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お願いします (17) Rome lost nearly 60,000 soldiers. Another 10,000 were captured. Fewer than 6,000 Carthaginians fell in the battle. The Romans had never suffered a worse defeat and they were terrified. Whenever a watchman thought he spotted an army approaching the city, his cry, “Hannibal ad portas”(“Hannibal at the gates”) would echo through the streets. But the stunning defeat at Cannae became a turning point. More and more men joined the Roman military, and wealthy citizens gave generously to the war effort. The leaders in the Senate decided not to meet HaHannibal in fixed battles, but to let him wear himself out in smaller battles in the countryside. (18) Rome's new battle plan worked. The Carthaginian troops became exhausted. Hannibal's soldiers had been in Italy for more than 10 years, and Carthage refused to send fresh troops. When the Roman general Publius Cornelius Scipio took charge of the Roman forces in Spain, he cut off Hannibal's supplies of food and equipment. The Romans finally drove the Carthaginians out of Spain in 206 BCE. Then they invaded North Africa and the town of Zama, to the southwest of Carthage. Hannibal faced Scipio in the fierce Battle of Zama in 202 BCE. (19) At Zama, Scipio ordered his soldiers to attack Hannibal's frontline elephants with spears and arrows. The elephants panicked and turned back, crashing into the soldiers behind them. Scipio's army killed almost all of the Carthaginians, but Hannibal survived. Under Roman pressure he fled Carthage and spent his last 15 years in exile. In the peace settlement between the two cities, Carthage surrendered all its possessions outside Africa. Rome gave Scipio the honorary title “Africanus,” which means “conqueror of Africa.”

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(17) ローマは、ほぼ60,000人の兵士を失いました。さらに10,000人が捕虜になりました。戦闘で倒れたカルタゴ人は、6,000人足らずでした。ローマ人は、これほどひどい敗北を喫したことがありませんでした、それで、彼らは怯えました。見張りが、都市に接近している軍を見つけたと思ったときはいつでも、「ハンニバル・アド・ポルタス」(「城門にハンニバルが迫った」)と言う彼の叫びが、通りに鳴り響きました。しかし、カンナエの衝撃的な敗北が、分岐点になりました。 ますます多くの男たちが、ローマ軍に加わりました、そして、裕福な市民は気前良く戦費を支払いました。元老院の指導者層は、仕組まれた戦いでハンニバルに向かわず、田舎でのもっと小さな戦いで彼自身を疲れさせることに決めました。 (18) ローマの新しい戦略はうまくいきました。カルタゴ軍は、疲れきりました。ハンニバルの兵士は、イタリアに来て10年以上経っていました、そして、カルタゴは新しい軍隊を送ることを拒否しました。 ローマの将軍パブリアス・コーネリアス・スキピオが、スペインのローマ軍を引き受けたとき、彼は、ハンニバルの食糧と器材の供給を止めました。ローマ人は、紀元前206年にカルタゴ人をスペインからようやく追い払いました。それから、彼らは、北アフリカとカルタゴの南西にあるザマと言う町に侵攻しました。ハンニバルは、紀元前202年にザマの激戦において、スキピオと対峙しました。 (19) ザマで、スキピオは彼の兵士に槍と矢でハンニバルの最前線の象を攻撃するよう命令しました。 象はうろたえて、引き返しました、そして、彼らの後にいる兵士に衝突しました。スキピオの軍は、ほぼカルタゴ人全員を殺しました、しかし、ハンニバルは生き残りました。ローマの圧力を受けて、彼はカルタゴから逃げて、彼の最後の15年を流浪して過ごしました。2つの都市の間の和平調停で、カルタゴは、アフリカの外にあるすべてのその所有権を放棄しました。ローマはスキピオに名誉の称号「アフリカヌス」を与えました、この称号は、「アフリカの征服者」を意味します。

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