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日本語訳を! 5-(2)

お願いします。 (4) Different towns in Egypt worshipped differnt gods. The leaders of the town would try to convince everyone that their god was the most powerful. If their god was powerful, it meant they were powerful, too. Before Upper and Lower Egypt were unified, each had its own capital with its own goddess. Upper Egypt's goddess looked like a vulture. Lower Egypt's goddess looked like a cobra. After Upper and Lower Egypt unified, the kings wore a crown with both a vulture and a cobra to symbolize the joining of the regions. (5) One of the pharaoh's most important jobs was to take care of the gods. If the gods were happy, the Egyptians figured they would be happy, too. The crops would grow, the Nile would flood to the right level, and Egypt would be at peace with its neighbors. Life would be in balance, or ma'at. The pharaohs built great temples to show respect to the gods. Inside each temple, in the innermost room, they placed a shrine. And inside the shrine, they kept a statue of the god for whom the temple had been built. Every day the priests served the statue as if it were alive. (6) One pharaoh, King Neferhotep (who ruled about 1741 to 1730 BCE), paid special attention to the temple at Abydos. King Neferhotep wanted to be sure the priests were taking care of the statue exactly as they were supposed to take care of it. After all, those priests were the king's representatives. So if they displeased the gods, then the gods were displeased with the king as well. Ma'at would be thrown all out of whack.


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(4) エジプトの異なる町々は、異なる神々を崇拝しました。 町の指導者は、彼らの神が、最も力強いと言うことをみんなに納得させようとしたものでした。 彼らの神が、力強ければ、それは、彼らも、また、力強いことを意味しました。 上(北部)エジプトと下(南部)エジプトが、統一される前には、それぞれが、それ自身の女神のいるそれ自身の首都を持っていました。 上エジプトの女神は、ハゲワシのような姿をしていました。下エジプトの女神は、コブラのように見えました。 上エジプトと下エジプトが、統一されたあと、王たちは、その地方の統合を象徴するためにハゲワシとコブラの両方の付いた王冠をかぶりました。 (5) ファラオの最も重要な仕事の1つは、神々の世話をすることでした。 神が、幸せであるならば、エジプト人は、彼らも幸せであると考えました。作物は成長し、ナイル川は適切なレベルに氾濫し、エジプトは隣国と平和を保つでしょう。 生活は、調和がとれた、すなわち、マアトの状態になるでしょう。 ファラオは、神々への尊敬を示すために、大きな寺院を建設しました。 各々の寺院内の、一番奥の部屋に、彼らは、聖堂を設置しました。そして、聖堂の内部に、彼らは、そのために寺院が建設された神の像を安置しました。 毎日、まるでそれが生きているように、神官たちは、像に仕えました。 (6) ネフェルホテプ王(紀元前1741年から1730年ごろの統治者)と言う、1人のファラオは、アビドスの寺院に特別の注意を払いました。 ネフェルホテプ王は、正確に、神官たちが、像の面倒を見ることになっているように、像の面倒を見ていることを確実にしたいと思いました。結局、それらの神官たちは、王の代理でした。 それで、神官たちが、神を不快にするならば、神は、王のことも同様に、不快に思ったのです。 マアト(平和)は、全く崩壊するでしょう。





  • 日本語訳を! 5-(6)

