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日本語訳を! 3-(6)

お願いします。  Would Imhotep have saved the best for last? Would it have been at the end of the tour when he led King Djoser across the courtyard to the tomb? Finally they would have reached the base of the world's first pyramid and the world's first building constructed out of stone. Did Imhotep unroll a papyrus scroll and point to where he had planned the stacking of solid rectangles, each just a bit smaller than the one under it until a staircase rose 200 feet toward the sky? Would the construction noise have faded for King Djoser as he stood at the base of his eternal home? Even a god-king must feel awe at the sight of a structure larger than anything built before it―a structure built not from mud brick that crumbles and decays with time, but built from stone, a monument built to be everlasting.  The laborers ten stories above King Djoser and Imhotep would have looked like ants pushing stones and fitting them into that highest step. Perhaps it didn't happen on a day that King Djoser was there, but it did happen all too often―a loose stone would fall. Dropping from that height even a pebble could be deadly. Scuffed loose, it would seriously wound someone below if it struck him. Imhotep had set up a small hospital for his workers. Anyone injured on the job would be cared for. Imhotep was not only an architect; he was a doctor as well. He wrote detailed directions on how to recognize an injury and how to treat it. The oldest known medical document is believed by some to have been written about 3000 BCE by Imhotep. It is called the Edwin Smith Papyrus, named after the Egyptologist Edwin Smith who bought the papyrus in 1862. One of the many instructions in the papyrus is what to do if a stone falls on a worker's head:  Title:Instructions concerning a wound in his head penetrating to the bone of his skull.  Treatment:... bind it with fresh meat the first day and treat afterward with grease, honey and lint every day until he recovers.

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 イムホテプは、最後に最高のものを残しておいたでしょうか? 彼が中庭を横切って墓にジェセル王を案内したとき、それは案内の終わりだったでしょうか? ついに、彼らは、世界初のピラミッドの、そして、石で作られた世界初の建築物の土台にやって来たのでした。 イムホテプは、パピルスの巻物を広げて、それぞれが、その下の長方形の石よりも少しだけ小さくなって、階段が、空に向かって200フィートにそびえる、頑丈な長方形の石積みを、彼が計画している場所を指し示したでしょうか?彼が自分のための永遠の家の土台部分に立っていたので、建設の騒音はジェセル王にとって微かなものになったでしょうか? 神君主でさえ、それ以前に建てられたいかなるものよりも大きな構造物 ― 時と共に、ぼろぼろと砕けて朽ち果てる日干し煉瓦ではなく、石で作られた構造物、永遠に続くために建てられた記念碑を目にして、畏敬の念を感じたに違いありません。  ジェセル王とイムホテプの頭上10階のところにいる労働者は、石を押し、それらをその最も高い段にはめ込んでいるアリのように見えたことでしょう。 おそらく、ジェセル王が、そこにいた日には、起こらなかったでしょうが、それは、実際、あまりにしばしば起こりました ― ゆるんだ石が、よく落下したのです。 その高さから落ちると、小石さえ致命的になる場合がありました。こすれてゆるむと、下の誰かに当たった場合、その石は、その人に重傷を負わせたものでした。 イムホテプは、彼の労働者のために小さな病院を建てていました。 仕事をしていて負傷した者は誰でも、治療を受けられました。 イムホテプは、建築家だけではなく; 彼は、医者でもありました。 彼は、怪我を判定しそれを治療する方法について詳細な指示を書いていました。一般に知られている最も古い医学文書は、イムホテプによって、紀元前3000年頃に書かれたものだと信じている人もいます。 それはエドウィン・スミス・パピルスと呼ばれています。これは、1862年に、そのパピルスを購入したエジプト学者、エドウィン・スミスの名をとって名づけらました。 そのパピルスの中の多くの指示の1つは、石が労働者の頭に落ちた場合、何をするべきかということです: 見出し: 頭蓋骨をも貫く頭の傷に関する指示。 処置: ... 初日は、傷を新鮮な肉で縛り、その後、負傷者が回復するまで、毎日、油、蜂蜜、リント布で治療すること。

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  • 日本語訳を! 3-(5)

