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お願いします (10) Aulus Gellius, a Roman lawyer of the second century CE, writes about Vesta's priestesses. A girl chosen to be a Vestal Virgin must...be no younger than six and no older than ten years old.... As soon as a girl is chosen, she is taken to the House of Vesta and handed over to the priests. She immediately leaves her father's control. (11) The chief duty of the Vestal Virgins was to keep Vesta's flame burning. If the flame went out, it meant that one of the Vestal Virgins had been careless in her sacred duties or had broken her vow of chastity. Either way, the Romans believed that the city was in great danger and could be destroyed. They dressed the offending priestess in funeral clothes and carried her to an underground cell, leaving her to die. (12) The earliest Romans were farmers who saw the gods in all the forces of nature. They believed that gods ruled the sun, the moon, and the planets and that gods lived within the trees, in wind, and in rivers. These early, simple beliefs played a part in Rome's later religion as well. But as Rome became more connected with other peoples through war and trade, its religion became more complex. (13) The Romans were as quick to borrow language and inventions. If they encountered a new god that they thought might be useful, they adopted him or her. For example, when the Romans attacked the Etruscan city of Veii in 396 BCE, they begged Juno, their enemy's goddess, to help them in battle. “To you, Juno Regina, who now lives in Veii, I pray that after our victory you will accompany us to our city─soon to be your city─to be received in a temple worthy of your greatness.” When the Romans conquered Veii, they assumed that Juno had helped them. To thank the goddess, they built a temple in her honor in Rome.

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(10) アウルス・ゲリウスは、西暦2世紀のローマの法律家ですが、彼は、ベスタの巫女について書いています。 ベスタの乙女に選ばれる少女は、6歳以上10歳以下でなければならない ... 少女が、選ばれるとすぐに、その娘は、ベスタの館へ連れて行かれて、司祭に手渡される。彼女は、すぐに彼女の父の支配を離れる。 (11) ベスタの乙女の主な務めは、ベスタの炎を燃え続けさせることでした。 炎が消えると、ベスタの乙女の一人が、彼女の神聖な務めに不注意だったか、彼女の純潔の誓いを破ったことを、それは意味しました。いずれにしても、ローマ人は、街が大変な危険に陥って、破壊される恐れがあると信じていました。彼らは、罪を犯した巫女に死者の装束を着させて、彼女を地下の独房へ運び、彼女が死ぬまで放置しました。 (12) 最も初期のローマ人は、自然のすべての力に宿る神を見ていた農民でした。 彼らは、神々が、太陽、月、惑星を支配し、神々が、木の中にも風にも川にも宿ると信じていました。これらの初期の素朴な信仰は、ローマの後の宗教においても役割を果たしました。しかし、ローマが戦争や交易を通して他の民族とより交わるようになるにつれて、その宗教は一層複雑になりました。 (13) ローマ人は、言語や発明を借りるのも同様に迅速でした。彼らが、役に立つと思う新しい神に出会うと、彼らは、その神を採り入れました。たとえば、ローマ人が、紀元前396年に、エトルリアのウェイイと言う街を攻撃したとき、彼らは、彼らの敵の女神ジュノーに、戦いにおいて彼らに味方するように懇願しました。「余は、かくのごとく祈る、今ウェイイに宿る、ジューノー・レジナ、そなたに、我々の勝利の後、そなたが、我々の都 ― すぐに、そなたの都となる ― に、我々と共に帰り、そなたの偉大さにふさわしい神殿に迎えられることを。」 ローマ人が、ウェイイを征服したとき、彼らは、ジュノーが彼らに味方をしたと考えました。 女神に感謝するために、彼らは、ローマに彼女に敬意を表した神殿を建立しました。

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    お願いします (14) Rome borrowed the Olympian gods from Greece, Where they were thought to live on Mount Olympus. Eventually, the Romans had gods for almost everything. They prayed to Juno for help with the birth of a baby, to Mars for help in battle, to Jupiter before planting their crops, and to Ceres for a good yield of grain. (15) Roman religion, government, and family were all closely connected. Each reflected the other. Jupiter ruled over the gods as father and king─just as kinds and consuls ruled the Roman state and fathers ruled their families.

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