great power as the emperor Augustus Caesar. The emperor found his grandson reading a book written by Cicero. Knowing that his grandfather had agreed to let Mark Antony's soldiers murder Cicero, “The boy was afraid and tried to hide it under his gown. Augustus...took the book from him, and began to read it.... When he gave it back to his grandson, he said,‘My child, this was a learned man, and a lover of his country.’”

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    お願いします (22) Caesar then restored Cleopatra to her throne and defeated her brother in battle. On his way back to Rome, Caesar passed through Asia. There, he squashed a rebellion in Asia Minor (modern Turkey). In a letter to a friend, he made light of the victory. The letter had only three words: “Veni, vidi, vici.” (“I came, I saw, I conquered.”) Plutarch says that this brief message matched “the sharpness and speed of the battle itself.” Caesar's fans later made placards with these three words written on them, which they carried in his triumphal procession into Rome. (23) When Caesar returned to Rome, he was proclaimed dictator. Then he began the work of healing Rome's terrible war wounds. He gave 100 denarii to every citizen and pardoned his own enemies, even those who had supported Pompey against him, including Cicero and Brutus. (Caesar was especially fond of Brutus. In his youth, Caesar had been in love with Brutus's mother, and he always looked out for her son. Brutus did not return the favor.) (24) During four years of almost absolute power, Caesar passed many laws to control debt, reduce unemployment, and regulate traffic in Rome. He levied taxes on foreign imports to boost Rome's economy. He put unemployed Romans to work building a new Forum and a large public building named in his family's honor: the Basilica Julia. He planned the first public library and built embankments along the Tiber to protect the city against floods. He revised the old Roman calendar, replacing it with the one that we use today, beginning with January. (25) Julius Caesar was perhaps the most extraordinary of all ancient Romans─a senator, military leader, and dictator of Rome. But he was also a poet, a brilliant historian who wrote about his military victories, and the only orator of his day who could compete with Cicero. His personal charm brought him the loyalty of men and the love of women.

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    お願いします (5) Although he was still an inexperienced teenager, Octavius was suddenly a public figure. He would soon be plunged into the cutthroat world of Roman politics. His mother and stepfather saw how dangerous this could be. They tried to persuade him to stay away from Rome. But Octavius was determined, and he set out to claim his inheritance. As a first step, he took his adoptive father's name and combined it with his own birth name. He became Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus. (6) Rome, meanwhile, was in the hands of Caesar's deputy, Mark Antony. He had seen the assassination and moved quickly to grab power. Octavian was not yet in Rome, so Antony delivered Caesar's funeral oration. His speech helped to persuade people that the dictator's assassins were the enemies of Rome. With lightning speed, Antony took over Caesar's money, property, and all of his official papers. (7) This was not what Caesar had wanted. In his will, he promised a generous gift of money to every Roman citizen. But Antony refused to honor the murdered hero's wish. (8) When Octavian reached Rome, he honored his great-uncle by giving his own money to the citizens. With the help of Cicero's speeches and with Caesar's veterans marching behind him, Octavian earned the support of the Senate. Not only was he elected to the Senate, he also became a consul─even though, according to Roman law, he was too young to hold these offices. Octavian bragged about it when he later wrote his memoirs.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (15) When Cicero was elected consul in 63 BCE, he was conceited enough to believe that his consulship would be the turning point for the ailing Republic. Could its troubles all be over? He thought so. Once elected, he opposed the populares, who supported the reforms of the Gracchi brothers. He spoke for the aristocrats in the Senate and tried to create an alliance of the rich─nobles and businessmen─against the poor. One popularis politician, Lucius Catiline, organized a rebellion. Cicero squelched it and executed the rebel leaders without a trial. He later paid a high price for his actions. His enemies watched and waited. In the end, Cicero's old friend Pompey deserted him and made new alliances. Cicero told him: “You have given us a strong hope of peace. We have this good news because of you. And I've told everyone so. But I must warn you that your old enemies are now posing as your friends.” (16) Pompey paid no attention to Cicero's words. By 60 BCE, he had teamed up with the popularis politician Julius Caesar and the millionaire Crassus. The three formed a triumvirate and shared the power among themselves. Together, they controlled the Senate, the people...Rome itself. Many Romans, including Cicero, were shocked to learn of it. But, arrogant as ever, Cicero refused to cooperate with this First Triumvirate. He called it “a three- headed monster.” Now Cicero's longtime enemies saw their chance, and they persuaded the Assembly to banish Cicero from Rome. Later Pompey intervened on his behalf, and Cicero was called back in 57 BCE. (17) Cicero stayed loyal to Pompey and fought at his side when a civil war broke out between Pompey and Caesar. Caesar won and became the most powerful man in Rome. After Pompey's death, Caesar pardoned Cicero and allowed him to return to his beloved Rome.