    お願いします。  When King Djoser and Imhotep walked through the complex, winding their way through the columns carved with spitting cobras poised to protect the king, the clang of copper chisels would have made conversation difficult. Thousands of masons and sculptors worked the stone. It was the time of the inundation―the flooding of the Nile―and the farmers who were waiting for the waters to recede came to Saqqara to work for their king.  Imhotep would have carried drawings of his grand vision rolled in a papyrus scroll tucked under his arm. When the two walked through the complex they would have stopped here and there to watch an artisan at work. Surely, King Djoser would have felt the swell of pride when he looked out over the sheer magnitude of the project. Only a great king could command such an endeavor―with so many meret―Egyptian peasants―working hard for the glory of their king.  The daily nilometer report would have filtered through the construction site, spreading from worker to worker, passed along with bread and beer. Were the waters as high as this time last year? Would there be enough? Too much?  Centuries later, a long inscription was carved into a granite stone on an island near the First Cataract. It claimed to record what King Djoser said after years of low floods, "I am distressed as I sit on the Great Throne... because the waters of the Nile have not risen to their proper height for seven years. Grain is not scarce, there are no garden vegetables at all.... The children are wailing."  But reports coming in on nilometer readings the years that King Djoser and Imhotep worked together on the burial complex indicated that the growing conditions would be good. The workers must have bustled about the burial complex with the energy that comes from high spirits.

  • 日本語訳を! 2-(3)

    お願いします。  The chip-chip-chip of the stone carver would have been interrupted when the cattle herders returned with their herds at the end of summer. Eagerly, the carver would have inspected the green-gray siltstone the herders had collected in the Black Mountains and brought back with them. Ah, this stone would make a perfect turtle-shaped palette. This one definitely looks more like an antelope. The rounded one would be ideal for a hippo.  When the carver of the Narmer Palette saw that dark-green, nearly black, two-foot piece of stone, did he see a shield? Did he know in an instant that this particular fine-grained, flawless stone was fit for the first king? Did he dream about the story he would tell on the palette―the story of how the Two Lands came to be―the north and the south joining to become one?  The Narmer Palette is like a two-page comic book. It's in the shape of a shield and is carved on both sides. It tells the story of the unification of Egypt under one king―a king called Narmer. On one side of the palette, Narmer wears the White Crown of Upper Egypt, and on the other he wears the Red Crown of Lower Egypt. He's the first king to rule both.  On both sides of the palette, the very top has Narmer's name written inside a box called a serekh. Narmer means "angry catfish." King Angry Catfish has the head of a cow on either side of his name. Are these cow pictures meant to be the goddess Hathor? Many scholars think so. Ancient Egyptians thought the goddess Hathor was the king's mother and they usually drew her with horns curled inward. Did this belief go all the way back to the very first king?

  • 16-1日本語訳

    お願いします。  It was the summer of 327 BCE,and Ambhi,king of Taxila,was not a happy camper.For one thing,Taxila was no longer as powerful and wealthy as it had been when the Persians ruled there.He was glad the Persians had gone,of course.Every once in a while,they'd send someone around asking for taxes,but as long as he paid them,the Persians pretty much left King Ambhi and his people alone.Nevertheless,he probably wished that the powerful Persians army was still in town.He could have used its help.Taxila's neighbor to the southeast,King Porus,was a brave and intelligent man who wanted Ambhi's kingdom for himself.  Still,the gossip was that the Persian army itself had fallen on hard times.Some young Greek felkow named Sikander had popped up out of nowhere-Macedonia,actually,but that was as good as nowhere-and was busily conquering the whole world.The rumor was that this Sikanddr character had never lost a battle.Of course,you couldn't believe everything you heard.A young boy still in his 20s couldn't possibly have conquered everything from the Nile River to Afghanistan,not to mention the mighty Persians-but still...the stories might be true.  King Ambhi's heart must have sunk when a messenger arrived with news of the horrible defeat of one of Taxila's neighbors.When the Greek Sikander and his troops had arrived in his kingdom,the neighboring king had foolishly tried to fight.But resistance had been futile.Not only had the king lost,but his city had been burned and looted.And that,the messenger would have told King Ambhi,was no rumor.He'd seen the terrible scene himself.Now Sikander's army was on the move again.Next stop:Taxila.  For one desperate moment,King Ambhi must have wished that he and his people could somehow jump out of Sikander's way.And then he realized that,in a way,they could.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (14) About the time that Amenhotep IV took the throne, he also took a wife―Nefertiti, which means "The Beautiful Woman Has Come." His parents' unusually close relationship could have been the model that led Amehotep IV to break tradition again and share his power with "the Foremost Wife of the King, whom he loves, the Mistress of the Two Lands,... Nefertiti, living and young, forever and ever." Amenhotep IV's devotion to Nefertiti was displayed on temple walls. Traditional paintings of the king as a muscled, fierce warrior were replaced with paintings of the king as a loving, doting famiky man―Amenhotep kissing his wife, Amenhotep with a daughter on his knee, Amenhotep surrounded by his family. (15) Soon Amenhotep IV found another obsession. He latched onto an obscure sun god that his father had fancied, Aten, which means "the disk." In the fifth year of Amenhotep IV's reign, he changed his name to Akhenaten which means "Spirit of the Sun Disk." The name change was not as shocking as what followed. Akhenaten announced that the gods Egyptians had been worshiping for thousands of years no longer existed. The Aten was the one and only. Akhenaten cut off funds to the temples. There would be no more tributes to these false gods, no more temples built in Thebes, no more revenues funneled into the priesthood. Those riches woukd now go directly to the Aten and (perhaps rather shrewdly) to his representative on Earth, the king himself―Akhenaten. (16) The Aten needed his own city, a new capital built on new ground. Akhenaten sailed the Nile in search of the right spot to build the city. On the east bank of the Nike, halfway between Memphis and Thebes, a semicircle of cliffs rose above an arc of windswept desert. It was there, on an isolated strip of land, that Akhenaten built the city we know as Amarna.