    お願いします。 (16) The statues were kept inside the temples, in the innermost room. The priests didn't believe the statue actually was the god, but they did believe the god's spirit lived inside the statue. In the morning, the high priests would break the clay seal on the sanctuary door. They would chant and burn incense. A priest would gently wake the god by lighting a torch, symbolic of the sunrise. The priests bathed, dressed, and presented food to the statue. Then when the day's rituals were completed, the priests would back out of the room, smoothing away their footprints with a reed broom. The sanctuary doors were sealed so that the god could get a good night's sleep undisturbed. (17) Plucking out your eyebrows and eyelashes may sound painful, but being a priest had advantages. For one thing, you didn't have to pay taxes. All the priests except the highest order spent only three months of the year serving at the temples. The rest of the time they lived ordinary lives, working at their professions―scribes, artists, musicians. And even the highest priests had families outside the temples.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (7) If Memphis were the brain of Egypt's operations, Thebes was its heart. Instead of government offices and business centers, temples sprawled across the landscape. There were so many columns gracing so many entrances to so many temples that Homer called the city "Hundred-Gated Thebes." (8) When the royal barge docked at Thebes, priests would have greeted the king. What would Amenhotep IV have thought when he watched the power-hungry priests approach his father? Were they humble? Or had they grown too big for their kilts? The temples of Amun acquired more and more land with each passing year. Their farms were not meager vegetable plots feeding servants of the gods, but a thriving mini-kingdom lorded over by the priests. If the priesthood didn't eat away at his father's power, it certainly ate away at his father's treasury. With each conquest, Thebes received a share of the plunder. With every tribute or trade mission, Thebes took its cut. It was the gods' goodwill that had brought Egypt to this level of glory; payment was expected. (9) Although there were temples to many gods at Thebes, the main god of Thebes was Amun, "the hidden one." Amenhotep IV would have been left behind when his father followed the priests into the dark recesses of the inner temple. Only the holiest of holy could enter the inner sanctum where secret rituals were performed. Amenhotep IV was left out again. (10) Then, in a flash, everything changed. Amenhotep IV's older brother, groomed for the throne, died. All eyes turned to Amenhotep IV. And what did they see?

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(3)

    お願いします。 (7) On the road leading to Abydos, there was a stela, which is a slab of rock with inscriptions on it. The stela tells the story of King Neferhotep's concern over the spirit of the god Osiris, who lived in the statue, which lived in the shrine, which lived in the innermost room inside the temple at Abydos. According to the stela, King Neferhotep "desired to see the ancient writings." The ancient works were kept by the priests, "the real scribes of hieroglyphs, the masters of all secrets." King Neferhotep told the priests who watched over the ancient records that he planned a "great investigation" into the proper care of the statue of Osiris. The priests replied, "Let your majesty proceed to the house of writings and let your majesty see every hieroglyph." (8) King Neferhotep studied the ancient writings in the library. He learned how the gods were cared for from the beginning of time. He learned exactly what rituals pleased the gods. He decided that he should go to Abydos himself to explain to the priests what he had learned. King Neferhotep sent a messenger ahead telling the priests to bring the statue of Osiris to meet his royal barge on the Nile when he landed. (9) When King Neferhotep arrived near Abydos, the priests met him. The statue of Osiris had traveled with them in its shrine. The shrine had been placed in a cabin on a boat modeled after the boat that the Egyptians believed the gods used to navigate the stars. The boat rested across poles shouldered by a procession of priests. (10) On the seven-mile journey from the Nile to the temple, King Neferhotep was entertained by the priests, who acted out the Legend of Osiris. We know bits and pieces of the legend from inscriptions on the tomb walls and from songs such as the Great Hymn to Osiris. The most complete version of the legend, however, was written much later, probably in the first century CE, by the Greek historian Plutarch. The legend has been told in many ways. This is one version:

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(5)

