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お願いします (5) Brutus kept his promise. He and Lucretia's husband won the loyalty of the army and drove out Sextus's father, the tyrant Tarquin the Proud―Rome's third Etruscan king. They condemned him and his whole family to life in exile, never again to see Rome. And that was the end of kingship in Rome. From this point on, kingship became so unpopular that rex (king) became a term of hatred and dishonor. The arrogant king Tarquin had always been unpopular. But the Romans prized high morals above all, and his son's attack on a woman's honor was the last straw. (6) The story of Lucretia is one explanation for how kingship ended in Rome. But how had it begun? The Romans believed that Romulus became Rome's first king when he founded the city in 753 BCE. They believed that six more kings ruled Rome until Brutus forced Tarquin the Proud from his throne in 509 BCE. According to tradition, the first three kings who followed Romulus to the throne were Romans. But Roman kingship was not passed down in a royal family, as it is in Great Britain, for example. Instead, when a Roman king died, the Senate―a group of wealthy men who owned land―elected the next ruler. Even a foreigner could rule if he could gather enough support among the senators. And that's exactly what happened when the Senate elected an Etruscan, as the fifth king of Rome. Tarquinius Priscus, later known as Tarquinius the Elder, ruled well and brought Etruscan engineering and artistry to Rome. But his grandson Lucius Tarquinius, also called Tarquin the Proud, was another story. He was the tyrant who ruled as Rome's seventh and last king.

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(5) ブルータスは、彼の約束を守りました。彼とルクレチアの夫は、軍の忠誠を得て、セクタスの父、暴君タルキン・ザ・プラウド ― ローマの第3代エトルリア出身の王 ― を追放しました。彼らは、王とその家族全員を終生流刑にし、二度とローマを見られないようにしました。そして、それは、ローマの王制の終わりでした。この時以来、王制は、大変不人気となり、rex(ラテン語・=国王)が、憎悪と不名誉の言葉となりました。尊大な王タルキンは、常に人気がありませんでした。 しかし、ローマ人はとりわけ高い徳性を重んじました、それで、女性の貞潔に対する彼の息子の暴行は、我慢の限界となったのでした。 (6) ルクレチアの物語は、どのようにして王制がローマで終わりを告げたかに対する1つの説明です。しかし、どのように、それは始まったのでしょうか?ロムルスが紀元前753年にその都を造営したとき、ロムルスがローマの初代の王になったと、ローマ人は信じていました。彼らは、ブルータスが、紀元前509年に、タルキン・ザ・プラウドを王位から退けるまで、さらに6人の王が、ローマを支配したと、信じていました。 伝説によれば、ロムルスを継いで王位についた最初の3人の王は、ローマ人でした。しかし、たとえば、ローマの王位は、大英帝国の様に、王族内で継承されることはありませんでした。その代わりに、ローマの王が死ぬと、元老院 ― 土地を所有する一団の裕福な男性で構成される ― が、次の統治者を選出しました。元老院の間で十分な支持を集めることができれば、外国人でさえ統治することができました。そして、それは、正に元老院が、ローマの第5代王としてエトルリア人を選んだときに起こったことでした。後にタルキニアス・ザ・エルダとして知られる、タルキニアス。プリスカスは、良く統治を行い、ローマにエトルリアの工学や芸術的才能をもたらしました。しかし、彼の孫息子の、ルシアス・タルキニアズは、タルキン・ザ・プラウドとも呼ばれましたが、話が違っていました。彼は、ローマの第7代で最後の王として統治した暴君でした。

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    (5)  ブル-タスはこの約束を守った。彼とルクレシアの夫は軍隊の忠誠でセクスツスの父、エトラスカ出身3代目のローマ王、暴君タルクィンを追放した。彼らは彼を糾弾し、彼と彼の家族をローマに二度と帰らないよう流刑にした。これでローマの王制は終わった。     これ以来、王位は極めて軽蔑の対象となったため、rex 「王」は、嫌悪と不名誉の称号となった。傲慢なタルクィン王は、いつも人気がなかった。しかしローマ人は徳の高さを何よりも重要だと考え、女性の誇りを踏みにじった息子の行状で、堪忍袋の緒が切れた。     (6)  ルクレシアの物語は、ローマの王制が終わりを見た説明の一つではある。しかしその王制はどうして始まったのか。ローマ人たちは、西暦紀元前753年にロムルスがローマの最初の王になったと信じている。 彼らは409年ブルータスが暴君タルクィンを退位に追い込むまで、6代の王が続いたと信じている。伝統によればロムルスに続く3代の王はローマ人ということになっている。しかし、ローマの王位は、例えばイギリスのように、王室内で継承されなかった。    ローマの王が死ぬと、土地を持つ富裕層からなる、 上院議会が、次の統治者を選んだのである。上院議員の支持が得られれば、外国人でも王に成れた。エトラスカ人が、第5代の王と成ったのはちょうどこういう風に上院が彼を選んだからである。のちに父タルクィニウスと呼ばれる、タルクィニウス•プリスクスは、うまく政治を行い、エトラスカの工学技術と、芸術をローマに齎した。    ところが彼の孫、タルクィンザプラウドとも呼ばれる、リシウス•タルクィニウスは、(祖父とは似ても似つかない)全く違った男だった。彼は7代目、ローマ最後の王として統治した暴君であった。

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