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    お願いします (9) When the aspiring young politician finished his travels, he settled in Rome. Although he hated the corruption that he saw among the city's officials, he wanted to join their club. He hoped to become a magistrate and convince the others to govern once again with honor and justice―to forget their own ambitions and work for the common good. (10) Cicero wasn't a coward. He never hestitated to point ont the crimes that he saw, even if high-ranking officials had committed them. His first legal case pitted him against a top lawyer. Against all odds, he won. This victory made his reputation as the young man who beat an old pro. (11) In 75 BCE the people elected Cicero quaestor, an assistant to the governor of Sicily, when he was 30 years old―the youngest age the law allowed. Even though his ancestors had never held major office in Rome, Cicero climbed the ladder of success very quickly. He did it through hard work and innate brilliance. But Rome was like a boiling pot of trouble in Cicero's day, just as it had been when the Gracchi brothers were alive. Fierce battles still raged in the streets because so many people were hungry and jobless. (12) Riots and corruption had threatened Rome's security in the age of the Gracchi. Afterward, the situation greweven worse. German tribes moved south into Roman territory in southern Gaul modern France), where they defeated Roman armies in three frightening battles. This was the first time since Hannibal that foreign invaders had threatened Italy. Faced with new enemies, Rome desperately recruited soldiers. The consul Gaius Marius enlisted a new army, even accepting poor men who owned no land. Although soldiers usually supplied their own equipment, Marius gave uniforms and weapons to these new recruits.

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    お願いします (5) Many of Cicero's speeches and essays have also survived. They tell us what he thought about friendship, education, law, patriotism, and loyalty―to name a few of his topics. In an essay on duty, he described what a gentleman should and should not do. According to Cicero, it was just fine for a gentleman to own a farm, but he mustn't do the actual digging, planting, or plowing himself. In fact, a true gentleman would never work with his hands.(6) Cicero was a snob. He looked down on workers―even shopkeepers. He said that“they couldn't make a profit unless they lied a lot. And nothing is more shameful than lying.” He disdained fishermen, butchers, cooks, poultry sellers, perfume makers, and dancers because their work appealed to the senses of taste, sight, and smell. What would he say about hairdressers, movie stars, and rock stars if he were alive today? (7) Cicero was born in 106 BCE in the small town of Arpinum, not far from Rome. He came from a wealthy family that was well known in the region. But because none of his ancestors had ever served in the Roman Senate, Cicero was considered a“new man”―an outsider, not a genuine aristocrat. (8) As a teenager, Cicero traveled and studied in Greece, North Africa and Asia. While in Athens, he began his training as an orator―a skilled public speaker―convinced that this would be important in his political career. He was right. He understood that an orator needs a good memory and a huge store of information. But he said that it wasn't enough just to spout off a string of facts. An orator should use an actor's skills to put across his ideas. The words of a speech,“must be reinforced by bodily movement, gesture, facial expression, and by changes in the voice itself.”

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    お願いします (18) A few years later Cicero landed in trouble once again. By this time, all three members of the Triumvirate were dead, and Mark Antony held the reins of power in Rome. Cicero, outspoken as usual and still fighting to save the Republic, delivered passionate speeches against Antony. He spoke, privately and publicly, against him. He begged Antony to put the good of the Republic above his own desires. He used his own record to try to convince Antony: ”I defended the Republic as a young man. I will not abandon it now that I am old .... Nor will I tremble before your sword. No, I would cheerfully offer myself to its blade, if the liberty of the city could be restored by my death.” (19) Mark Antony was not impressed by Cicero's brave, unselfish words. Instead, Antony convinced his ally, Caesar's great-nephew Octavian, that Cicero was a threat and should be killed. Antony's soldiers tracked down the aging orator at his seaside villa and murdered him. Then, in an act of terrible cruelty, the general gave orders for Cicero's head and hands to be cut off and displayed in the Forum where he had so often spoken. (20) Cicero's voice was silenced, and yet his writings remained. He is honored today as a man of genius and a master of words. He was both. Perhaps he was in the right place at the wrong time. Generals, not orators, ruled Rome in the 1st century BCE.