    お願いします。 (13) From a passage in the Pyramid Texts, we know that Isis and Osiris had a son who challenged Seth, "in the name of Horus the son who avenged his father." Each time Horus fought Seth to take back the throne, Isis protected him from injury with her power. In a final battle, Seth turned into a ferocious crocodile. But Horus managed to spearthe crocodile, killing Seth. In the end, Horus restored ma'at to Egypt. (14) When the play was over, King Neferhotep and the procdssion had arrived at Abydos. Abydos was one of the most sacred places in ancient Egypt. One legend claims that Osiris himself is buried there. Another legend says the only part of Osiris buried at Abydos is his dismembered head. (15) Unlike today's religious buildings, in ancient Egypt temples were not open to the common people. Anyone entering the temple had to be "pure" so as not to offend the god. To become pure, the priests bathed several times a day. Hair could carry dirt or worse, lice, so priests shaved their bodies every three days. They even pulled out their eyelashes. The common Egyptian could only catch a glimpse of the shrines as they were moved from place to place. When the priests brought the statue of Osiris to meet King Neferhotep, people would have lined the route, not only to see the priests sing, dance, and perform, but also to peek at the shrine.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (10) Aulus Gellius, a Roman lawyer of the second century CE, writes about Vesta's priestesses. A girl chosen to be a Vestal Virgin must...be no younger than six and no older than ten years old.... As soon as a girl is chosen, she is taken to the House of Vesta and handed over to the priests. She immediately leaves her father's control. (11) The chief duty of the Vestal Virgins was to keep Vesta's flame burning. If the flame went out, it meant that one of the Vestal Virgins had been careless in her sacred duties or had broken her vow of chastity. Either way, the Romans believed that the city was in great danger and could be destroyed. They dressed the offending priestess in funeral clothes and carried her to an underground cell, leaving her to die. (12) The earliest Romans were farmers who saw the gods in all the forces of nature. They believed that gods ruled the sun, the moon, and the planets and that gods lived within the trees, in wind, and in rivers. These early, simple beliefs played a part in Rome's later religion as well. But as Rome became more connected with other peoples through war and trade, its religion became more complex. (13) The Romans were as quick to borrow language and inventions. If they encountered a new god that they thought might be useful, they adopted him or her. For example, when the Romans attacked the Etruscan city of Veii in 396 BCE, they begged Juno, their enemy's goddess, to help them in battle. “To you, Juno Regina, who now lives in Veii, I pray that after our victory you will accompany us to our city─soon to be your city─to be received in a temple worthy of your greatness.” When the Romans conquered Veii, they assumed that Juno had helped them. To thank the goddess, they built a temple in her honor in Rome.

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(1)

    番号で分けているのでお願いします。 (1) The ancient Egyptians had a god for everything. That palm tree set back from the Nile sprouting on the rise behind your cousin's house? It had a god. The make-up your father applied from his palette in the morning? It had a god, too. More than 2,000 names of gods have been found written in limestone, on papyrus, and scratched on mud-brick walls. Some gods were powerful and worshipped by many, and some were wispy spirits known to just a few. There were gods whose spirits lived inside real things, such as the Nile, the sun , the sky, and the earth. And there were gods for protection against dangers, such as the bites of crocodiles, scorpions, and snakes. There were gods who stood for learning―the art of music and medicine; and there were gods who stood for the learned―the scribes and the architects. You name it, the Egyptians had a god for it. (2) There were good gods and bad gods, and fierce gods to protect you from the bad gods. There were gods for the living and gods for the dead. Some gods were human, some were animal, and some were a little of both. The bulls of one breed were so sacred that they lived like kings, and when they died the Egyptians mummified them, just like they would a pharaoh. They covered the bulls in jewels and placed them in coffins carved out of solid blocks of granite each weighing 80 tons. These sacred bulls even had their own cemeteries. At a burial site at Saqqara archaeologists have found 24 bulls, each in an elaborately carved coffin. (3) The most important god in Egypt was the sun god. The Egyptians pictured the sun god pushing the sun across the sky just as the scarab beetles pushed tiny dirt balls across the ground. Every morning the Egyptians were grateful when the sun was born again like the tiny scarab eggs hatching in the dirt ball. And every evening when the sun set, they worried that an evil snake would swallow the sun as it passed through the Underworld.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (7) One of the most important household gods was Janus, the Spirit of the Door. Janus had two faces. One looked into the home; the other faced the outside world. He let friends and family in but kept enemies out. Family life began and ended with him. Vesta ruled as the goddess of the fireplace. She was the spirit inside the flame that cooked food and kept the family warm. When Scipio Hispanus married, and later when babies were born, he would have presented the new family members to Vesta so that she would know to protect them as well. (8) Each day, the whole family gathered at the hearth and tossed salt and flour onto the flames. These gifts of salt and flour symbolized the basic needs of life. Scipio Hispanus, like allRoman fathers, had to keep the household gods happy. Rulers and leaders had the same job for the community. They tried to keep peace with the gods through public celebrations that included prayers, festivals, and sacrifices. (9) In the earliest times, it was the king's job to keep the gods happy and make sure they stayed on Rome's side. Later, consuls performed these traditional rituals and ceremonies. As Rome gre and its society became more complicated, priests and priestesses took over the religious responsibilities. They served in the temples of the gods. In the temple to Vesta, for example, the Vestal Virgins tended the city's hearth and guarded the holy flame where Vesta lived. Her priestesses made vows of chastity, promising not to have sexual relationships during the 30 years they served the goddess.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (5) One good reason to accessorize was that jewelry had supernatural powers. Egyptians believed that gold was the flesh of the sun god, Re. And silver, which was rare in Egypt and even more precious than gold, was thought to come from the bones of the moon god. Heavy golden collars were engraved with spells. The enchanted collars brought joy, health, and strength to the wearer. Jewelry could protect the wearer from dangers, too. Children wore fish-shaped jewelry in their hair to prevent drowning. The cobra on the king's crown symbolically spit venom at his enemies. Now that's a fashion accessory! (6) What would a fashion magazine be without those scratch-and-sniff perfume ads? Priests in ancient Egypt were the first chemists, concocting secret fragrance formulas and creamy eyeliners to sell to those who could afford them. The priests' perfumes were popular with everybody who was anybody and became a valuable export for Egypt. There was no money yet, but tge priests traded for whatever they needed―linen, oils, even land. Scented body oils were so valued that they were often used as wages for workers. Popular fragrances were cinnamnn, lily, and vanilla, but the priests didn't just use oils from plants, they used oils from hippos, crocodiles―even cats. To be the hit of any banquet, you needed a scented wax cone to tie on top of your gead. As the evening wore on the wax melted down the sides of your face and wig, perfuming the air.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (4) Egypt's empire stretched from Nubia to Syria. Tribute gifts flooded in from neighboring rulers who hoped to ally themselves with the powerful Egyptian king. Amenhotep IV must have watched a procession of riches being presented to his father. One ambassador after another laid gifts at his feet―exquisite jars from Crete, copper from Cyprus, jewels from Afghanistan, elephant tusks, giraffe skins, and ebony wood from Kush. Materialism was alive and well in Egypt. And everything had to be over the top. It wasn't enough to build a temple; the temple had to be COLOSSAL. A cloud of dust must have spread across Egypt from the dust raised by quarrymen and carvers, working the stone for all the buildings. (5) Traveling the Nile on the royal barge that was a floating palace, Amenhntep IV would have watched his father stop at town after town, performing rituals and paying tribute to the dozens of gods whose temples dotted the riverbank. Sailing against the current for the 400-mile trip from the northern capital of Memphis to the southern capital of Thebes would have taken three weeks without stops, but of course, there were always stops. Gratitude had to be expressed to the gods for Egypt's good fortune. That was the king's job. One day it would be Amenhotep IV's older brother's turn. (6) How different the two capital must have seemed to young Amenhotep IV. In Memphis he wouldn't gave been able to turn around without bumping into a scribe. Egyptians were compulsive record keepers. The archives bulged with their documents. A foreman couldn't hand out a loaf of bread to workman without someone writing it down. Governorr and overseers bustled through the streets of Memphis conducting Egypt's business, and the scribes recorded it all.

