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Hatshepsut: The Divine Queen of Egypt

  • Hatshepsut, the queen of Egypt, had limited powers as a ruler. To maintain ma'at, the desired balance in Egypt, she needed to become a king and prove her divinity.
  • Hatshepsut claimed to be the daughter of the god Amun and was chosen by him to be king. She commissioned artists to depict her as a divine ruler recognized by all the gods.
  • In just seven years, Hatshepsut transformed herself from a co-ruler into a deity, wearing a king's crown and carrying ceremonial symbols of kingship.


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(4) 女王として、ハトシェプストの力には限りがありました。 王が王座についたとき、彼は、神になり、天なる神と人々の間の仲介者(または仲介の神?)になりました。 彼の最も重要な仕事の1つは、神を喜ばせることでした。 それは、マアトとして知られる望ましい均衡を保証しました。 その時、エジプトは栄えることができました。マアトを意味しない王はいませんでした。マアトがないことは、全盛であることを意味しなかったからです。 エジプト人は、中間期の混沌に陥る運命になるでしょう。 ハトシェプストが、マアトを維持することを望むならば、彼女は、まず、王にならなければなりません。 彼女は、神が統治者として彼女に満足していること、神が彼女を王として認めたこと、そして、彼女自身本当に神性であることを人々に明らかにする必要がありました。それが、まず第一に神の考えであると主張するより彼女の神性を証明するどんなよい方法があるでしょう? 誰が、神によってなされる選択を疑うでしょうか? (5) ハトシェプストは、彼女が単なる人間ではなく、大いなるアメン神の娘であること、そして、アメン神自らが、彼女を王に選んだことをエジプトに示そうとしました。彼女の王位を正当化するために、ハトシェプストは、彼女の出生の物語をでっち上げ、絵師たちにそれを描いて示すように依頼しました。 最終場面では、ハトシェプストはすべての神々に示され、神々は、彼女を王と認めます。 彼女の運命に対する疑いを持たせないために、ハトシェプストは、おそらくアメン神自らと思わせる、これらの言葉を文章に含めました「余のこの娘を ... 余は、王座につけ余の後継者とする .... そなたたちを導くのは、彼女なり。 彼女のことばに従い、彼女の命令のもとにそなたたち自身を統合せよ。」 (6) ちょうど7年で、ハトシェプストは、自らを忠実な共同統治者から神に変えました。 彼女は、王の冠と衣服を身に着けました。 彼女は、王の杖を携えました。 彼女は、王の儀式用のかつらをかぶり、三つ編みにされたあごひげさえ、紐で耳からつるしました。






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    お願いします (13) Hippopotamus accidentally splattered the beautiful slippers. Rhodopis cleaned them carefully and put them in the sun to dry. "As she was continuing with her chores, the sky darkened and as she looked up, she saw a falcon sweep down, snatch one of her slippers, and fly away." Could that be the god Horus who had taken her shoe? Rhodopis put the one slipper into her tunic and returned to her chores. (14) At the banquet the king was staring out at the crowd. He was thinking he would much rather be out hunting in the desert than hosting a party when "suddenly the falcon swooped down and dropped the rose-red golden slgpper in his lap." Knowing this was a sign from Horus, the king "sent out a decree that all maidens in Egypt must try on the slipper, and the owner of the slipper would be his queen." (15) As you may have now guessed, the king traveled his kingdom by chariot searching high and low. Maidens everywhere tried to squash their wrong-sized feet into the slipper. Then he took to the Nile on his royal barge and one day he docked near the home of Rhodopis. The servant girls who tormented Rhodopis recognized the slipper at once but said nothing. One after another they tried to cram their feet into the golden slipper and one after another they failed. The king saw Rhodopis hiding in the rushes and asked her to come forward and take her turn at the slipper. "She slid her tiny foot into the slipper and then pulled the other from her tunic."  And as if it were a golden rule...the king and Rhodopis lived happily ever after.

