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お願いします (13) Octavian wanted everyone to know that he had brought peace to Rome after decades of civil war. He called it the Pax Romana, the Roman Peace, and built an elaborate Altar of Peace on the main road leading into Rome to celebrate his accomplishment. Octavian also demonstrated his victory by closing the doors of the temple of Janus─the god with two faces who guarded the doors of homes and cities. By tradition, these doors were kept open in times of war so that Janus would be free to help Rome against its enemies. In 500 years of almost-constant war, the temple doors had only been closed twice. (14) Rome was at peace, but its government was a mess. Enemies alo the frontiers had taken advantage of Rome's turmoil by rebelling against its control or refusing to pay its taxes. Octavian had to overcome these troublesome neighbors, but he also had to quiet the quarrels among the leaders of Rome. It was tricky to keep the senate on his side while attacking corruption within it. (15) Hundreds of senators had died in the civil wars. Octavian filled their place with men who had been loyal to him over the years. Many of these new Senate members were not from Rome, but from other Italian cities. Men like Octavian's best friend, his general Agrippa, formed the new ruling class. Octavian chose them not for their family ties, but for their ability and loyalty. (16) Although Octavian was wise enough to avoid the title of King, he accepted thename of Augustus in 27 BCE. After I had put out the fires of civil war,…I transferred the Republic from mw power to the control ofthe Senate and people of Rome. For this…I was named Augustus by the Senate…. From this time on, I topped everyone in influence.

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(13) オクタウィウスは、数十年に及ぶ内戦の後、彼が、ローマに平和をもたらしたということを人民に知らしめたいと思いました。彼は、それをパックス・ロマーナ、すなわち、ローマの平和と呼び、自身の業績を賛美するためにローマに通じる大通りに、仰々しい「平和の祭壇」を築きました。オクタウィウスは、また、家や街の入り口を守護する二つの顔を持つ守護神 ― ヤヌスをまつる神殿の扉を閉じることで、彼の勝利を顕示しました。伝統によれば、ヤヌスが、自由にその敵に対してローマを守護することができるように、これらの扉は、戦時中は、開け放たれていました。ほとんど絶え間なく戦争のあった500年間に、この神殿の扉は、二回しか閉じられたことがありませんでした。 (14) ローマは平穏でした、しかし、その政府は混乱していました。辺境の地の敵は、ローマの混乱に乗じて、支配に反抗したり、税の支払いを拒否したりしました。オクタウィウスは、これらの厄介な隣国を平定しなければなりませんでした、 しかし、彼は、また、ローマの指導者間の言い争いも鎮静化させなければなりませんでした。その内部の腐敗を攻撃しながら、元老院議員を味方につけておくことは慎重を要しました。 (15) 何百人もの元老院議員が、内戦で死んでいました。オクタウィウスは、彼らの(空席となった)議席を長年にわたって彼に忠実であった人々で補充しました。これらの新任の元老院議員の多くは、ローマ出身ではなく、他のイタリアの都市出身でした。オクタウィウスの親友で、彼の部下の将軍アグリッパのような男たちが、新しい支配階級を形成しました。オクタウィウスは、彼らの家系の結びつきによるのではなく、彼らの能力と忠誠によって彼らを選びました。 (16) オクタウィウスは、賢明にも王の称号は得ようとはしませんでしたが、彼は、紀元前27年に、アウグストゥス(ラテン語で「尊厳ある者」を意味しており、現在のギリシア語では「8月」の意になっている。)の称号を受け入れました。 内戦の火を消したあと ... 余は、余の支配下にある共和国を元老院とローマ人民の支配に移したり。これによって ... 余は、元老院からアウグストゥスに指名された。... この時以降、余は、影響力において人民の頂点に立ちたり。 <訂正> 以前の回答の訳文を以下の様に訂正します。失礼しました。 http://okwave.jp/qa/q8134826.html (4) 彼の大叔父の死の知らせを受け取ったとき、18才のオクタウィウスは、イリュリアにいました。彼は、ローマに戻る決心【を】しました。... http://okwave.jp/qa/q8134829.html (6) ... オクタウィウスが、ローマにまだ到着していなかったので、アントニーが、シーザーの追悼演説を行いました。彼の演説は、【独裁者の暗殺者が ⇒ ディクタトル(独裁官)を暗殺した者たちが】、ローマの敵であると人々を説得する助けとなりました。...