  • 日本語訳を! 1-(3)

    お願いします。  Life in Egypt revolved around the Great River. Our seasons come and go, marked by weather changes, but not so in Egypt, where the sun always shines. In Egypt the seasoms were marked by changes in the Nile. The first of the three seasons began in July. Egyptians called it akhet. During akhet, heavy rain in Ethiopia poured down from the highlands, swelling streams that fed the Nile. The banks of the Nile overflowed. Flooding may not sound like a good thing, but to the Egyptians it was a very good thing. Those floods left behind that black earth for planting. During the floods, farmlands were covered with water. Everyone uneasily watched the water rise. Would there be enough water? Would the Nile bring enough of that rich, black earth for farmers to plant their seeds? Or would there be too much water? Would whole villages be washed away? It was a delicate balance. If you were the supreme ruler, it would be your job to work it out with the gods so that things went well. You worked with Hapi, the god of the Great River, and more importantly, with the god in charge of the floods, the one with the ram's head―Khnemu. It was your job to be sure there was ma'at, or balance―not too much, not too little.  The Egyptians watched the flood levels obsessively. They measured the water and recorded it. They compared their measurements to the good years. They compared their measurements to the bad years. Everywhere you went, people would have had an opinion on this year's flood level. People talked in the market place. People talked along the roads, over dinner, while washing clothes at the riverbank. Would this be a good year? Would the granaries be full? Or would this be a bad year? Would they suffer the anguish they sang about in The Hymn to the Nile?