  • 日本語訳を! 3-(4)

    お願いします。  The richer the country, the more powerful its leader―and Egypt was becoming very rich indeed. The king became as distance and as "imperishable" as the stars―a god-king on earth, and in death truly divine. He was responsible for the stability, the order, the balance―ma'at. The simple tombs lined with brick and topped with a flat rectangular stone that had buried royalty in the past were no longer grand enough. What would the people think?  King Djoser wanted something that showed Egypt and the world just how powerful he was―showed this world and the next. He was fortunate enough to have a true genius for an architect―an architect capable of envisioning (and building) a tomb worthy of a god-king's passageway to the afterlife: a stairway to heaven. The architect's name was Imhotep and he built the first pyramid.  King Djoser must have traveled from the capital city of Memphis to the burial grounds at Saqqara now and again to inspect Imhotep's progress. King Djoser and Imhotep would have entered through a narrow passage positioned to capture the sun's first rays at daybreak. There were many false entrances along the nearly 20-foot-high wall surrounding the burial grounds, but only one way inside. They would have passed under the stone roof at the entrance carved to look like split logs and then through two giant doors permanently flung open. What did King Djoser think the first time he inspected the work site? How did he feel when he walked between the two parallel lines of stone columns carved to look like reeds bound in bunches? At the far end, the columns were placed closer and closer together to give the illusion of an even longer passageway. It must have seemed to him to stretch forever. This was no brick-lined hole in the ground. The burial complex was as big as 24 soccer fields.

  • 日本語訳を!!c8-4

    お願いします!!続き Harappan cities were orderly,well-organized places-were they possibly controlled by kings? One clue led some early scholars to think that they might have been.The most famous stone sculpture of the Indus valley is called the Priest King.It's one of only nine stone sculptures,mostly of men,that have been found at Mohenjo Daro.All were broken and defaced,which probably means that the people they represented had lost favor.The lower half of the Priest King is missing,but most stone sculptures with a preserved,lower portion are seated with one knee bent to the ground and the other raised.People sitting in this position are seen on many of the Indus seals worshipping a deity in a tree or a figure seated in a cross-legged yoga position.This suggests that the sculpture does not represent a priest-king,as its name suggests,but instead an important clan or community leader. We know a lot about the objects Sarang and his family would have seen in the town,but many questions remain.What was the harvest festival like? Would Sarang and his family have seen dancing and heard singing? Were there plays about the deities? Or were the celebrations solemn,with fasting and prayer? We can only guess.But it's probably safe to say that Sarang would have thought that his trip to the city was one of the most exciting times of the year.

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(4)

    お願いします。 (11) Osiris and Isis were two of the original nine gods. They were the children of the goddess of the sky and the god of the earth. Osiris became king of Egypt. He married the great love of his life, his sister Isis. His brother, Seth, was jealous. Seth wanted everything that Osiris had. He wanted to be king. He wanted his power. He wanted Isis. Seth pushed sibling rivalry into the evil zone. He plotted to destroy Osiris. Plutarch writes, "Seth secretly measured the body of Osiris and had made to the corresponding size a beautiful chest which was exquisitely decorated. He brought the chest to a banquet, and when the guests showed pleasure and admiration at the sight of it, Seth promised playfully that whoever would lie down in it and show that he fitted it, should have the chest as a gift." Then, in true Cinderella-and-the-glass-slipper fashion, everyone tried the coffinlike chest on for size. Some were so fat they couldn't squeeze into the box. Others were so small they slid right out. But, finally, when Osiris tried the coffin, the fit was just right. Plutarch writes that Seth "ran and slammed the lid on, and after securing it with bolts from the outside and with molten lead poured on, they took it to the river and let it go to the sea... "Osiris drowned. Death came to Egypt for the first time. (12) Seth enjoyed everything that once belonged to Osiris. But whereas Osiris was kind, Seth was cruel. There was no ma'at in Egypt with Seth in charge. There was war and hunger and lawlessness. Only Isis was unafraid of Seth. She found Osiris's body and turned herself into a bird and sang to him. In a fury, Seth cut Osiris into pieces and scattered him all over Egypt. Isis and her sister searched "in a papyrus boat, sailing through the marshes" for all his parts. They collectedthe pieces of Osiris, and with the help of Anubis, god of the dead, they sewed him back together.

