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日本語訳を! 5-(5)

お願いします。 (13) From a passage in the Pyramid Texts, we know that Isis and Osiris had a son who challenged Seth, "in the name of Horus the son who avenged his father." Each time Horus fought Seth to take back the throne, Isis protected him from injury with her power. In a final battle, Seth turned into a ferocious crocodile. But Horus managed to spearthe crocodile, killing Seth. In the end, Horus restored ma'at to Egypt. (14) When the play was over, King Neferhotep and the procdssion had arrived at Abydos. Abydos was one of the most sacred places in ancient Egypt. One legend claims that Osiris himself is buried there. Another legend says the only part of Osiris buried at Abydos is his dismembered head. (15) Unlike today's religious buildings, in ancient Egypt temples were not open to the common people. Anyone entering the temple had to be "pure" so as not to offend the god. To become pure, the priests bathed several times a day. Hair could carry dirt or worse, lice, so priests shaved their bodies every three days. They even pulled out their eyelashes. The common Egyptian could only catch a glimpse of the shrines as they were moved from place to place. When the priests brought the statue of Osiris to meet King Neferhotep, people would have lined the route, not only to see the priests sing, dance, and perform, but also to peek at the shrine.


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(13) ピラミッドにある文章の一節から、イシスとオシリスが、一人の息子をもうけ、その息子が、「彼の父親の仇討をする息子である、ホルスの名において」セトに立ち向かったと言うことを、我々は知っています。 ホルスが、王座を取り戻すためにセトと戦うたびに、イシスは、彼女の力で彼を怪我から守りました。 最後の戦いで、セトは、獰猛なワニに姿を変えました。 しかし、ホルスは、どうにかそのワニを槍で突き刺し、セトを殺しました。 ついに、ホルスは、マアト(平和)をエジプトに回復しました。 (14) その劇が、終わるころ、ネフェルホテプ王とその行列は、アビドスに到着しました。 アビドスは、古代エジプトで最も神聖な土地の1つでした。 一つの伝説は、オシリス自身が、そこに埋葬されていると主張します。 もう一つの伝説は、アビドスに埋葬さてているオシリスの唯一の部分は、彼の切断された頭部であると伝えています。 (15) 今日の宗教的な建物とは異なり、古代エジプトでは、寺院は、一般人に公開されていませんでした。寺院に入って行く人は、誰であれ、神を怒らせないように「清浄」でなければなりませんでした。 清浄になるために、神官たちは、1日に数回、沐浴しました。 髪の毛は、ほこりを、あるいは、一層悪ければ、シラミを、運ぶかもしれません、それで、神官たちは、彼らの体を3日おきに剃りました。 彼らは、まつげさえ引き抜きました。普通のエジプト人は、彼らが、あちこちに、移動させられる時に、その聖堂を一目見ることができるだけでした。 神官たちが、ネフェルホテプ王を出迎えるためにオシリスの像を持ってきたとき、人々は、沿道に並んでいました。そして、神官たちが、歌い、踊り、演じるのを見るだけでなく、その聖堂もこっそり目にしました。





  • 日本語訳を! 5-(4)

    お願いします。 (11) Osiris and Isis were two of the original nine gods. They were the children of the goddess of the sky and the god of the earth. Osiris became king of Egypt. He married the great love of his life, his sister Isis. His brother, Seth, was jealous. Seth wanted everything that Osiris had. He wanted to be king. He wanted his power. He wanted Isis. Seth pushed sibling rivalry into the evil zone. He plotted to destroy Osiris. Plutarch writes, "Seth secretly measured the body of Osiris and had made to the corresponding size a beautiful chest which was exquisitely decorated. He brought the chest to a banquet, and when the guests showed pleasure and admiration at the sight of it, Seth promised playfully that whoever would lie down in it and show that he fitted it, should have the chest as a gift." Then, in true Cinderella-and-the-glass-slipper fashion, everyone tried the coffinlike chest on for size. Some were so fat they couldn't squeeze into the box. Others were so small they slid right out. But, finally, when Osiris tried the coffin, the fit was just right. Plutarch writes that Seth "ran and slammed the lid on, and after securing it with bolts from the outside and with molten lead poured on, they took it to the river and let it go to the sea... "Osiris drowned. Death came to Egypt for the first time. (12) Seth enjoyed everything that once belonged to Osiris. But whereas Osiris was kind, Seth was cruel. There was no ma'at in Egypt with Seth in charge. There was war and hunger and lawlessness. Only Isis was unafraid of Seth. She found Osiris's body and turned herself into a bird and sang to him. In a fury, Seth cut Osiris into pieces and scattered him all over Egypt. Isis and her sister searched "in a papyrus boat, sailing through the marshes" for all his parts. They collectedthe pieces of Osiris, and with the help of Anubis, god of the dead, they sewed him back together.

