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日本語訳を! 2-(3)

お願いします。  The chip-chip-chip of the stone carver would have been interrupted when the cattle herders returned with their herds at the end of summer. Eagerly, the carver would have inspected the green-gray siltstone the herders had collected in the Black Mountains and brought back with them. Ah, this stone would make a perfect turtle-shaped palette. This one definitely looks more like an antelope. The rounded one would be ideal for a hippo.  When the carver of the Narmer Palette saw that dark-green, nearly black, two-foot piece of stone, did he see a shield? Did he know in an instant that this particular fine-grained, flawless stone was fit for the first king? Did he dream about the story he would tell on the palette―the story of how the Two Lands came to be―the north and the south joining to become one?  The Narmer Palette is like a two-page comic book. It's in the shape of a shield and is carved on both sides. It tells the story of the unification of Egypt under one king―a king called Narmer. On one side of the palette, Narmer wears the White Crown of Upper Egypt, and on the other he wears the Red Crown of Lower Egypt. He's the first king to rule both.  On both sides of the palette, the very top has Narmer's name written inside a box called a serekh. Narmer means "angry catfish." King Angry Catfish has the head of a cow on either side of his name. Are these cow pictures meant to be the goddess Hathor? Many scholars think so. Ancient Egyptians thought the goddess Hathor was the king's mother and they usually drew her with horns curled inward. Did this belief go all the way back to the very first king?


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 牛の遊牧民たちが、夏の終わりに牛の群とともに帰って来ると、石の彫刻家のコツーコツーコツと石を刻む音は、中断されたことでしょう。 放牧民たちが、熱心に、ブラック・マウンテンズで集め、彼らと共に持ち帰った緑がかった灰色のシルト石を、彫刻家は調べたことでしょう。 ああ、この石は、完璧な亀形のパレット(石板)になるだろう。 これは、確かに、よりアンテロープ[*]のように見える。 丸いものは、カバにうってつけだ。 [*]http://eow.alc.co.jp/search?q=antelope  ナルメル・パレットの彫刻家が、そのダークグリーンの、ほとんど黒に近い、2フィートの石を見たとき、彼は盾を思い描いたでしょうか? 彼は、この特別な微粒子で出来た、完璧な石が、初代の王にふさわしいと、瞬く間に気付いたでしょうか? パレットに彼が語ろうとする物語 ― 2つの土地がどうなったかと言う物語 ― 北の土地と、南の土地が、どの様にして一つの国に統一されたかと言う物語について、彼は夢見たでしょうか?  ナルメル・パレットは、2ページの漫画本に似ています。 それは盾の形をしていて、両面に彫刻が施されています。 それは、一人の王 ― ナルメルと呼ばれる一人の王のもとに、エジプトが統一された物語を語っています。 パレットの片面では、ナルメルは、上エジプトの白い王冠をかぶり、もう一方の面では、彼は、下エジプトの赤い王冠をかぶっています。 彼は、両方の土地を支配した最初の王です。[*] [*]http://eow.alc.co.jp/search?q=upper+Egypt  パレットの両面には、まさしくその最上部に、ナルメルの名前が、セイレクと呼ばれる欄に書かれています。 ナルメルは、「怒ったナマズ」を意味します。 怒ったナマズ王は、彼の名前の両側に牛の頭部を持っています。 これらの牛の絵は、女神ハトルのつもりなのでしょうか? 多くの学者が、そう考えています。 古代のエジプト人は、女神ハトルが王の母であると考えました、それで、彼らは、たいてい、内巻きにした角をつけて、彼女を描きました。 こうした信仰は、正に初代の王にまでさかのぼるのでしょうか?