  • 日本語訳を! 7-(6)

    お願いします。 (16) One day, maybe your children will work at Giza on King Khufu's children's pyramids. Maybe when your grandchildren row into the Mouth of the Lake they will tremble at the sight of the Great Sphinx. The statue has the body of a lion and the head of man. The Great Sphinx guards the Giza Plateau. It faces east with its face tilted slightly back to catch the first rays of the rising sun. It was built by the Pharaoh Khafre (Chephren), the son of King Khufu; he also built the second of the three pyramids at Giza. (17) In modern times the Sphinx still has the power to make one tremble even though its face is battered and its body scored from erosion. From its tail curled around its right haunch to the tip of its paws, the Sphinx would stretch out over most of a football field. It's tall enough to see over the top of a six-story building. The braided beard that once hung from the Sphinx's chin fell long ago nd smashed into bits. A scrap of faded color near one ear is all that's left of its once bright paint. All of the Sphinx would have crumbled if it hadn't spent most of its life protectively buried in sand that had blown around it. (18) The Sphinx was up to its neck in sand 3,400 years ago. According to the inscriptions on a stone tablet known as the Dream Stela, which sits between the Sphinx's paws, Prince Thutmose "came traveling at the time of midday. He rested in the shadow of the great god." In a dream, the Sphinx whispered in the prince's ear promising him, "I shall give you the kingship," if the prince would just clear away the sand. Some say that the prince made the whole story up to get away with murder. He was not next in line for the throne. His brother should have been king. Prince Thutmose had his brother killed and became King Thutmose IV. The Egyptians might have driven a murderer off the throne, but who was going to argue with the word of the Sphinx? If you had been here, would you?

  • 16-2日本語訳

    お願いします。  What if he offered to help Sikander? If they were on the same side,there would be no battle.Taxila would be safe.What's more,Sikander might even help King Ambhi against his enemy King Porus.  So,when Sikander-whom you might know by his Gredk name,Alexander the Great-and his army marched up to the gates of Taxila,King Ambhi was there to welcome them.Just to make sure that Alexander understood that he,King Ambhi,was a friend,he threw Alexander's army a huge party hat lasted for a whole month.Arrian,a diplomat traveling with Alexander,wrote that when Alexander“arrived at Taxila,a great and flourishing city...Taxiles the governor of the city,and the Indians who belonged to it received him in a friendly manner,and he therefore added as much of the adjacent country to their territory as they requested.”The present that he offered Alexander as a symbol of his good will was just as impressive:5,000 soldiers and 56 war elephants.  These elephants and local troops would be important to provide backup for Alexander's elite corps of around 5,000 armored cavalry(men on horseback),14,500 archers,5,300 regular cavalry,and around 15,000 foot soldiers.Although his troops were brave,experienced,and skillful,Alexander knew that defeating Porus would be difficult. Porus had a large army of his own-3,000 cavalry and mnre than 1,000 chariots,50,000 font soldiers and archers,and 200 war elephants.His soldiers were also supposed to be the tallest and most powerful warriors in Asia,with an average height of more than six feet.They looked even taller because they wore their long hair coiled on their heads and wrapped in turbans so thick that even the sharpest sword could not cut through them.They were dressed in white cotton and white leather shoes,and wore earrings set with precious stones,golden armbands,and bracelets even into battle.

  • 日本語訳を! 1-(7)

    お願いします。  Despite Harkhuf's major expeditions and all the riches he and other traders brought back to Egypt―from Nubia with all its gold, Sinai with all its turquoise, and Punt with all its incense―it was this dancing pygmy that captured the heart of Pepi II. And the letter written by the boy-king remained so important to Harkhuf that at he end of his days he chose to record it on his tomb. If you were the supreme ruler of Egypt 4,000 years ago, what kinds of letters would you write? What songs would you sing to the Nile? Think about it while your servants fan you with ostrich feathers. But you might want to be careful how you order your teachers around.

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