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(7)

    お願いします。 (18) Abydos wasn't the only sacred site. There were many others throughout Egypt. Some temples were mortuary temples for dead kings, and others were built to honor a particular god. Some, like Abydos, were both. Abydos honored Osiris, and because Osiris was the King of the Dead, it also became an important burial ground. (19) For Egyptians, the stories about the gods were comforting and provided guidance in a world that was unpredictable and governed by forces they didn't understand. Horus watched over them in this life. Osiris watched over them in death. When their world was in turmoil, they believed it was Seth fighting with Horus that created the chaos. When all was well, they were sure that Horus had won the battle. They believed that one day Horus would defeat Seth in a smashing final combat. Then Osiris would be able to return to the world of the living and all sorrow would end. Until then, it was a god-eat-god world.

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(3)

    お願いします。 (7) On the road leading to Abydos, there was a stela, which is a slab of rock with inscriptions on it. The stela tells the story of King Neferhotep's concern over the spirit of the god Osiris, who lived in the statue, which lived in the shrine, which lived in the innermost room inside the temple at Abydos. According to the stela, King Neferhotep "desired to see the ancient writings." The ancient works were kept by the priests, "the real scribes of hieroglyphs, the masters of all secrets." King Neferhotep told the priests who watched over the ancient records that he planned a "great investigation" into the proper care of the statue of Osiris. The priests replied, "Let your majesty proceed to the house of writings and let your majesty see every hieroglyph." (8) King Neferhotep studied the ancient writings in the library. He learned how the gods were cared for from the beginning of time. He learned exactly what rituals pleased the gods. He decided that he should go to Abydos himself to explain to the priests what he had learned. King Neferhotep sent a messenger ahead telling the priests to bring the statue of Osiris to meet his royal barge on the Nile when he landed. (9) When King Neferhotep arrived near Abydos, the priests met him. The statue of Osiris had traveled with them in its shrine. The shrine had been placed in a cabin on a boat modeled after the boat that the Egyptians believed the gods used to navigate the stars. The boat rested across poles shouldered by a procession of priests. (10) On the seven-mile journey from the Nile to the temple, King Neferhotep was entertained by the priests, who acted out the Legend of Osiris. We know bits and pieces of the legend from inscriptions on the tomb walls and from songs such as the Great Hymn to Osiris. The most complete version of the legend, however, was written much later, probably in the first century CE, by the Greek historian Plutarch. The legend has been told in many ways. This is one version:

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(2)

    お願いします。 (4) Different towns in Egypt worshipped differnt gods. The leaders of the town would try to convince everyone that their god was the most powerful. If their god was powerful, it meant they were powerful, too. Before Upper and Lower Egypt were unified, each had its own capital with its own goddess. Upper Egypt's goddess looked like a vulture. Lower Egypt's goddess looked like a cobra. After Upper and Lower Egypt unified, the kings wore a crown with both a vulture and a cobra to symbolize the joining of the regions. (5) One of the pharaoh's most important jobs was to take care of the gods. If the gods were happy, the Egyptians figured they would be happy, too. The crops would grow, the Nile would flood to the right level, and Egypt would be at peace with its neighbors. Life would be in balance, or ma'at. The pharaohs built great temples to show respect to the gods. Inside each temple, in the innermost room, they placed a shrine. And inside the shrine, they kept a statue of the god for whom the temple had been built. Every day the priests served the statue as if it were alive. (6) One pharaoh, King Neferhotep (who ruled about 1741 to 1730 BCE), paid special attention to the temple at Abydos. King Neferhotep wanted to be sure the priests were taking care of the statue exactly as they were supposed to take care of it. After all, those priests were the king's representatives. So if they displeased the gods, then the gods were displeased with the king as well. Ma'at would be thrown all out of whack.

  • 日本語訳を! 3-(7)

    お願いします。  Today when archaeologists dig up the bodies of pyramid builders it is clear that many survived serious injuries thanks to Imhotep and his long list of cures. But many did not. And, during the Old Kingdom, life everlasting was not for the common man. He could only hope to play his part in the cycle of life and death by building a tribute to his king and in doing so add to the grandeur of Egypt.

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(6)

    お願いします。 (16) The statues were kept inside the temples, in the innermost room. The priests didn't believe the statue actually was the god, but they did believe the god's spirit lived inside the statue. In the morning, the high priests would break the clay seal on the sanctuary door. They would chant and burn incense. A priest would gently wake the god by lighting a torch, symbolic of the sunrise. The priests bathed, dressed, and presented food to the statue. Then when the day's rituals were completed, the priests would back out of the room, smoothing away their footprints with a reed broom. The sanctuary doors were sealed so that the god could get a good night's sleep undisturbed. (17) Plucking out your eyebrows and eyelashes may sound painful, but being a priest had advantages. For one thing, you didn't have to pay taxes. All the priests except the highest order spent only three months of the year serving at the temples. The rest of the time they lived ordinary lives, working at their professions―scribes, artists, musicians. And even the highest priests had families outside the temples.