  • 日本語訳を! 2-(5)

    お願いします。  In the middle scene the elongated, entwined necks may look like two dinosaurs that got tangled, but they are supposed to be panthers and could symbolize the two parts of Egypt now joined together. If you draw a line through the middle, you can see that the two sides are mirror images. They balance. Narmer has brought harmony to Egypt.  The bottom scene on the palette shows a bull trampling a frightened foe. The bull is power. Narmer is powerful. He has conquered his enemies. They lie naked and helpless under his feet.  The palette shows Narmer victorious over the forces of evil. He has conquered chaos. He has given the Two Lands unity. The artist who carved the Palette of Narmer has told a dramatic story. Some say the Palette of Narmer is merely a legend. They say it wasn't the work of one king as powerful as a bull unifying Egypt, but that the Two Lands came together gradually over generations. Other say that Narmer was not he first king's real name. But one thing is certain―the story has survived for 5,000 years. It lives on the Palette of Narmer. It is written in stone.

  • 日本語訳を! 3-(4)

    お願いします。  The richer the country, the more powerful its leader―and Egypt was becoming very rich indeed. The king became as distance and as "imperishable" as the stars―a god-king on earth, and in death truly divine. He was responsible for the stability, the order, the balance―ma'at. The simple tombs lined with brick and topped with a flat rectangular stone that had buried royalty in the past were no longer grand enough. What would the people think?  King Djoser wanted something that showed Egypt and the world just how powerful he was―showed this world and the next. He was fortunate enough to have a true genius for an architect―an architect capable of envisioning (and building) a tomb worthy of a god-king's passageway to the afterlife: a stairway to heaven. The architect's name was Imhotep and he built the first pyramid.  King Djoser must have traveled from the capital city of Memphis to the burial grounds at Saqqara now and again to inspect Imhotep's progress. King Djoser and Imhotep would have entered through a narrow passage positioned to capture the sun's first rays at daybreak. There were many false entrances along the nearly 20-foot-high wall surrounding the burial grounds, but only one way inside. They would have passed under the stone roof at the entrance carved to look like split logs and then through two giant doors permanently flung open. What did King Djoser think the first time he inspected the work site? How did he feel when he walked between the two parallel lines of stone columns carved to look like reeds bound in bunches? At the far end, the columns were placed closer and closer together to give the illusion of an even longer passageway. It must have seemed to him to stretch forever. This was no brick-lined hole in the ground. The burial complex was as big as 24 soccer fields.

  • 日本語訳を! 2-(1)

    お願いします。  If you had an important story to tell, but most of your audience couldn't read, you might tell the story by drawing it in pictures. If you wanted the story to last a very long time, you might draw those pictures in stone. That's what an Egyptian storyteller did, and his work has lasted more than 5,000 years. It's the story of the first king of Egypt. And the stone is called the Palette of Narmer.  Long before the first king, before there were people of great power, before there were towns to lead, before there were villages with headsmen, the people of Egypt lived like all prehistoric peoples. They lived in small groups on the move. They followed the food.  Ten thousand years ago the area around the Nile hadn't dried up into desert yet. Rain fell more often and fields of grass grew. Elephants plodded about, flapping their ears in the heat. Giraffes nibbled on thorny trees. Vultures rode the warm air currents in search of something dead to eat. The people of Egypt hunted gazelle and dug root vegetables.  By 6,000 years ago, the people of Egypt had begun to herd cattle. When the Nile swelled and flowed over its banks, the people would follow their cattle away from the river. Extended families sometimes joined other groups while the cattle munched in the grasslands. By the end of summer, the heat and the lack of rain shriveled the grass, and the herderr brought the cattle back to the edge of the floodplain―back to the Nile. They planted seeds and grew an early form of wheat called emmer. They grew peas, barley, and melons.  Small villages began to crop up along the Nile, just out of reach of the floodwaters. When the people argued, someone from the group would step in to solve the problem. Pretty soon they would look to that person to solve all of the problems. Power was born.

