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お願いします (13) Marius defeated the foreign invaders, but the victory turned into a disaster for the Republic. Men who had once roamed the city in angry mobs now eagerly joined the army. There, they would be fed and paid. And they knew that after the war was over, their generals would give them a reward of land or money. No wonder the soldiers felt a greater loyalty to their generals than to the Roman state that had failed them! Ruthless generals took advantage of the situation. They led their armies against one another, each hoping to gain control of the city. These civil wars rocked the Republic again and again. (14) Cicero was determined to save the Roman Republic. He gathered strong allies, especially men who could recruit soldiers. One of the men whom he enlisted in the cause was Pompey, a powerful general. Pompey and Cicero had been friends since they were both 17 years old, and they had helped each other over the years. Cicero's orations in the Forum helped Pompey to gain support for his military ambitious. After Cicero spoke on Pompey's behalf, the Assembly gave Pompey a fleet of 500 ships and an army of 125,000 men to command against the pirates who threatened Rome in the eastern Mediterranean. He was victorious within a few months and became Rome's leading commander─thanks to Cicero's speech.

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(13) マリウスは、外国の侵入者を破りました、しかし、勝利は共和政ローマにとって災難に変わりました。かつて怒れる暴徒となって街を徘徊した男たちが、今は、熱心に軍に加わることを願いました。軍隊では、彼らは食事を与えられ、給料が支払われるのです。そして、戦争が終わった後、将軍が、彼らに土地や金銭の報酬を与えてくれるということを、彼らは知っていました。兵士が、彼らの期待を裏切ったローマと言う国家よりも、彼らの将軍に対してより大きな忠誠心を感じたのも不思議ではありません! 冷酷な将軍は、こうした状況を利用しました。彼らは軍を率いて互いに戦わせました、そして、それぞれの軍が、街を支配することを望んでいました。こうした内戦は、何度も共和国を動揺させました。 (14) キケロは、共和制ローマを救う決心をしました。彼は、強い同盟者、特に兵士を徴兵することができる人々を集めました。この大義に際して、彼が、協力を求めた人々の1人は、有力な将軍ポンぺイウスでした。ポンぺイウスとキケロは、彼ら双方が17歳の頃から、友人でした、 そして、彼らは、長年にわたって互いを助けあってきたのでした。広場でのキケロの演説は、ポンぺイウスが、彼の軍事的野心に対する支持を得るのに役立ちました。キケロが、ポンぺイウスのために演説したあと、議会は、東部地中海でローマを脅かす海賊に立ち向かわせるために、ポンぺイウスに500隻の船からなる艦隊と指揮下に置く125,000人の兵士から成る軍隊を与えました。キケロの演説のおかげで、彼は、数ヶ月で勝利をおさめ、ローマの主要な指揮官になりました。

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    お願いします (26) In the end, he was killed at the height of the powers by men he thought were his friends. It was particularly sad that Brutus was among the assassins. According to Suetonius, Caesar, as he wasdying, turned to Brutus and said, “You too, my son?” (27) Brutus didn't feel guilty about betraying Caesar. He was proud of it. His ancestor was the Brutus who had expelled the last King, Tarquin the Proud, from Rome. Brutus issued a coin to celebrate the Ides of March as Caesar's assassination day. The coin shows the deadly daggers that had killed Caesar and the “cap of liberty” traditionally worn by slaves after they were freed. Brutus bragged that he had saved Rome from slavery. (28) But the murder of Julius Caesar did Rome no good. The city faced another 13 years of civil unrest and war. Assassination did help Caesar's reputation, though. In his will, Caesar left a gift of money to every Roman citizen. More that ever, he was the common man's hero, so admired that later rules of Rome adopted the name Caesar. (29) Brutus and his friends thought they were serving Rome and saving the Republic by killing a man who had become too powerful, a man they feared might make himself king. They were shortsighted. The Republic was already dying...almost dead. Rome would soon be dominated by a single ruler. That man would be Caesar's great-nephew and heir, Augustus Caesar.