  • 日本語訳を! 8-(6)

    お願いします。 (17) But just when he was sure he was a goner, Sinuhe was rescued by a tribe of nomads. The head of the tribe tells Sinuhe, "stay with me; I shall do you good." True to his word, the headsman made Sinuhe a wealthy and important man. But when Sinuhe grew old he began to miss his beloved homeland. Sinuhe wanted to be buried in Egypt. He wanted to build his tomb―his resting place for eternity―in his own country. Sinuhe writes to Senwosert, now king of Egypt; "Whatever God fated this flight―be gracious, and buring e home! Surely You will let me see the place where my heart still stays! What matters more than my being buried in the land where I was born?" King Senwosert answers, "Return to Egypt! And you will see the Residence where you grew up." (18) Back in Egypt, the king gave Sinuhe a home and food and fine linen. All his needs were taken care of: "A pyramid of stone was built for me...the masons who construct the pyramid measured out its foundations; the draughtsman drew in it; the overseer of sculptors carved in it." Sinuhe's tale, like Egypt itself, was in for a happy ending. Using "landing" as a metaphor for death―an appropriate word choice for a tale of journey―Sinuhe ends his story by saying, "I was in the favors of the king's giving, until the day of landing came." And now Egypt was in the favors of the king, too. It had traveled from monarchy to anarchy and back again.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (9) Originally the job of vizier was given to the sons of the king, but by the New Kingdom any official could rise to the position. It was possible for an ambitious commoner to become vizier, and it was possible for a vizier to become king. In times of turmoil, when weak kings ruled, it was the vizier particularly talented vizier might serve more than one kingship. This had the advantage of making the royal changeover a smooth one. (10) One of the vizier's primary jobs was to uphold justice. Ancient justice doesn't sound like justice at all to us. It sounds brutal. Because tomb images paint a picture of life the way Egyptians hoped it would be in the afterlife, popular impressions of ancient Egypt are rose colored. No one likes to commemorate their failures, especially on beetles and certainly not on their tomb walls. Not only that, Egyptians believed anything written came true. Believing that, one would surely be very careful what they wrote. Egyptian life was not the idyllic paradise so many would like to believe. It had a dark side. (11) In Amenhotep's time, the top 5 percent of the population controlled the wealth of Egypt. At the head of it all, of course, was the king. Ranked below him were the vizier and several hundred families who ran the country as priests and overseers. Just below these elite families was a growing upper-middle class of educated people. And below them was the bulk of the population―people who were tied to the land, illiterate and unskilled. As the middle class grew, it became more and more worried about protecting its wealth. Punishments for robbery became more severe.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (7) If Memphis were the brain of Egypt's operations, Thebes was its heart. Instead of government offices and business centers, temples sprawled across the landscape. There were so many columns gracing so many entrances to so many temples that Homer called the city "Hundred-Gated Thebes." (8) When the royal barge docked at Thebes, priests would have greeted the king. What would Amenhotep IV have thought when he watched the power-hungry priests approach his father? Were they humble? Or had they grown too big for their kilts? The temples of Amun acquired more and more land with each passing year. Their farms were not meager vegetable plots feeding servants of the gods, but a thriving mini-kingdom lorded over by the priests. If the priesthood didn't eat away at his father's power, it certainly ate away at his father's treasury. With each conquest, Thebes received a share of the plunder. With every tribute or trade mission, Thebes took its cut. It was the gods' goodwill that had brought Egypt to this level of glory; payment was expected. (9) Although there were temples to many gods at Thebes, the main god of Thebes was Amun, "the hidden one." Amenhotep IV would have been left behind when his father followed the priests into the dark recesses of the inner temple. Only the holiest of holy could enter the inner sanctum where secret rituals were performed. Amenhotep IV was left out again. (10) Then, in a flash, everything changed. Amenhotep IV's older brother, groomed for the throne, died. All eyes turned to Amenhotep IV. And what did they see?

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (5) One good reason to accessorize was that jewelry had supernatural powers. Egyptians believed that gold was the flesh of the sun god, Re. And silver, which was rare in Egypt and even more precious than gold, was thought to come from the bones of the moon god. Heavy golden collars were engraved with spells. The enchanted collars brought joy, health, and strength to the wearer. Jewelry could protect the wearer from dangers, too. Children wore fish-shaped jewelry in their hair to prevent drowning. The cobra on the king's crown symbolically spit venom at his enemies. Now that's a fashion accessory! (6) What would a fashion magazine be without those scratch-and-sniff perfume ads? Priests in ancient Egypt were the first chemists, concocting secret fragrance formulas and creamy eyeliners to sell to those who could afford them. The priests' perfumes were popular with everybody who was anybody and became a valuable export for Egypt. There was no money yet, but tge priests traded for whatever they needed―linen, oils, even land. Scented body oils were so valued that they were often used as wages for workers. Popular fragrances were cinnamnn, lily, and vanilla, but the priests didn't just use oils from plants, they used oils from hippos, crocodiles―even cats. To be the hit of any banquet, you needed a scented wax cone to tie on top of your gead. As the evening wore on the wax melted down the sides of your face and wig, perfuming the air.