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    お願いします (6) The vizier was a man who wore many hats (or, in at least two cases, she was a woman who wore many hats). As "Overseer of Works," the vizier was in charge of all of the king's engineering projects. He saw to it that men and materials were on site to build monuments, tombs, and temples, to repair dikes, dig canals, and dredge waterways. As "Keeper of the Seal," the vizier was responsible for the records, for marriage contracts, wills, deeds to property, court transcripts, and keeping a head count of cattle and people. His duties were endless. One vizier didn't exaggerate when he wrote, "I spent many hours in the service of my lord." (7) The vizier served the king, the gods, and the people. An 18th-dynasty scribe writes that the vizier  Did what the king loves: he raised ma'at to its lord.... reporting daily on all his effective actions....  Did what the gods love: he enforced the laws and laid down rules, administered the temples, provided the offerings, allotted the food and offered the beloved ma'at....  Did what the nobility and people love: he protected both rich and poor, provided for the widow without a family and pleased the revered and the old. (8) All this work was too much for one person. Many officials reported to the vizier. And each of them had a title, usually with the name "overseer." There was the "Overseer of the Double House of Silver" (the treasurer), the "Overseer of the King's House" (the royal steward), and there was even the "Overseer of the Royal Toenail Clippings" (no explanation necessary). The officials who came in contact with the king personally could add yet another name to their title that meant, "Known to the King" (an addition the Toenail Clipping official most likely deserved).

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    お願いします (10) Aulus Gellius, a Roman lawyer of the second century CE, writes about Vesta's priestesses. A girl chosen to be a Vestal Virgin must...be no younger than six and no older than ten years old.... As soon as a girl is chosen, she is taken to the House of Vesta and handed over to the priests. She immediately leaves her father's control. (11) The chief duty of the Vestal Virgins was to keep Vesta's flame burning. If the flame went out, it meant that one of the Vestal Virgins had been careless in her sacred duties or had broken her vow of chastity. Either way, the Romans believed that the city was in great danger and could be destroyed. They dressed the offending priestess in funeral clothes and carried her to an underground cell, leaving her to die. (12) The earliest Romans were farmers who saw the gods in all the forces of nature. They believed that gods ruled the sun, the moon, and the planets and that gods lived within the trees, in wind, and in rivers. These early, simple beliefs played a part in Rome's later religion as well. But as Rome became more connected with other peoples through war and trade, its religion became more complex. (13) The Romans were as quick to borrow language and inventions. If they encountered a new god that they thought might be useful, they adopted him or her. For example, when the Romans attacked the Etruscan city of Veii in 396 BCE, they begged Juno, their enemy's goddess, to help them in battle. “To you, Juno Regina, who now lives in Veii, I pray that after our victory you will accompany us to our city─soon to be your city─to be received in a temple worthy of your greatness.” When the Romans conquered Veii, they assumed that Juno had helped them. To thank the goddess, they built a temple in her honor in Rome.

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    お願いします (1) All Rome knew Lucretia for her beauty and goodness. No one doubted that she loved her husband and was faithful to him. In the eyes of the average Roman, this made her a perfect woman. But to Sextus. the king's ruthless son, Lucretia's goodness was a challenge. As the Roman historian Livy tells the tale, Sextus couldn't see such perfect devotion without wanting to destroy it. Sextus went to Lucretia's house when he knew that her husband was out of town. Because Sextus was a prince and also her husband's cousin, Lucretia and her servants welcomed him and served him dinner. They didn't suspect his cruel plan. (2) When everyone else was asleep, Sextus crept, sword in hand, into Lucretia's bedroom. He threatened to kill her and spread a rumor that she had been unfaithful to her husband, if she refused to do what he wanted. Lucretia was not afraid of death, but she didn't want to die with her husband thinking that she hadn't been faithful to him. So she obeyed Sextus―she felt that she had no choice. (3) The next morning, overcome with grief and shame, Lucretia sent messengers to her husband and her father. She asked them to come right away―something terrible had happened. The men came as quickly as they could. Lucretia's husband brought along his friend Brutus. When Lucretia saw them, she began to cry and told them what Sextus had done. According to Livy, she said,“Give me your right hand in faith that you will not allow the guilty to escape.” (4) Lucretia's husband and Brutus believed in Lucretia's innocence and promised to get even with Sextus. Brutus made this solemn promise.“By this blood, which was so pure...I swear before you, O gods, to chase out the king...with his criminal wife and all their children,...and never to tolerate kings in Rome evermore.”

