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お願いします (5) Brutus kept his promise. He and Lucretia's husband won the loyalty of the army and drove out Sextus's father, the tyrant Tarquin the Proud―Rome's third Etruscan king. They condemned him and his whole family to life in exile, never again to see Rome. And that was the end of kingship in Rome. From this point on, kingship became so unpopular that rex (king) became a term of hatred and dishonor. The arrogant king Tarquin had always been unpopular. But the Romans prized high morals above all, and his son's attack on a woman's honor was the last straw. (6) The story of Lucretia is one explanation for how kingship ended in Rome. But how had it begun? The Romans believed that Romulus became Rome's first king when he founded the city in 753 BCE. They believed that six more kings ruled Rome until Brutus forced Tarquin the Proud from his throne in 509 BCE. According to tradition, the first three kings who followed Romulus to the throne were Romans. But Roman kingship was not passed down in a royal family, as it is in Great Britain, for example. Instead, when a Roman king died, the Senate―a group of wealthy men who owned land―elected the next ruler. Even a foreigner could rule if he could gather enough support among the senators. And that's exactly what happened when the Senate elected an Etruscan, as the fifth king of Rome. Tarquinius Priscus, later known as Tarquinius the Elder, ruled well and brought Etruscan engineering and artistry to Rome. But his grandson Lucius Tarquinius, also called Tarquin the Proud, was another story. He was the tyrant who ruled as Rome's seventh and last king.

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(5) ブルータスは、彼の約束を守りました。彼とルクレチアの夫は、軍の忠誠を得て、セクタスの父、暴君タルキン・ザ・プラウド ― ローマの第3代エトルリア出身の王 ― を追放しました。彼らは、王とその家族全員を終生流刑にし、二度とローマを見られないようにしました。そして、それは、ローマの王制の終わりでした。この時以来、王制は、大変不人気となり、rex(ラテン語・=国王)が、憎悪と不名誉の言葉となりました。尊大な王タルキンは、常に人気がありませんでした。 しかし、ローマ人はとりわけ高い徳性を重んじました、それで、女性の貞潔に対する彼の息子の暴行は、我慢の限界となったのでした。 (6) ルクレチアの物語は、どのようにして王制がローマで終わりを告げたかに対する1つの説明です。しかし、どのように、それは始まったのでしょうか?ロムルスが紀元前753年にその都を造営したとき、ロムルスがローマの初代の王になったと、ローマ人は信じていました。彼らは、ブルータスが、紀元前509年に、タルキン・ザ・プラウドを王位から退けるまで、さらに6人の王が、ローマを支配したと、信じていました。 伝説によれば、ロムルスを継いで王位についた最初の3人の王は、ローマ人でした。しかし、たとえば、ローマの王位は、大英帝国の様に、王族内で継承されることはありませんでした。その代わりに、ローマの王が死ぬと、元老院 ― 土地を所有する一団の裕福な男性で構成される ― が、次の統治者を選出しました。元老院の間で十分な支持を集めることができれば、外国人でさえ統治することができました。そして、それは、正に元老院が、ローマの第5代王としてエトルリア人を選んだときに起こったことでした。後にタルキニアス・ザ・エルダとして知られる、タルキニアス。プリスカスは、良く統治を行い、ローマにエトルリアの工学や芸術的才能をもたらしました。しかし、彼の孫息子の、ルシアス・タルキニアズは、タルキン・ザ・プラウドとも呼ばれましたが、話が違っていました。彼は、ローマの第7代で最後の王として統治した暴君でした。

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    お願いします (22) Caesar then restored Cleopatra to her throne and defeated her brother in battle. On his way back to Rome, Caesar passed through Asia. There, he squashed a rebellion in Asia Minor (modern Turkey). In a letter to a friend, he made light of the victory. The letter had only three words: “Veni, vidi, vici.” (“I came, I saw, I conquered.”) Plutarch says that this brief message matched “the sharpness and speed of the battle itself.” Caesar's fans later made placards with these three words written on them, which they carried in his triumphal procession into Rome. (23) When Caesar returned to Rome, he was proclaimed dictator. Then he began the work of healing Rome's terrible war wounds. He gave 100 denarii to every citizen and pardoned his own enemies, even those who had supported Pompey against him, including Cicero and Brutus. (Caesar was especially fond of Brutus. In his youth, Caesar had been in love with Brutus's mother, and he always looked out for her son. Brutus did not return the favor.) (24) During four years of almost absolute power, Caesar passed many laws to control debt, reduce unemployment, and regulate traffic in Rome. He levied taxes on foreign imports to boost Rome's economy. He put unemployed Romans to work building a new Forum and a large public building named in his family's honor: the Basilica Julia. He planned the first public library and built embankments along the Tiber to protect the city against floods. He revised the old Roman calendar, replacing it with the one that we use today, beginning with January. (25) Julius Caesar was perhaps the most extraordinary of all ancient Romans─a senator, military leader, and dictator of Rome. But he was also a poet, a brilliant historian who wrote about his military victories, and the only orator of his day who could compete with Cicero. His personal charm brought him the loyalty of men and the love of women.

