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お願いします (6) Like two bullies on the same playground, Rome and Carthage both wanted to be the power in the western Mediterranean world. They both wanted to dominate the fertile island of Sicily and control trade at the Straits of Messina, between Sicily and the Italian mainland. Even before Hannibal's time, the clash between the two cities was brewing. Although both cities were strong and proud, they were very different. Rome's army had already conquered all of Italy. Yet Carthage was wealthier and had a much better navy. (7) A titanic struggle between Rome and Carthage began in 264 BCE―17 years before Hannibal was born. It started when the Sicilian city of Messina asked Rome to join its fight against Syracuse, another city in Sicily. Then Syracuse asked Carthage to join in its fight against Messina and Rome. A series of wars raged, on and off, for a century, with these two military alliances fighting against one another. These were called the Punic Wars, from the Latin word for Phoenica. The enemies fought one another in Italy, Spain, Sicily, and North Africa. (8) At the beginning of the First Punic War, the Romans had no navy, only trading ships. They didn't even know how to fight on the sea. They only knew how to fight on land, so they invented a grappling machine that made sea battles more like land battles. The machine had huge hooks with heavy ropes attached. The Roman soldier-sailors lobbed the hooks over the side of an enemy ship. The hooks bit into the other ship, holding ht while the Romans pulled it up beside their own. With the enemy's ship locked in place, the Romans scrambled aboard and fought hand-to-hand nn deck. This technique literally gave the Romans a“fighting chance”at sea.

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(6) 同じ遊び場にいる2人のいじめっ子のように、ローマとカルタゴは、双方が西地中海世界の覇権を望んでいました。彼らは、両国とも、シシリーの肥沃な島を支配し、シシリーとイタリア本土の間のメッシーナ海峡の交易を掌握したいと望んでいました。ハンニバルの時代以前でさえ、2つの都市の衝突は、醸成されていました。両方の都市は、強くて誇り高かったけれど、彼らは、非常に異なっていました。 ローマ軍は、イタリア全土をすでに征服していました。しかし、カルタゴは、より裕福で、ずっと優れた海軍を持っていました。 (7) ローマとカルタゴの大戦争は、紀元前264年に始まりました ― ハンニバルが生まれる17年前のことでした。メッシーナと言うシチリアの都市が、シシリーのもう一つの都市シラキュースとの戦いに加わるようローマに頼んだとき、その戦争は、始まりました。すると、シラキュースは、メッシーナとローマに対する戦いにカルタゴに参戦するよう頼みました。一連の戦争は、激しさを増し、 これらの2つの軍事同盟が相互に戦いながら、断続的に一世紀続きました。フェニキアに対するラテン語から、これらは、ポエニ戦争と呼ばれました。これらの敵対国は、イタリア、スペイン、シシリー、北アフリカで、お互いに戦い合いました。 (8) 第一次ポエニ戦争の初め、ローマ人は、海軍がなく、交易船しか持っていませんでした。彼らは、海上での戦い方さえ知りませんでした。彼らは、陸上での戦い方しか知らなかったのです、 それで、彼らは、海戦をより地上戦のようにした捕捉機械を発明しました。この機械は、重いロープの付いた、巨大な鉤を備えていました。ローマの兵士の船乗りは、敵の船の側面に、鉤を山なりに投げました。鉤は、相手の船に食い込んで、ローマ人が彼ら自身の船のそばに、それを引き寄せる間、それを離しませんでした。敵の船を適所に釘付けにすると、ローマ人は、相手の船にはい上がって、甲板で白兵戦を行いました。 この戦術は、文字通り、ローマ人に海上での「勝機」を与えました。

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