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お願いします (9) Originally the job of vizier was given to the sons of the king, but by the New Kingdom any official could rise to the position. It was possible for an ambitious commoner to become vizier, and it was possible for a vizier to become king. In times of turmoil, when weak kings ruled, it was the vizier particularly talented vizier might serve more than one kingship. This had the advantage of making the royal changeover a smooth one. (10) One of the vizier's primary jobs was to uphold justice. Ancient justice doesn't sound like justice at all to us. It sounds brutal. Because tomb images paint a picture of life the way Egyptians hoped it would be in the afterlife, popular impressions of ancient Egypt are rose colored. No one likes to commemorate their failures, especially on beetles and certainly not on their tomb walls. Not only that, Egyptians believed anything written came true. Believing that, one would surely be very careful what they wrote. Egyptian life was not the idyllic paradise so many would like to believe. It had a dark side. (11) In Amenhotep's time, the top 5 percent of the population controlled the wealth of Egypt. At the head of it all, of course, was the king. Ranked below him were the vizier and several hundred families who ran the country as priests and overseers. Just below these elite families was a growing upper-middle class of educated people. And below them was the bulk of the population―people who were tied to the land, illiterate and unskilled. As the middle class grew, it became more and more worried about protecting its wealth. Punishments for robbery became more severe.

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(9) 最初は、主席大臣の仕事は王の息子たちに与えられましたが、新王国の頃までには、どんな役人もその地位に昇ることができるようになりました。 野心的な一般人が、主席大臣になることができましたし、主席大臣は、王権をふるうことができたのです。力のない王が統治して混乱状態にあるとき、複数の王位をつとめる可能性があったのは、主席大臣、特に優秀な主席大臣でした。 これは、王の交代をスムーズなものにするという利点がありました。 (10) 主席大臣の主要な仕事の1つは、正義を守ることでした。古代の正義は、我々にとっては、まったく正義のように思えません。 それは、残忍に思えます。 墓の絵が、エジプト人が来世で願う生活の絵を示しているので、古代エジプトの大衆の印象はバラ色です。(しかし)自分の失敗を記念したいと思う人はいません、特にカブトムシや、明らかに彼らの墓の壁に記したいとは思わないのです。 それだけでなく、エジプト人は、書かれたことは何でも実現すると思っていました。 それを信じるからこそ、人はきっと、彼らが何を書くかについて、非常に注意したのでしょう。エジプトの生活は、多くの人々が信じたいと思うようなのどかな楽園ではありませんでした。 それには、暗い面がありました。 (11) アメンホテプの時代には、人口の上位5パーセントが、エジプトの富を支配していました。その全人口の頂点には、もちろん、王がいました。 彼の下の階級には、主席大臣そして神官や監督として国を運営する数百の家族がありました。これらのエリートの家族のすぐ下に、教養のある人々の中流の上に属する階級が増えていました。 そして、彼らの下に、人口の大半がいました ― 土地から離れることを許されず、読み書きできず、熟練技能を持たない人々でした。中流階級が増加するにつれて、中流階級は自分の富を守ることをますます心配するようになりました。 強盗に対する処罰は、より厳しくなりました。

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    お願いします (4) The mere mention of a name can be significant. In Year 10, a scarab was distributed announcing the arrival of a foreign princess to join Amenhotep's harem. But even on this scarab commemorating another woman, Queen Tiy's name is the name most closely linked to the king. Putting their names together clearly announces to the world her position as first queen. The last scarab, put out in Year 11, confirms their close relationship. It describes how a devoted Amenhotep III orders a lake made for his queen, Tiy. The lake was more than a mile long and a quarter of a mile wide. Some scholars estimate it may have been dug in just 15 days. "His Majesty celebrated the feast of the opening of the lake" by sailing witg his queen on the royal barge named his favorite name―the Dazzing Sun Disk. (5) Amenhotep the Magnificent was a very lucky king. He came to the throne when Egypt's treasury bulged with surplus harvests, the spoils of war, and goods from grade missions. And although the king would take sole credit for the country's good fortune, the man responsible for keeping things running smoothly was the vizier. Next to the king, the vizier was the most powerful person in Egypt. He, too, had many names, or titles. He was known as "Second to the King" and "Heart of the Lord" and "Eyes and Ears of the Sovereign." It was his job to keep law and order. He was in charge of taxes, all the records, troop movement, and even keeping track of the level of the Nile. The governors of every district reported to the vizier and the vizier reported to the king.

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  • 日本語訳を! 6-(5)

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