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    お願いします (10) It is not surprising that Rhodopis enjoyed music. Tombs and temple walls are covered with images of dancers and musicians. There were percussion instruments―drums, cymbals, and tambourines. There were wind instruments―flutes and trumpets. And there were stringed instruments―harps, lyres, and lutes. Everyone enjoyed music, from the pharaoh to the field worker. No one loved a festival more than the Egyptians. Crowds sang and clpped along with the musicians who paraded through the streets. Dancers performed for the revelers, moving with the grace of gymnasts―cartwheeling, twirling, flipping, and gyrating to the rhythm. Music and dance were integral to Egyptian daily life. Workers labored to the beat, priests praised the gods in music and motion. Musicians and dancers entertained at banquests and ushered the dead at funerals. So, for a young servant girl to sing to the animals at day's end is not surprising at all. (11) Rhodopis twirled so lightly her feet barely grazed the ground. Unknown to Rhodopis, she was dancing near the tree where the old man slept and her movement woke him. He was so taken by her grace that he decided right then and there that her feet should have the finest shoes in the kingdom. "He ordered her a special pair of slippers. The shoes were gilded with rose-red gold and the soles were leather. Now the servant girls really disliked her for they were jealous of her beautiful slippers." (12) News traveled to their village that the king was having a party. The entire kingdom was invited. On the day of the party the servant girls put on their finest clothes. They gave Rhodopis a long list of chores and handed her mounds of laundry to be washed in the river. They laughed at her washing the clothes as they poled down the river to the king's banquet.

  • 日本語訳を! 3-(1)

    お願いします。  The king who followed Narmer was named Aha. Aha means "the fighter." That should give you a clue as to what life was like in Egypt after the "unification." Either no one had bothered to get the word out to the Egyptians that they were now unified, or not everyone bought into the deal, because for next several hundred years, from about 3100 to 2670 BCE, the kings of Egypt spent most of their time squelching turf wars that flared up like forest fires. Every town with muscle and a headsman with attitude challenged the king. Each province struggled to hang on to its power. It took several hundred years and a king with a name that meant "divine body" to truly unify Egypt. A king named Djoser.  Egypt's list of kings is a long one. What makes the list run even longer is that most of the kings had several names. Take this one king, for example:  Hor Ka-nakht tut-mesut, Nebti Nefer-hepu Segereh-tawy, Sehetep-netjeru Nebu, Hor Neb Wetjes-khau Sehetep-netjeru, Nesut Bit Nebkheperure, Sa re Tutankhamun Heqaiunushema. In English, this name means:  The Horus Strong Bull, Fitting from Created Forms, He of the Two Ladies, Dynamic of Laws, Who Propitiates all the Gods, the Golden Horus Who Displays the Regalia, Who Propitiates the Gods, King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Lord of Manifestations is Re, Son of Re, Living Image of Amun, Ruler of Upper Egyptian Iunu. Fortunately for us, we know him as King Tut.  You can imagine how unwieldy the list became with more than 170 kings. Most of their names would have been lost if it weren't for an Egyptian priest and historian named Manetho, who lived in the third century BCE. He sorted out the entire disaster by collecting the records from various temples and putting them in order. To organize the list into something manageable, Manetho grouped the kings into thirty ruling families that we call dynasties.

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    お願いします (7) One of the most important household gods was Janus, the Spirit of the Door. Janus had two faces. One looked into the home; the other faced the outside world. He let friends and family in but kept enemies out. Family life began and ended with him. Vesta ruled as the goddess of the fireplace. She was the spirit inside the flame that cooked food and kept the family warm. When Scipio Hispanus married, and later when babies were born, he would have presented the new family members to Vesta so that she would know to protect them as well. (8) Each day, the whole family gathered at the hearth and tossed salt and flour onto the flames. These gifts of salt and flour symbolized the basic needs of life. Scipio Hispanus, like allRoman fathers, had to keep the household gods happy. Rulers and leaders had the same job for the community. They tried to keep peace with the gods through public celebrations that included prayers, festivals, and sacrifices. (9) In the earliest times, it was the king's job to keep the gods happy and make sure they stayed on Rome's side. Later, consuls performed these traditional rituals and ceremonies. As Rome gre and its society became more complicated, priests and priestesses took over the religious responsibilities. They served in the temples of the gods. In the temple to Vesta, for example, the Vestal Virgins tended the city's hearth and guarded the holy flame where Vesta lived. Her priestesses made vows of chastity, promising not to have sexual relationships during the 30 years they served the goddess.