  • 日本語訳を! 3-(6)

    お願いします。  Would Imhotep have saved the best for last? Would it have been at the end of the tour when he led King Djoser across the courtyard to the tomb? Finally they would have reached the base of the world's first pyramid and the world's first building constructed out of stone. Did Imhotep unroll a papyrus scroll and point to where he had planned the stacking of solid rectangles, each just a bit smaller than the one under it until a staircase rose 200 feet toward the sky? Would the construction noise have faded for King Djoser as he stood at the base of his eternal home? Even a god-king must feel awe at the sight of a structure larger than anything built before it―a structure built not from mud brick that crumbles and decays with time, but built from stone, a monument built to be everlasting.  The laborers ten stories above King Djoser and Imhotep would have looked like ants pushing stones and fitting them into that highest step. Perhaps it didn't happen on a day that King Djoser was there, but it did happen all too often―a loose stone would fall. Dropping from that height even a pebble could be deadly. Scuffed loose, it would seriously wound someone below if it struck him. Imhotep had set up a small hospital for his workers. Anyone injured on the job would be cared for. Imhotep was not only an architect; he was a doctor as well. He wrote detailed directions on how to recognize an injury and how to treat it. The oldest known medical document is believed by some to have been written about 3000 BCE by Imhotep. It is called the Edwin Smith Papyrus, named after the Egyptologist Edwin Smith who bought the papyrus in 1862. One of the many instructions in the papyrus is what to do if a stone falls on a worker's head:  Title:Instructions concerning a wound in his head penetrating to the bone of his skull.  Treatment:... bind it with fresh meat the first day and treat afterward with grease, honey and lint every day until he recovers.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (16) What happened next depends on whom you believe. Ramesses claimed the Hittite king begged for a truce by saying, "O victorious king, peace is better than war, Give us breath." The Hittite king claimed it was Ramesses who buckled under. The fact that Qadesh remained under Hittite control makes the Hittite king's version of the story more believable. (17) It took 16 years, but in Year 21 of Ramesses II's reign the two nations negotiated peace. The treaty is the earliest recorded document of its type preserved in its entirety. Inscribed on two matching silver tablets are the pledges of the king of Egypt and the king of Hatti to one another. "If a foreign enemy marches against the country of Hatti and if the king of Hatti sends me this message:‘Come to my help'...the king of the Egyptian country has to send his troops and his chariots to kill this enemy...." The Hittite king made a similar vow to defend Egypt. The treaty also pledged support if the enemy were to come from within. The Hittite king swore that if Ramesses should "rise in anger against his citizens after they have committed a wrong against him...the king of the country of Hatti, my brother, has to send his troops and his chariots...." Ramesses promised to stand by the Hittite king in the same circumstances. The treaty was honored until the fall of the Hittite Empire. Even when tested, Ramesses stood by his ally, announcing to the world, "Today there is a fraternity between the Great King of Egypt and the king of Hatti."

  • 日本語訳を! 3-(7)

    お願いします。  Today when archaeologists dig up the bodies of pyramid builders it is clear that many survived serious injuries thanks to Imhotep and his long list of cures. But many did not. And, during the Old Kingdom, life everlasting was not for the common man. He could only hope to play his part in the cycle of life and death by building a tribute to his king and in doing so add to the grandeur of Egypt.

  • 日本語訳を! 3-(5)

    お願いします。  When King Djoser and Imhotep walked through the complex, winding their way through the columns carved with spitting cobras poised to protect the king, the clang of copper chisels would have made conversation difficult. Thousands of masons and sculptors worked the stone. It was the time of the inundation―the flooding of the Nile―and the farmers who were waiting for the waters to recede came to Saqqara to work for their king.  Imhotep would have carried drawings of his grand vision rolled in a papyrus scroll tucked under his arm. When the two walked through the complex they would have stopped here and there to watch an artisan at work. Surely, King Djoser would have felt the swell of pride when he looked out over the sheer magnitude of the project. Only a great king could command such an endeavor―with so many meret―Egyptian peasants―working hard for the glory of their king.  The daily nilometer report would have filtered through the construction site, spreading from worker to worker, passed along with bread and beer. Were the waters as high as this time last year? Would there be enough? Too much?  Centuries later, a long inscription was carved into a granite stone on an island near the First Cataract. It claimed to record what King Djoser said after years of low floods, "I am distressed as I sit on the Great Throne... because the waters of the Nile have not risen to their proper height for seven years. Grain is not scarce, there are no garden vegetables at all.... The children are wailing."  But reports coming in on nilometer readings the years that King Djoser and Imhotep worked together on the burial complex indicated that the growing conditions would be good. The workers must have bustled about the burial complex with the energy that comes from high spirits.

