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お願いします (4) Egypt's empire stretched from Nubia to Syria. Tribute gifts flooded in from neighboring rulers who hoped to ally themselves with the powerful Egyptian king. Amenhotep IV must have watched a procession of riches being presented to his father. One ambassador after another laid gifts at his feet―exquisite jars from Crete, copper from Cyprus, jewels from Afghanistan, elephant tusks, giraffe skins, and ebony wood from Kush. Materialism was alive and well in Egypt. And everything had to be over the top. It wasn't enough to build a temple; the temple had to be COLOSSAL. A cloud of dust must have spread across Egypt from the dust raised by quarrymen and carvers, working the stone for all the buildings. (5) Traveling the Nile on the royal barge that was a floating palace, Amenhntep IV would have watched his father stop at town after town, performing rituals and paying tribute to the dozens of gods whose temples dotted the riverbank. Sailing against the current for the 400-mile trip from the northern capital of Memphis to the southern capital of Thebes would have taken three weeks without stops, but of course, there were always stops. Gratitude had to be expressed to the gods for Egypt's good fortune. That was the king's job. One day it would be Amenhotep IV's older brother's turn. (6) How different the two capital must have seemed to young Amenhotep IV. In Memphis he wouldn't gave been able to turn around without bumping into a scribe. Egyptians were compulsive record keepers. The archives bulged with their documents. A foreman couldn't hand out a loaf of bread to workman without someone writing it down. Governorr and overseers bustled through the streets of Memphis conducting Egypt's business, and the scribes recorded it all.

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(4) エジプトの帝国は、ヌビアからシリアにわたっていました。 強力なエジプト国王と同盟することを望む近隣の統治者から、贈り物が殺到しました。 アメンホテップ4世は、財宝が行列をなして彼の父親に贈られるのを目にしたにちがいありません。各国の大使が次々と、彼の足元にそれらの贈り物を置いて行きました ― クレタ島の非常に美しい壺、キプロスの銅、アフガニスタンの宝石、象牙、キリンのなめし皮、クシュの黒檀の木材。 エジプトでは、実利主義が、まだ残っていました。そして、すべてが、過度でなければなりませんでした。 寺院を建設するだけでは十分ではありませんでした; 寺院は、「壮大」でなければなりませんでした。 ちりの雲が、エジプト中に広がったにちがいありません、すべての建物のために石に取り組む石切り工と彫刻家によって作りだされたちりでした。 (5) 浮かぶ宮殿とも言える国王のはしけに乗ってナイル川を旅している時、アメンホテップ4世は、彼の父親が町々に立ち寄り、儀式を行って、多くの神々に供え物をするのを目にしたことでしょう、それらの神々をまつる寺院が川岸に点在していました。北の都のメンフィスから南の都のテーベに至る400マイルの旅を流れに逆らって航行することは、停泊しなくても3週間かかったことでしょう、しかし、もちろん、常に停泊は行われました。 エジプトの幸運のために、感謝が神に示されなければなりませんでした。それ(感謝を示すこと)は、国王の仕事でした。 ある日、それは、アメンホテップ4世の兄の番になるでしょう。 (6) 2つの都は、若いアメンホテップ4世にとって、いかにも違っているように思われたにちがいありません。 メンフィスでは、彼は、振り向けば必ず書記に出くわしたことでしょう。エジプト人は、強迫観念に取りつかれたと思えるほどの記録魔でした。 記録保管所は、彼らの文書で一杯でした。 監督は、誰かがそれを書きとめなければ、労働者に1個のパンも渡すことができませんでした。 総督や監督官が、メンフィスの通りを駆け回る様にしてエジプトでの仕事を行っていました、そして、書記たちが、そのすべてを記録しました。

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    お願いします (11) Some scholars believe that Amenhotep IV was a normal-looking young man. Their theory is that the distorted human forms artists began drawing at this time were the result of a new artists style. The bodies, neither male nor female, but a bit of both, were meant to show the king as "everything." Other scholars have a different theory. They believe that Amenhotep IV was deformed by disease. They believe the long spidery fingers nd toes, the head that looks like pulled taffy, and the stick arms, full breasts and sagging belly represent a true likeness. Amenhotep IV's mummy has never been found, but if one turns up with an unusual body shape, we'll know who it is. (12) Scholars aren't sure if Amenhotep IV ruled alongside his father for a short time or not. It would have been excellent on-the-job training for the inexperienced prince. It would also have made it crystal clear to anyone who might have designs on the throne that the job was filled. From Amenhotep III's mummy we know toward the end he was fat and in poor health. Two of his teeth on the right side were abscessed. He would have been in constant pain. With Amenhotep IV ruling beside latest painkiller from Cyprus―opium. If he had packed his teeth with opium, he would not have been able to make clear-headed decisions; a co-ruler would have been not only useful, but also necessary. (13) When Amenhotep III died, embalmers used a new method. They injected tree resin and salt under the skin to plump it up nd give the body a more life like look. This innovation was the first in increasingly drastic changes that marked the reign of the rebel Amenhotep IV―a short blip in Egypt's history we know as the Amarna Period.

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    お願いします (14) About the time that Amenhotep IV took the throne, he also took a wife―Nefertiti, which means "The Beautiful Woman Has Come." His parents' unusually close relationship could have been the model that led Amehotep IV to break tradition again and share his power with "the Foremost Wife of the King, whom he loves, the Mistress of the Two Lands,... Nefertiti, living and young, forever and ever." Amenhotep IV's devotion to Nefertiti was displayed on temple walls. Traditional paintings of the king as a muscled, fierce warrior were replaced with paintings of the king as a loving, doting famiky man―Amenhotep kissing his wife, Amenhotep with a daughter on his knee, Amenhotep surrounded by his family. (15) Soon Amenhotep IV found another obsession. He latched onto an obscure sun god that his father had fancied, Aten, which means "the disk." In the fifth year of Amenhotep IV's reign, he changed his name to Akhenaten which means "Spirit of the Sun Disk." The name change was not as shocking as what followed. Akhenaten announced that the gods Egyptians had been worshiping for thousands of years no longer existed. The Aten was the one and only. Akhenaten cut off funds to the temples. There would be no more tributes to these false gods, no more temples built in Thebes, no more revenues funneled into the priesthood. Those riches woukd now go directly to the Aten and (perhaps rather shrewdly) to his representative on Earth, the king himself―Akhenaten. (16) The Aten needed his own city, a new capital built on new ground. Akhenaten sailed the Nile in search of the right spot to build the city. On the east bank of the Nike, halfway between Memphis and Thebes, a semicircle of cliffs rose above an arc of windswept desert. It was there, on an isolated strip of land, that Akhenaten built the city we know as Amarna.

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