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お願いします (17) Augustus Caesar, now the emperor of Rome, worked to reorganize the government and military. His greatest accomplishment was the creation of a system of government that lasted in Rome for five centuries: the Roman Empire. (18) Augustus created Rome's first police and fire brigade. He created a network of roads that connected the major cities of the empire, linking them all to Rome. He changed the way finance were handled and issued new gold and silver coins. He gave free food to the poor. He built the Forum of Augustus and decorated it with statues of his ancestors. He beautified the city and boasted of this accomplishment: “I found a city made of brick and left it a city of marble.” Augustus also sponsored artists and poets like Horace and Virgil, whose works glorified Rome─and, of course, himself. (19) Throughout his reign, Augustus never forgot that his great-uncle had been killed by jealous enemies who feared his power and popularity. Augustus pretended that his powers were all voluntarily given. He allowed freedom of speech and encouraged people to give him advice. But he was clever. He knew how to use power without seeming to seek or even treasure it. During his rule, magistrates were still elected to govern Rome. By sharing power with the magistrates, Augustus kept people from worrying that he was governing Rome alone. In fact, the soldiers were loyal to him and him alone─he paid their salaries and his treasury would pay their pensions. (20) The emperor's authority was so great that everyone left all the major decisions to him. But he was also very careful. Augustus kept a force of 4,500 soldiers to defend him. These soldiers, later called the Praetorian Guard, protected all of Italy. But some of them were always on hand to protect the emperor. To be on the safe side, the guards allowed only one senate at a time to approach the emperor, and they searched each man before he came close.

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(17) 今や、ローマの皇帝となった、アウグストゥス・カエサルは、政府と軍隊の再編成に取り掛かりました。彼の最大の業績は、ローマ帝国と言う、ローマで5世紀に渡って続く政治体制を作り上げたことでした。 (18) アウグストゥスは、ローマで最初の警察と消防隊をつくりました。彼は、帝国の主要都市をつなぐ道路網を作り、それらすべてをローマに結びました。彼は、財政の取り扱われ方を変更して、新しい金貨と銀貨を発行しました。 彼は、貧しい人々に無料の食物を与えました。彼は、アウグストゥス広場を建設して、そこを彼の先祖の像で飾りました。彼は、街の美観を高め、この業績を誇りました:「余は、街がレンガ作りであることに気付き、それを大理石の都に変えた。」アウグストゥスは、また、ホーレスやベルギリウスと言った芸術家や詩人の後援者となり、彼らの作品は、ローマを ─ そして、もちろん、アウグストゥスその人を称賛しました。 (19) 彼の治世を通じて、アウグストゥスは、彼の大叔父が、彼の権力と人気を恐れた嫉妬深い敵に殺されたことを、決して忘れませんでした。 アウグストゥスは、彼の権力のすべてが、自発的に与えられたものであると偽りました。彼は、言論の自由を許して、人々が、彼に忠告をすることを奨励しました。しかし、彼は、賢明でした。彼は、権力を求めたり、権力を珍重しているようにさえ見せずに、権力を使う方法を知っていました。彼の統治の間、行政官が、まだ、ローマを支配するために、選ばれていました。権力を行政官と共有することによって、アウグストゥスは、彼が単独でローマを支配していると、人々が心配しないようにしました。実際、 兵士は、彼に、彼だけに、忠誠でした ― なぜならば、彼が、彼らの給料を払い、彼の国庫が、彼らの年金を払うのですから。 (20) 皇帝の権限は、大変強大だったので、誰もが彼にすべての重要な決定を任せました。しかし、彼、やはり、非常に慎重でした。アウグストゥスは、彼を警護するために、4,500人の兵士から成る軍隊を維持していました。これらの兵士は、後に、近衛兵と呼ばれましたが、彼らは、イタリア全土を守りました。しかし、彼らの一部は、皇帝を警護するために、常に、そば近くにいました。 大事をとって、警備兵は、一度に一人の元老院議員しか皇帝に近付かせませんでした、そして、彼らは、一人一人の人物を、その人が(皇帝に)接近する前に、検査しました。

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