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  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (5) Although he was still an inexperienced teenager, Octavius was suddenly a public figure. He would soon be plunged into the cutthroat world of Roman politics. His mother and stepfather saw how dangerous this could be. They tried to persuade him to stay away from Rome. But Octavius was determined, and he set out to claim his inheritance. As a first step, he took his adoptive father's name and combined it with his own birth name. He became Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus. (6) Rome, meanwhile, was in the hands of Caesar's deputy, Mark Antony. He had seen the assassination and moved quickly to grab power. Octavian was not yet in Rome, so Antony delivered Caesar's funeral oration. His speech helped to persuade people that the dictator's assassins were the enemies of Rome. With lightning speed, Antony took over Caesar's money, property, and all of his official papers. (7) This was not what Caesar had wanted. In his will, he promised a generous gift of money to every Roman citizen. But Antony refused to honor the murdered hero's wish. (8) When Octavian reached Rome, he honored his great-uncle by giving his own money to the citizens. With the help of Cicero's speeches and with Caesar's veterans marching behind him, Octavian earned the support of the Senate. Not only was he elected to the Senate, he also became a consul─even though, according to Roman law, he was too young to hold these offices. Octavian bragged about it when he later wrote his memoirs.

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    お願いします (13) By 50 BCE, the Triumvirate had ended. Crassus had been killed in battle, and Pompey had become very jealous of Caesar's military success and his great popularity. Pompey had married Caesar's daughter, Julia, but when she died in childbirth, the bond between the two men was broken. Before Caesar returned from Gaul, Pompey sided wit the Senate to declare his former father-in-law an enemy of the State. The Senate demanded that Caesar give up his army and return to Rome. Knowing that he would be arrested if he obeyed, he refused. But now his life and career were at stake. Did he dare go back to Italy at all? (14) In January of 49 BCE, Caesar's forces were camped just north of the Rubicon, the river that marked the boundary between Gaul and Ital. As soon as Caesar heard the Senate's ruling, he slipped away from the camp with a few trusted men. It was night, and everyone else was feasting. No one noticed that he was missing. When he reached the banks of the Rubicon, he paused, thinking about his next step. After a moment, he declared, “The die is cast” and crossed the river. This was his way of saying that his mind was made up and wouldn't be changed. Now he was ready to meet his former ally, the great general Pompey, in battle. (15) Caesar was never one to stand around, waiting for someone else to do something. Decisive as always, he began his march right away. He set out in the dead of winter with a single legion of soldiers. He knew that by marching on Rome he would start a civil war. What he didn't know─and couldn't have known─was that this war would last for nearly two decades and destroy the Republic.

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    お願いします (17) Patriotic writers like Livy took great pride in telling about brave Horatius and how he stopped the foreign attackers. Livy knew that the story was exaggerated and that his first-century readers wouldn't completely believe it. But he wasn't telling it to get the facts straight. He told it because it painted a picture of Roman courage at its best. Horatius represented the “true Roman.” (18) Even though Rome had abolished kingship, the Senate had the power to appoint a dictator in times of great danger. This happened in 458 BCE when the Aequi, an Italic tribe living west of Rome, attacked. The Senate sent for Cincinnatus, a farmer who had served as a consul two years earlier. The Senate's messengers found him working in his field and greeted him. They asked him to put on his toga so they might give him an important message from the Senate. Cincinnatus “asked them, in surprise, if all was well, and bade his wife, Racilia, to bring him his toga.... Wiping off the dust and perspiration, he put it on and came forward.” than the messengers congratulated Cincinnatus and told him that he had been appointed dictator of Rome.

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    お願いします (9) In 241 BCE, a Roman commander attacked a Carthaginian fleet of 170 ships. Despite stormy seas, Rome sank 50 enemy ships and captured 70 more. What was left of the Carthaginian fleet sailed home, defeated. When the ships arrived in their home port, the commander was executed. (10) After 23 years of battle, the First Punic War was over. Rome controlled Sicily and dominated the western Mediterranean. The Roman army had broken Carthage's grip. The memory of this shameful defeat tortured Hannibal's father. (11) As part of the peace treaty, Rome demanded that Carthage pay 80 tons of silver─equal to a year's pay for 200,000 Roman soldiers. The city had to find some way to pay this huge bill. Carthage sent its top general, Hamilcar Barca, to Spain. His assignment was to conquer the region and develop the silver and copper mines there. Hamilcar took his son Hannibal to Spain with him, and he did his job well. He sent money and goods back to Carthage. (12) When Hamilcar died, the 26-year-old Hannibal took over the job. Like his father, Hannibal considered Spain to be his territory. He believed Carthage must be the only power there. So when Rome made an alliance with the Spanish city of Saguntum, Hannibal fought back and fulfilled the promise he had made as a boy: to be the sworn enemy of Rome. He laid siege to Saguntum, cutting off all supplies of food and military aid. After eight months, Saguntum fell to Hannibal's warriors. And in 218 BCE, Rome declared war on Carthage─again. The Second Punic War had begun.