  • 日本語訳を!!13

    お願いします (1)“When I was 18 years old…I raised an army and used it to bring freedom back to the Roman state. I spent my own money to do it…. Because of this, the Senate passed a special resolution to make me a senator.” These words were written by Julius Caesar's great-nephew: the first person to serve as a Roman general and member of the Senate while he was still a teenager. (2) Julius Caesar, who had no legitimate sons of his own, was especially fond of his sister's grandson, Gaius Octavius. When his sister Julia died, the dictator chose 12-year-old Octavius to deliver his grandmother's funeral oration. Five years later, in 46 BCE, Octavius rode with his great-uncle in his triumphal procession into Rome. The next year, the young man joined Caesar's military campaign in Spain. The dictator believed that someday his great-nephew would do great things for Rome. (3) After his victories in Spain, Caesar planned a war against the rebellious tribes of Illyria, a region across the Adriatic Sea. Putting young Octavius in charge, he sent the army to Illyria with instructions to wait for him there. Then Caesar returned to Rome to begin reforming the government─a big job. Caesar set to work with energy and determination. But his plans were foiled by the daggers of his enemies, when he was assassinated on the Idea of March. (4) Eighteen- year-old Octavius was in Illyria when he got news of his uncle's death. He made up his mind to return to Rome. While he was packing to leave, a second messenger came with the surprising news that, in his will, Caesar had adopted Octavius as his son and made him the heir to an enormous fortune. This news was sure to raise eyebrows─and perhaps some swords─in Rome.

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    お願いします (17) Augustus Caesar, now the emperor of Rome, worked to reorganize the government and military. His greatest accomplishment was the creation of a system of government that lasted in Rome for five centuries: the Roman Empire. (18) Augustus created Rome's first police and fire brigade. He created a network of roads that connected the major cities of the empire, linking them all to Rome. He changed the way finance were handled and issued new gold and silver coins. He gave free food to the poor. He built the Forum of Augustus and decorated it with statues of his ancestors. He beautified the city and boasted of this accomplishment: “I found a city made of brick and left it a city of marble.” Augustus also sponsored artists and poets like Horace and Virgil, whose works glorified Rome─and, of course, himself. (19) Throughout his reign, Augustus never forgot that his great-uncle had been killed by jealous enemies who feared his power and popularity. Augustus pretended that his powers were all voluntarily given. He allowed freedom of speech and encouraged people to give him advice. But he was clever. He knew how to use power without seeming to seek or even treasure it. During his rule, magistrates were still elected to govern Rome. By sharing power with the magistrates, Augustus kept people from worrying that he was governing Rome alone. In fact, the soldiers were loyal to him and him alone─he paid their salaries and his treasury would pay their pensions. (20) The emperor's authority was so great that everyone left all the major decisions to him. But he was also very careful. Augustus kept a force of 4,500 soldiers to defend him. These soldiers, later called the Praetorian Guard, protected all of Italy. But some of them were always on hand to protect the emperor. To be on the safe side, the guards allowed only one senate at a time to approach the emperor, and they searched each man before he came close.

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    お願いします (9) In 241 BCE, a Roman commander attacked a Carthaginian fleet of 170 ships. Despite stormy seas, Rome sank 50 enemy ships and captured 70 more. What was left of the Carthaginian fleet sailed home, defeated. When the ships arrived in their home port, the commander was executed. (10) After 23 years of battle, the First Punic War was over. Rome controlled Sicily and dominated the western Mediterranean. The Roman army had broken Carthage's grip. The memory of this shameful defeat tortured Hannibal's father. (11) As part of the peace treaty, Rome demanded that Carthage pay 80 tons of silver─equal to a year's pay for 200,000 Roman soldiers. The city had to find some way to pay this huge bill. Carthage sent its top general, Hamilcar Barca, to Spain. His assignment was to conquer the region and develop the silver and copper mines there. Hamilcar took his son Hannibal to Spain with him, and he did his job well. He sent money and goods back to Carthage. (12) When Hamilcar died, the 26-year-old Hannibal took over the job. Like his father, Hannibal considered Spain to be his territory. He believed Carthage must be the only power there. So when Rome made an alliance with the Spanish city of Saguntum, Hannibal fought back and fulfilled the promise he had made as a boy: to be the sworn enemy of Rome. He laid siege to Saguntum, cutting off all supplies of food and military aid. After eight months, Saguntum fell to Hannibal's warriors. And in 218 BCE, Rome declared war on Carthage─again. The Second Punic War had begun.