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(2)

    お願いします。 (4) Different towns in Egypt worshipped differnt gods. The leaders of the town would try to convince everyone that their god was the most powerful. If their god was powerful, it meant they were powerful, too. Before Upper and Lower Egypt were unified, each had its own capital with its own goddess. Upper Egypt's goddess looked like a vulture. Lower Egypt's goddess looked like a cobra. After Upper and Lower Egypt unified, the kings wore a crown with both a vulture and a cobra to symbolize the joining of the regions. (5) One of the pharaoh's most important jobs was to take care of the gods. If the gods were happy, the Egyptians figured they would be happy, too. The crops would grow, the Nile would flood to the right level, and Egypt would be at peace with its neighbors. Life would be in balance, or ma'at. The pharaohs built great temples to show respect to the gods. Inside each temple, in the innermost room, they placed a shrine. And inside the shrine, they kept a statue of the god for whom the temple had been built. Every day the priests served the statue as if it were alive. (6) One pharaoh, King Neferhotep (who ruled about 1741 to 1730 BCE), paid special attention to the temple at Abydos. King Neferhotep wanted to be sure the priests were taking care of the statue exactly as they were supposed to take care of it. After all, those priests were the king's representatives. So if they displeased the gods, then the gods were displeased with the king as well. Ma'at would be thrown all out of whack.

  • 日本語訳を! 1-(7)

    お願いします。  Despite Harkhuf's major expeditions and all the riches he and other traders brought back to Egypt―from Nubia with all its gold, Sinai with all its turquoise, and Punt with all its incense―it was this dancing pygmy that captured the heart of Pepi II. And the letter written by the boy-king remained so important to Harkhuf that at he end of his days he chose to record it on his tomb. If you were the supreme ruler of Egypt 4,000 years ago, what kinds of letters would you write? What songs would you sing to the Nile? Think about it while your servants fan you with ostrich feathers. But you might want to be careful how you order your teachers around.

  • 日本語訳を! 8-(6)

    お願いします。 (17) But just when he was sure he was a goner, Sinuhe was rescued by a tribe of nomads. The head of the tribe tells Sinuhe, "stay with me; I shall do you good." True to his word, the headsman made Sinuhe a wealthy and important man. But when Sinuhe grew old he began to miss his beloved homeland. Sinuhe wanted to be buried in Egypt. He wanted to build his tomb―his resting place for eternity―in his own country. Sinuhe writes to Senwosert, now king of Egypt; "Whatever God fated this flight―be gracious, and buring e home! Surely You will let me see the place where my heart still stays! What matters more than my being buried in the land where I was born?" King Senwosert answers, "Return to Egypt! And you will see the Residence where you grew up." (18) Back in Egypt, the king gave Sinuhe a home and food and fine linen. All his needs were taken care of: "A pyramid of stone was built for me...the masons who construct the pyramid measured out its foundations; the draughtsman drew in it; the overseer of sculptors carved in it." Sinuhe's tale, like Egypt itself, was in for a happy ending. Using "landing" as a metaphor for death―an appropriate word choice for a tale of journey―Sinuhe ends his story by saying, "I was in the favors of the king's giving, until the day of landing came." And now Egypt was in the favors of the king, too. It had traveled from monarchy to anarchy and back again.