  • 日本語訳を!!13

    お願いします (1)“When I was 18 years old…I raised an army and used it to bring freedom back to the Roman state. I spent my own money to do it…. Because of this, the Senate passed a special resolution to make me a senator.” These words were written by Julius Caesar's great-nephew: the first person to serve as a Roman general and member of the Senate while he was still a teenager. (2) Julius Caesar, who had no legitimate sons of his own, was especially fond of his sister's grandson, Gaius Octavius. When his sister Julia died, the dictator chose 12-year-old Octavius to deliver his grandmother's funeral oration. Five years later, in 46 BCE, Octavius rode with his great-uncle in his triumphal procession into Rome. The next year, the young man joined Caesar's military campaign in Spain. The dictator believed that someday his great-nephew would do great things for Rome. (3) After his victories in Spain, Caesar planned a war against the rebellious tribes of Illyria, a region across the Adriatic Sea. Putting young Octavius in charge, he sent the army to Illyria with instructions to wait for him there. Then Caesar returned to Rome to begin reforming the government─a big job. Caesar set to work with energy and determination. But his plans were foiled by the daggers of his enemies, when he was assassinated on the Idea of March. (4) Eighteen- year-old Octavius was in Illyria when he got news of his uncle's death. He made up his mind to return to Rome. While he was packing to leave, a second messenger came with the surprising news that, in his will, Caesar had adopted Octavius as his son and made him the heir to an enormous fortune. This news was sure to raise eyebrows─and perhaps some swords─in Rome.

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    お願いします (20) Antony was married, but he fell for Cleopatra like a fish taking the bait. He spent the winter with her in Alexandria. It seemed that she could get anything she wanted from him. He even began to wear Eastern clothes instead of the traditional Roman toga. sometimes, for fun, Antony and Cleopatra dressed as slaves or servants and roamed the streets playing pranks on anyone they met. According to Plutarch, the people of Alexandria were charmed at the sight of a Roman general behaving in such a silly way. “The Alexandrians...enjoyed taking part in these amusements.... They liked Antony personally and used to say that he put on his tragic mask for the Romans, but kept the comic one for them.” (21) Meanwhile, Caesar's heir, Octavian was still in Rome. He and Antony had been partners. They had defeated and killed Caesar's assassins and were now supposedly ruling the empire together. But when Antony's wife became involved in a civil war against Octavian, Antony had to leave Cleopatra and return to Rome to deal with the crisis. His wife became ill and died, leaving Antony free to marry again. He could have chosen Cleopatra, but he made a political marriage instead. He married Octavian's sister, Octavia─a beautiful, intelligent widow. She and Antony had a daughter. Back in Egypt, though, Cleopatra had already given birth to Antony's children, a twin boy and girl. (22) Even though Octavia was expecting their second child, Mark Antony suddenly went back to Alexandria...and Cleopatra, whom he married under Egyptian law. Octavian was furious. His sister had been rejected and shamed. He declared war against Antony and Cleopatra.

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    お願いします (26) In the end, he was killed at the height of the powers by men he thought were his friends. It was particularly sad that Brutus was among the assassins. According to Suetonius, Caesar, as he wasdying, turned to Brutus and said, “You too, my son?” (27) Brutus didn't feel guilty about betraying Caesar. He was proud of it. His ancestor was the Brutus who had expelled the last King, Tarquin the Proud, from Rome. Brutus issued a coin to celebrate the Ides of March as Caesar's assassination day. The coin shows the deadly daggers that had killed Caesar and the “cap of liberty” traditionally worn by slaves after they were freed. Brutus bragged that he had saved Rome from slavery. (28) But the murder of Julius Caesar did Rome no good. The city faced another 13 years of civil unrest and war. Assassination did help Caesar's reputation, though. In his will, Caesar left a gift of money to every Roman citizen. More that ever, he was the common man's hero, so admired that later rules of Rome adopted the name Caesar. (29) Brutus and his friends thought they were serving Rome and saving the Republic by killing a man who had become too powerful, a man they feared might make himself king. They were shortsighted. The Republic was already dying...almost dead. Rome would soon be dominated by a single ruler. That man would be Caesar's great-nephew and heir, Augustus Caesar.