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    お願いします (19) Cincinnatus immediately went to the city and set to work. Although he could have ruled as dictator for six months, Cincinnatus assembled an army, defeated the Aequi, and than laid down his power to return to his plow─all in just 15 days. (20) For two more centuries the Romans fought against the other people of Italy. Scholars follow the Romans in calling these non-Romans Italians. The Romans saw them as enemies to be conquered, even though some of them also spoke Latin. (21) By 266 BCE, Rome controlled the entire Italian peninsula. Roman writers used the stories of Cincinnatus and Horatius to show how courage and determination helped Rome conquer all of Italy and eventually the rest of the Mediterranean world.

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    お願いします。  It was the summer of 327 BCE,and Ambhi,king of Taxila,was not a happy camper.For one thing,Taxila was no longer as powerful and wealthy as it had been when the Persians ruled there.He was glad the Persians had gone,of course.Every once in a while,they'd send someone around asking for taxes,but as long as he paid them,the Persians pretty much left King Ambhi and his people alone.Nevertheless,he probably wished that the powerful Persians army was still in town.He could have used its help.Taxila's neighbor to the southeast,King Porus,was a brave and intelligent man who wanted Ambhi's kingdom for himself.  Still,the gossip was that the Persian army itself had fallen on hard times.Some young Greek felkow named Sikander had popped up out of nowhere-Macedonia,actually,but that was as good as nowhere-and was busily conquering the whole world.The rumor was that this Sikanddr character had never lost a battle.Of course,you couldn't believe everything you heard.A young boy still in his 20s couldn't possibly have conquered everything from the Nile River to Afghanistan,not to mention the mighty Persians-but still...the stories might be true.  King Ambhi's heart must have sunk when a messenger arrived with news of the horrible defeat of one of Taxila's neighbors.When the Greek Sikander and his troops had arrived in his kingdom,the neighboring king had foolishly tried to fight.But resistance had been futile.Not only had the king lost,but his city had been burned and looted.And that,the messenger would have told King Ambhi,was no rumor.He'd seen the terrible scene himself.Now Sikander's army was on the move again.Next stop:Taxila.  For one desperate moment,King Ambhi must have wished that he and his people could somehow jump out of Sikander's way.And then he realized that,in a way,they could.

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    (5)  ブル-タスはこの約束を守った。彼とルクレシアの夫は軍隊の忠誠でセクスツスの父、エトラスカ出身3代目のローマ王、暴君タルクィンを追放した。彼らは彼を糾弾し、彼と彼の家族をローマに二度と帰らないよう流刑にした。これでローマの王制は終わった。     これ以来、王位は極めて軽蔑の対象となったため、rex 「王」は、嫌悪と不名誉の称号となった。傲慢なタルクィン王は、いつも人気がなかった。しかしローマ人は徳の高さを何よりも重要だと考え、女性の誇りを踏みにじった息子の行状で、堪忍袋の緒が切れた。     (6)  ルクレシアの物語は、ローマの王制が終わりを見た説明の一つではある。しかしその王制はどうして始まったのか。ローマ人たちは、西暦紀元前753年にロムルスがローマの最初の王になったと信じている。 彼らは409年ブルータスが暴君タルクィンを退位に追い込むまで、6代の王が続いたと信じている。伝統によればロムルスに続く3代の王はローマ人ということになっている。しかし、ローマの王位は、例えばイギリスのように、王室内で継承されなかった。    ローマの王が死ぬと、土地を持つ富裕層からなる、 上院議会が、次の統治者を選んだのである。上院議員の支持が得られれば、外国人でも王に成れた。エトラスカ人が、第5代の王と成ったのはちょうどこういう風に上院が彼を選んだからである。のちに父タルクィニウスと呼ばれる、タルクィニウス•プリスクスは、うまく政治を行い、エトラスカの工学技術と、芸術をローマに齎した。    ところが彼の孫、タルクィンザプラウドとも呼ばれる、リシウス•タルクィニウスは、(祖父とは似ても似つかない)全く違った男だった。彼は7代目、ローマ最後の王として統治した暴君であった。

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