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お願いします (4) Rome was suddenly rich and powerful. But it was also suddenly full of problems. Thousands of unemployed men hung around on the streets of the city, hoping to find work. Many had lost their jobs to foreign slaves, who didn't have to be paid for their labor. Others in the street crowds were poor farmers whose land had been bought by wealthy aristocrats. These men could no longer farm. They couldn't join the army, either─only men who owned land could become soldiers. So what could they do? How could they feed themselves and their families? (5) Rome's elected officials didn't do much to improve the situation. More and more, they concentrated on what would be best for them instead of thinking about the common good. Instead of asking how they could help Rome and its people, they looked for ways to gain money and importance for themselves. Many fought their way to the top through bribery and corruption. Writing in the first century BCE, Sallust─a historian and a senator─describes his country's crisis: “Our country had grown great through hard work and the practice of justice... but then greed destroyed honor, integrity, and all other noble qualities; and intheir place came... cruelty, neglect of the gods, and a belief that everything has a price.” (6) The army became unruly. Rebellious mobs roamed the city. Yet the Senate ignored these problems and tried to govern the sprawling empire as if it were still a small city-state.Rome's leaders seemed to be asking for trouble, and they got it. Trouble's name was Tiberius Gracchus, the older of the two Gracchi brothers.

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(4) ローマは、突然、豊かな強国になりました。しかし、ローマはまた、突然、問題も山積することになりました。何千もの失業者が、仕事を見つけたいと願って、都市の通りをうろつきました。多くの人々が、労働に対して給料を支払う必要のない外国の奴隷のために、彼らの仕事を失っていました。通り群衆の中の他の人たちは、裕福な貴族によって土地を買われてしまった貧しい農民でした。これらの人々は、もはや耕作することができませんでした。彼らは、軍に加わることもできませんでした、 土地を所有する人だけが、兵士になることができたからです。それでは、彼らは何をすることができたでしょうか?どのようにして、彼らは彼ら自身と彼らの家族を養うことができたでしょうか? (5) ローマの選挙によって選ばれた役人は、状況を改善するのにあまり役立ちませんでした。ますます、公益について考えるどころか、自分にとって最善であることに、彼らは集中しました。どのようにしてローマとその人民を助けることができるか尋ねる代わりに、彼ら自身のためにお金や大切なものを得る方法を、彼らは探しました。 多くの人が、贈収賄と汚職を通して高い地位へ昇ろうと奮闘していました。紀元前1世紀に著作をあらわした、歴史家で元老院議員のサッルスティウスは、彼の国の危機について次のように記述しています:「我々の国は、勤勉と正義の実行を通して偉大になった... だが、貪欲が、名誉や高潔さや他の全ての高貴な性質を破壊した; そして、それらに代わって、到来したのは ... 残忍さ、神の軽視、万物に値段がつくという信仰であった。 (6) 軍は、手に負えなくなりました。反抗的な暴徒が、都市を徘徊しました。それでも、元老院は、これらの問題を無視し、まるで帝国がまだ小さな都市国家であるかのように拡大する帝国を統治しようとしました。ローマの指導者は、困難を求めているようでした、そして、実際、彼らは困難を抱えることになりました。困難の名前は、チベリウス・グラックス、すなわち、グラックス兄弟の兄でした。

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