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    お願いします (22) Caesar then restored Cleopatra to her throne and defeated her brother in battle. On his way back to Rome, Caesar passed through Asia. There, he squashed a rebellion in Asia Minor (modern Turkey). In a letter to a friend, he made light of the victory. The letter had only three words: “Veni, vidi, vici.” (“I came, I saw, I conquered.”) Plutarch says that this brief message matched “the sharpness and speed of the battle itself.” Caesar's fans later made placards with these three words written on them, which they carried in his triumphal procession into Rome. (23) When Caesar returned to Rome, he was proclaimed dictator. Then he began the work of healing Rome's terrible war wounds. He gave 100 denarii to every citizen and pardoned his own enemies, even those who had supported Pompey against him, including Cicero and Brutus. (Caesar was especially fond of Brutus. In his youth, Caesar had been in love with Brutus's mother, and he always looked out for her son. Brutus did not return the favor.) (24) During four years of almost absolute power, Caesar passed many laws to control debt, reduce unemployment, and regulate traffic in Rome. He levied taxes on foreign imports to boost Rome's economy. He put unemployed Romans to work building a new Forum and a large public building named in his family's honor: the Basilica Julia. He planned the first public library and built embankments along the Tiber to protect the city against floods. He revised the old Roman calendar, replacing it with the one that we use today, beginning with January. (25) Julius Caesar was perhaps the most extraordinary of all ancient Romans─a senator, military leader, and dictator of Rome. But he was also a poet, a brilliant historian who wrote about his military victories, and the only orator of his day who could compete with Cicero. His personal charm brought him the loyalty of men and the love of women.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (15) When Cicero was elected consul in 63 BCE, he was conceited enough to believe that his consulship would be the turning point for the ailing Republic. Could its troubles all be over? He thought so. Once elected, he opposed the populares, who supported the reforms of the Gracchi brothers. He spoke for the aristocrats in the Senate and tried to create an alliance of the rich─nobles and businessmen─against the poor. One popularis politician, Lucius Catiline, organized a rebellion. Cicero squelched it and executed the rebel leaders without a trial. He later paid a high price for his actions. His enemies watched and waited. In the end, Cicero's old friend Pompey deserted him and made new alliances. Cicero told him: “You have given us a strong hope of peace. We have this good news because of you. And I've told everyone so. But I must warn you that your old enemies are now posing as your friends.” (16) Pompey paid no attention to Cicero's words. By 60 BCE, he had teamed up with the popularis politician Julius Caesar and the millionaire Crassus. The three formed a triumvirate and shared the power among themselves. Together, they controlled the Senate, the people...Rome itself. Many Romans, including Cicero, were shocked to learn of it. But, arrogant as ever, Cicero refused to cooperate with this First Triumvirate. He called it “a three- headed monster.” Now Cicero's longtime enemies saw their chance, and they persuaded the Assembly to banish Cicero from Rome. Later Pompey intervened on his behalf, and Cicero was called back in 57 BCE. (17) Cicero stayed loyal to Pompey and fought at his side when a civil war broke out between Pompey and Caesar. Caesar won and became the most powerful man in Rome. After Pompey's death, Caesar pardoned Cicero and allowed him to return to his beloved Rome.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (9) For about a year, Octavian and Antony battled for control, but they finally became allies. They joined with Caesar's general Lepidus to from a triple alliance, the Second Triumvirate. The three men, called triumvirs, were determined to hunt down Brutus and the other conspirators in Caesar's murder. Some suggested that Brutus be decapitated, and his head brought back to Rome and thrown at the feer of Julius Caesar's statue. (10) Antony and Octavian left Lepidus in charge of the government while they went off with their armies to find the assassins of Julius Caesar. At Philippi in northern Greece, the triumvirs were victorious and Brutus committed suicide. Even though Antony was the more successful general and Octavian was sick during the decisive battle, all three men claimed victory and divided the empire among themselves. (11) Octavian and Antony may have been partners, but they were never friends for long. While Antony was busy reorganizing Roman territories in the East (and meeting Egypt's queen, Cleopatra), Octavian confiscated land in the Italian countryside and gave it to retired soldiers as a reward for their services. Because of these landgrabs, trouble flared again between the two leaders. Antony's wife and brother led a rebellion against Octavian while Antony was away. When Antony heard about it, he had to come home to deal with the crisis. (12) By 30 BCE, the war had ended. Antony was dead, and Octavian had defeated all of his rivals. At 33 years of age, he was suddenly the master of the Roman world.