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    お願いします (6) Cleopatra went to the palace school with theother royal princes and princesses. She became fluent in nine languages and was the first member of her family who could speak Egyptian. Cleopatra had tremendous appeal. Even the Greek biographer Plutarch, who disapproved of her behavior, describes her in glowing terms: “The charm of her presence was irresistible, but there was an attraction in her person and conversation, together with a force of character, which showed in her every word and action. Everyone who met her fell under her spell.” (7) When Ptolemy died in 51 BCE, he left his kingdom to the 18-year-old Cleopatra. Even though she was old enough to rule, according to Egyptian law, she couldn't rule alone. Ptolemy's will set up joint rule by Cleopatra and her 12-year-old brother, Ptolemy X III. (8) According to Egyptian tradition, pharaohs married their siblings or children to keep sower within the royal family. Cleopatra had to marry a brother or a son, and this consort would be her official husband. It would be a marriage of politics, not love. Cleopatra had no sons when she came to the throne, so her first co-ruler was Ptolemy XIII. (9) Cleopatra and Ptolemy ruled together for several years, but Cleopatra wasn't very good at sharing. She left her brother's name out of official documents─on purpose─and had her own picture and name stamped on Egyptian coins. This didn't go over very well with Ptolemy. Nor did it please the court officials of Alexandria, the capital city. (10) Alexandria's officials decided that Ptolemy would be easier to control than Cleopatra. so they plotted to overthrow the strong-willed queen. Knowing that her life was in danger, Cleopatra escaped to Syria, where she raised an army to help her regain power.

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    お願いします (1) When families get together for holidays and special occasions―after the latest news has been exchanged, and a good meal eaten, and the day has grown long―the old stories come out. Each story is told as if it were the first time, even though everyone has heard it a hundred times before, and can anticipate the next line before it is said out loud. Why are these worn family histories shared again and again? Partly because they hold the character of the people who are in them―they can show us grandma's fierce independence, grandpa's stubborn streak, cousin's temper, and great aunt's love of animals. They hold a hint of who we are and how we hope to be remembered (and some things tha we wish had been forgotten). It is the same with the ancient Egyptian stories told on tomb and temple walls and the tales that circle the columns in the colonnades. Through the millennia, the stories pass down to us keys to unlock the mystery of the people who lived so long ago. (2) Nearly 3,500 years ago Queen Hatshepsut―or as she would have called herself, King Hatshepsut―chose the stories she wanted remembered. Some are true, and others she made up to justify a woman ruling Egypt. How does a queen become a king? How does a king transform into a god? Sometimes it's all in the story you choose to tell. (3) When King Thutmose II died in 1504 BCE, his son, Thutmose III, was too young to rule Egypt. Although his exact age is unknown, it is possible that he was just a young child. So, as was custom, the widowed queen took over until the young king was old enough to rule by himself. The records tell us: "Having ascended into heaven Thutmose II became united with the gods.... Hatshepsut governed Egypt, and the Two Lands were under her control. People worked for her, and Egypt bowed her head."

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(3)

    お願いします。 (7) On the road leading to Abydos, there was a stela, which is a slab of rock with inscriptions on it. The stela tells the story of King Neferhotep's concern over the spirit of the god Osiris, who lived in the statue, which lived in the shrine, which lived in the innermost room inside the temple at Abydos. According to the stela, King Neferhotep "desired to see the ancient writings." The ancient works were kept by the priests, "the real scribes of hieroglyphs, the masters of all secrets." King Neferhotep told the priests who watched over the ancient records that he planned a "great investigation" into the proper care of the statue of Osiris. The priests replied, "Let your majesty proceed to the house of writings and let your majesty see every hieroglyph." (8) King Neferhotep studied the ancient writings in the library. He learned how the gods were cared for from the beginning of time. He learned exactly what rituals pleased the gods. He decided that he should go to Abydos himself to explain to the priests what he had learned. King Neferhotep sent a messenger ahead telling the priests to bring the statue of Osiris to meet his royal barge on the Nile when he landed. (9) When King Neferhotep arrived near Abydos, the priests met him. The statue of Osiris had traveled with them in its shrine. The shrine had been placed in a cabin on a boat modeled after the boat that the Egyptians believed the gods used to navigate the stars. The boat rested across poles shouldered by a procession of priests. (10) On the seven-mile journey from the Nile to the temple, King Neferhotep was entertained by the priests, who acted out the Legend of Osiris. We know bits and pieces of the legend from inscriptions on the tomb walls and from songs such as the Great Hymn to Osiris. The most complete version of the legend, however, was written much later, probably in the first century CE, by the Greek historian Plutarch. The legend has been told in many ways. This is one version: