• ベストアンサー
  • すぐに回答を!


お願いします (10) Aulus Gellius, a Roman lawyer of the second century CE, writes about Vesta's priestesses. A girl chosen to be a Vestal Virgin must...be no younger than six and no older than ten years old.... As soon as a girl is chosen, she is taken to the House of Vesta and handed over to the priests. She immediately leaves her father's control. (11) The chief duty of the Vestal Virgins was to keep Vesta's flame burning. If the flame went out, it meant that one of the Vestal Virgins had been careless in her sacred duties or had broken her vow of chastity. Either way, the Romans believed that the city was in great danger and could be destroyed. They dressed the offending priestess in funeral clothes and carried her to an underground cell, leaving her to die. (12) The earliest Romans were farmers who saw the gods in all the forces of nature. They believed that gods ruled the sun, the moon, and the planets and that gods lived within the trees, in wind, and in rivers. These early, simple beliefs played a part in Rome's later religion as well. But as Rome became more connected with other peoples through war and trade, its religion became more complex. (13) The Romans were as quick to borrow language and inventions. If they encountered a new god that they thought might be useful, they adopted him or her. For example, when the Romans attacked the Etruscan city of Veii in 396 BCE, they begged Juno, their enemy's goddess, to help them in battle. “To you, Juno Regina, who now lives in Veii, I pray that after our victory you will accompany us to our city─soon to be your city─to be received in a temple worthy of your greatness.” When the Romans conquered Veii, they assumed that Juno had helped them. To thank the goddess, they built a temple in her honor in Rome.


  • 回答数1
  • 閲覧数73
  • ありがとう数1


  • ベストアンサー
  • 回答No.1
  • sayshe
  • ベストアンサー率77% (4555/5903)

(10) アウルス・ゲリウスは、西暦2世紀のローマの法律家ですが、彼は、ベスタの巫女について書いています。 ベスタの乙女に選ばれる少女は、6歳以上10歳以下でなければならない ... 少女が、選ばれるとすぐに、その娘は、ベスタの館へ連れて行かれて、司祭に手渡される。彼女は、すぐに彼女の父の支配を離れる。 (11) ベスタの乙女の主な務めは、ベスタの炎を燃え続けさせることでした。 炎が消えると、ベスタの乙女の一人が、彼女の神聖な務めに不注意だったか、彼女の純潔の誓いを破ったことを、それは意味しました。いずれにしても、ローマ人は、街が大変な危険に陥って、破壊される恐れがあると信じていました。彼らは、罪を犯した巫女に死者の装束を着させて、彼女を地下の独房へ運び、彼女が死ぬまで放置しました。 (12) 最も初期のローマ人は、自然のすべての力に宿る神を見ていた農民でした。 彼らは、神々が、太陽、月、惑星を支配し、神々が、木の中にも風にも川にも宿ると信じていました。これらの初期の素朴な信仰は、ローマの後の宗教においても役割を果たしました。しかし、ローマが戦争や交易を通して他の民族とより交わるようになるにつれて、その宗教は一層複雑になりました。 (13) ローマ人は、言語や発明を借りるのも同様に迅速でした。彼らが、役に立つと思う新しい神に出会うと、彼らは、その神を採り入れました。たとえば、ローマ人が、紀元前396年に、エトルリアのウェイイと言う街を攻撃したとき、彼らは、彼らの敵の女神ジュノーに、戦いにおいて彼らに味方するように懇願しました。「余は、かくのごとく祈る、今ウェイイに宿る、ジューノー・レジナ、そなたに、我々の勝利の後、そなたが、我々の都 ― すぐに、そなたの都となる ― に、我々と共に帰り、そなたの偉大さにふさわしい神殿に迎えられることを。」 ローマ人が、ウェイイを征服したとき、彼らは、ジュノーが彼らに味方をしたと考えました。 女神に感謝するために、彼らは、ローマに彼女に敬意を表した神殿を建立しました。





  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (7) One of the most important household gods was Janus, the Spirit of the Door. Janus had two faces. One looked into the home; the other faced the outside world. He let friends and family in but kept enemies out. Family life began and ended with him. Vesta ruled as the goddess of the fireplace. She was the spirit inside the flame that cooked food and kept the family warm. When Scipio Hispanus married, and later when babies were born, he would have presented the new family members to Vesta so that she would know to protect them as well. (8) Each day, the whole family gathered at the hearth and tossed salt and flour onto the flames. These gifts of salt and flour symbolized the basic needs of life. Scipio Hispanus, like allRoman fathers, had to keep the household gods happy. Rulers and leaders had the same job for the community. They tried to keep peace with the gods through public celebrations that included prayers, festivals, and sacrifices. (9) In the earliest times, it was the king's job to keep the gods happy and make sure they stayed on Rome's side. Later, consuls performed these traditional rituals and ceremonies. As Rome gre and its society became more complicated, priests and priestesses took over the religious responsibilities. They served in the temples of the gods. In the temple to Vesta, for example, the Vestal Virgins tended the city's hearth and guarded the holy flame where Vesta lived. Her priestesses made vows of chastity, promising not to have sexual relationships during the 30 years they served the goddess.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (14) Rome borrowed the Olympian gods from Greece, Where they were thought to live on Mount Olympus. Eventually, the Romans had gods for almost everything. They prayed to Juno for help with the birth of a baby, to Mars for help in battle, to Jupiter before planting their crops, and to Ceres for a good yield of grain. (15) Roman religion, government, and family were all closely connected. Each reflected the other. Jupiter ruled over the gods as father and king─just as kinds and consuls ruled the Roman state and fathers ruled their families.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    (9) When the herdsman found Romulus and Remus, he took them home. He and his wife raised the boys their own. The twins grew to be brave, manly, and noble. They roamed the countryside like ancient Robin Hoods, often saving innocent people from danger and persecution. (10) Romulus and Remus eventually discovered who they really were and decided to found a new city near the Tiber River, where they had been rescued as babies. But the brothers didn't get along very well, and they disagreed about where the city should be built. They tried to settle their argument through divination, using the path of birds in the sky to figure out the wishes of the gods. They decided to watch some vultures flying overhead. Romulus tried to trick Remus, pretending to have spotted more vultures than he actually saw, and then Remus made fun of Romulus. The brothers got into a fight, and Romulus killed Remus. (11) Romulus buried his brother and then, with his followers, built a new city on the Palatine Hill and circled it with strong, stone walls. As the city grew, it eventually enclosed seven hills and took the name of its founder, Romulus―or Rome. The Romans dated everything that happened after that “frod the founding of the city”in 753 BCE. For more than a thousand years, they used a calender that began in that year. (12) Some Romans claimed that Romulus and Remus were the sons of Mars, the god of war. Later Romans believed that this connection to Mars explained Romulus's cruel attack on the Sabines, a tribe that lived in small, unprotected villages near Rome. Romulus was convinced that Rome would become great through war, so he pretended to invite his Sabine neighbors to a festival. But then he led the Romans in a sudden attack. The soldiers seized 30 unmarried women and ran off―taking the Sabine women home as their wives.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (4) As a queen, Hatshepsut's powers were limited. When a king took the throne, he became a god and the middleman (or middlegod?) between the heavenly gods and the people. One of his most important jobs was to please the gods. That guaranteed the desired balance known as ma'at. Egypt could then flourish. No king meant no ma'at, which meant no flourishing. Egyptians would be doomed to the chaos of the Intermediate Perimds. If Hatshepsut hoped to maintain ma'at, she must first become a king. She needed to show the people that the gods were pleased with her as the ruler, that the gods recognized her as king, and that she herself was indeed divine. What better way to prove her divinity than to claim that it was the gods' idea in the first place? Who would question a choice made by the gods? (5) Hatshepsut set out to show Egypt that she was no mere mortal, but the daughter of the great god Amun, who personally chose her to be king. To justify her kingship, Hatshepsut made up a story of her birth and commissioned artists to illustrate it. In the final scene Hatshepsut is presented to all the gods, who recognize her as king. To be sure there was no doubt about her destiny, Hatshepsut included in the text these words, supposedly from Amun himself, "This daughter of mine...I have appointed successor upon my throme.... It is she who will lead you. Obey her words and unite yourselves at her command." (6) In just seven years Hatshepsut transformed herself from a dutiful co-ruler into a deity. She wore a king's crown and clothing. She carried the king's staff. She even hung the king's ceremonial hairpiece, a braided beard, from her ears with string.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (5) The Roman historian Livy had also written down a different legend about two brothers who were sons of the king. Their names were Numitor and Amulius. When their father the king died, Amulius grabbed the throne and forced Numitor to leave the kingdom. But then Amulius worried that someone might try to overthrow him. What if Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, had children who might try to take the throne? Amulius wasn't taking any chances. He forced Rhea Silvia to join the Vestal Virgins―a group of women who served in the temple of the goddess Vesta. The Romans believed that Vesta wanted the complete attention of her priestesses, so the Vestal Virgins were not allowed to marry or have children. (6) Poor Rhea had no choice but to obey her uncle. But things didn't go according to Amulius's plan. Somehow, despite her protected life among the Vestal Virgins, Rhea became pregnant and gave birth to twins―two strong, handsome boys. She named her sons Romulus and Remus. Amulius was outraged when he heard the news. He ordered his servants to take the twins from their mother's arms nd drown them in the river. Rhea herself was bound and thrown into prison. (7) The servant couldn't bring himself to kill the babies, so he put them into a basket and set it afloat on the river. He was sure that the babies would be carried away and drowned as the king had commanded. But the river was kind and gently landed the basket on solid ground. (8) Although the twins didn't drown, they were still in great danger. If they didn't starve, wild animals might eat them. Miraculously, according to Livy, “a she-wolf, coming down from the... hill to quench her thirst, turned her steps towards the cry of the infants, and nursed them so gently that the keeper of the royal flock found her licking them with her tongue.”

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(2)

    お願いします。 (4) Different towns in Egypt worshipped differnt gods. The leaders of the town would try to convince everyone that their god was the most powerful. If their god was powerful, it meant they were powerful, too. Before Upper and Lower Egypt were unified, each had its own capital with its own goddess. Upper Egypt's goddess looked like a vulture. Lower Egypt's goddess looked like a cobra. After Upper and Lower Egypt unified, the kings wore a crown with both a vulture and a cobra to symbolize the joining of the regions. (5) One of the pharaoh's most important jobs was to take care of the gods. If the gods were happy, the Egyptians figured they would be happy, too. The crops would grow, the Nile would flood to the right level, and Egypt would be at peace with its neighbors. Life would be in balance, or ma'at. The pharaohs built great temples to show respect to the gods. Inside each temple, in the innermost room, they placed a shrine. And inside the shrine, they kept a statue of the god for whom the temple had been built. Every day the priests served the statue as if it were alive. (6) One pharaoh, King Neferhotep (who ruled about 1741 to 1730 BCE), paid special attention to the temple at Abydos. King Neferhotep wanted to be sure the priests were taking care of the statue exactly as they were supposed to take care of it. After all, those priests were the king's representatives. So if they displeased the gods, then the gods were displeased with the king as well. Ma'at would be thrown all out of whack.

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(1)

    番号で分けているのでお願いします。 (1) The ancient Egyptians had a god for everything. That palm tree set back from the Nile sprouting on the rise behind your cousin's house? It had a god. The make-up your father applied from his palette in the morning? It had a god, too. More than 2,000 names of gods have been found written in limestone, on papyrus, and scratched on mud-brick walls. Some gods were powerful and worshipped by many, and some were wispy spirits known to just a few. There were gods whose spirits lived inside real things, such as the Nile, the sun , the sky, and the earth. And there were gods for protection against dangers, such as the bites of crocodiles, scorpions, and snakes. There were gods who stood for learning―the art of music and medicine; and there were gods who stood for the learned―the scribes and the architects. You name it, the Egyptians had a god for it. (2) There were good gods and bad gods, and fierce gods to protect you from the bad gods. There were gods for the living and gods for the dead. Some gods were human, some were animal, and some were a little of both. The bulls of one breed were so sacred that they lived like kings, and when they died the Egyptians mummified them, just like they would a pharaoh. They covered the bulls in jewels and placed them in coffins carved out of solid blocks of granite each weighing 80 tons. These sacred bulls even had their own cemeteries. At a burial site at Saqqara archaeologists have found 24 bulls, each in an elaborately carved coffin. (3) The most important god in Egypt was the sun god. The Egyptians pictured the sun god pushing the sun across the sky just as the scarab beetles pushed tiny dirt balls across the ground. Every morning the Egyptians were grateful when the sun was born again like the tiny scarab eggs hatching in the dirt ball. And every evening when the sun set, they worried that an evil snake would swallow the sun as it passed through the Underworld.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (19) Cincinnatus immediately went to the city and set to work. Although he could have ruled as dictator for six months, Cincinnatus assembled an army, defeated the Aequi, and than laid down his power to return to his plow─all in just 15 days. (20) For two more centuries the Romans fought against the other people of Italy. Scholars follow the Romans in calling these non-Romans Italians. The Romans saw them as enemies to be conquered, even though some of them also spoke Latin. (21) By 266 BCE, Rome controlled the entire Italian peninsula. Roman writers used the stories of Cincinnatus and Horatius to show how courage and determination helped Rome conquer all of Italy and eventually the rest of the Mediterranean world.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (1) Ising of war and of that man who first came in exile from the shores of Troy to the coast of Italy. He was battered on land and sea by divine violence,... He had to suffer much in war until he built a city.... From him came the Latin people,...and the high walls of Rome. (2) With his homeland in enemy hands and his city in flames, Prince Aeneas, son of the goddess Venus, led a small group of Trojans to sea. After many months of being tossed about by fierce winds and storms, the travelers finally anchored their ships near the mouth of the Tiber River in Italy. Yet no sooner had they landed than the men began to plan another voyage. (3) This appalled the Trojan women. As the Greek historian Dionysius records the story, a noblewoman named Roma secretly took the women aside and suggested that they take matters into their own hands. “Tired of wandering,”the others listened eagerly. “Roma stirred up the... Trojan women”and suggested a simple plan. They all agreed, and “together, they set fire to the ships.” (4) At first the men were furious, but pretty soon they realized that the women had done the right thing. They had landed in a perfect spot. With mild weather and beautiful countryside―a cluster of hills just 15 miles from the sea―why should they leave? The men were so pleased that they named the place after Roma, the rebellious wife.

  • 日本語訳を!!6

    お願いします (1)“Hannibal, then about nine years old, was...pestering Hamilcar to take him along to Spain. His father, who was sacrificing to the gods before crossing over into Spain with his army, led the boy up to the altar and made him touch the offerings.” (2) What would these offerings have been? Hamilcar Barca, a powerful North African general, would probably have sacrificed a black dog whose body he had split in two with his sword, along with a white bull and a ewe whose throats he had slit. After killing the animals, he would have burned them on an altar so the gods could enjoy the smell of meat roasting in the flames. Military leaders made such sacrifices to persuade the gods to give them victory over their enemies. Livy tells us that as Hannibal touched the bodies of the slaughtered animals, Hamilcar made him“solemnly swear...that as soon as he was able, he would become the declared enemy of the Roman people.” (3) Hannibal kept the promise that he had made to his father. He became a great general. And in 217 BCE, he took war elephants from Carthage (in modern Tunisia), his hometown in North Africa, and marched to the gates of Rome. Rome had never faced a more dangerous enemy in all of its long history. (4) Who were these Carthaginians who hated the Romans so much? They were seafaring people who left their homeland in Phoenicia (modern-day Lebanon) around 800 BCE. They set up colonies in North Africa and Spain, and also on the island of Sicily―the ball that the Italian boot seems to be kicking. (5) The most powerful Phoenician colony was the North African city of Carthage. It became a busy trading post for merchants from all over the Mediterranean world. In time, Carthage gained independence from its mother country, conquered other Phoenician colonies, and founded colonies of its own. By the 3rd century BCE, this thriving and wealthy city controlled trade across the western Mediterranean.