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お願いします (14) About the time that Amenhotep IV took the throne, he also took a wife―Nefertiti, which means "The Beautiful Woman Has Come." His parents' unusually close relationship could have been the model that led Amehotep IV to break tradition again and share his power with "the Foremost Wife of the King, whom he loves, the Mistress of the Two Lands,... Nefertiti, living and young, forever and ever." Amenhotep IV's devotion to Nefertiti was displayed on temple walls. Traditional paintings of the king as a muscled, fierce warrior were replaced with paintings of the king as a loving, doting famiky man―Amenhotep kissing his wife, Amenhotep with a daughter on his knee, Amenhotep surrounded by his family. (15) Soon Amenhotep IV found another obsession. He latched onto an obscure sun god that his father had fancied, Aten, which means "the disk." In the fifth year of Amenhotep IV's reign, he changed his name to Akhenaten which means "Spirit of the Sun Disk." The name change was not as shocking as what followed. Akhenaten announced that the gods Egyptians had been worshiping for thousands of years no longer existed. The Aten was the one and only. Akhenaten cut off funds to the temples. There would be no more tributes to these false gods, no more temples built in Thebes, no more revenues funneled into the priesthood. Those riches woukd now go directly to the Aten and (perhaps rather shrewdly) to his representative on Earth, the king himself―Akhenaten. (16) The Aten needed his own city, a new capital built on new ground. Akhenaten sailed the Nile in search of the right spot to build the city. On the east bank of the Nike, halfway between Memphis and Thebes, a semicircle of cliffs rose above an arc of windswept desert. It was there, on an isolated strip of land, that Akhenaten built the city we know as Amarna.


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  • 回答No.2
  • sayshe
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(14) アメンホテプ4世が王に即位した頃、彼は、また、ネフェルティティと言う妻を娶りました ― ネフェルティティとは、「美しい女性が来ました」を意味します。 彼の両親の異常に親密な関係が、アメンホテプ4世に再び伝統を破って、「彼が愛する国王の第一夫人、2つの土地の女主人、... 永遠に生き生きとして若いネフェルティティ。」と彼の権力を共有する統治形式を取らせたのかもしれません。ネフェルティティへのアメンホテプ4世の愛情は、寺院の壁に示されました。筋肉たくましい、雄々しい戦士としての王を描いた伝統的な絵は、優しく愛情深い家庭的な男性としての王の絵に取って代わられました ― 彼の妻にキスしているアメンホテプ、娘をひざにのせたアメンホテプ、彼の家族に囲まれたアメンホテップが描かれました。 (15) すぐに、アメンホテップ4世は、もう一つの執念を見出しました。彼は、父がぼんやりと空想していた太陽神アテンを手に入れたのです、アテンとは「円盤」を意味します。 アメンホテップ4世の治世5年めには、彼は自分の名前を「日輪の魂」を意味するアクエンアテンに変えました。名前の変更は、あとに続いて起こったことほど衝撃的ではありませんでした。 アクエンアテンは、エジプト人が数千年間も崇拝してきた神がもはや存在しないと、発表しました。 アテン神が、唯一のものでした。 アクエンアテンは、寺院に与える資金を削減しました。 これらのまやかしの神に対する貢物はなくなり、テーベにこれ以上神殿が建設されることもなく、歳入が神官職に注ぎこまれることはなくなるでしょう。それらの富は、今や、アテン神に、そして、(おそらくかなり抜け目なく)地上におけるアテン神の代理である国王本人 ― すなわちアクエンアテンに直接捧げられることになるでしょう。 (16) アテン神は、彼自身の都、新しい土地に建てられた新しい首都を必要としました。アクエンアテンは、都を造るための適切な場所を捜してナイル川を船で旅しました。 メンフィスとテーベの中間地点のナイル川の東の岸に、半円形の崖が、吹きさらしの砂漠が弧をえがくあたりにそびえてました。 アクエンアテンが、我々がアマルナとして知っている都を造ったのは、そこの孤立した細長い土地でした。




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  • 回答No.1
  • g4330
  • ベストアンサー率18% (840/4653)

  (14)アメンホテプIVが王位に就いたその頃、彼はまた意味妻ネフェルティティ、取った"美しい女性が来ているの。"彼の両親の異常には密接な関係がAmehotep IVは再び伝統を破り、彼が愛する王の"まず妻、、土地を2つの女王、と彼の力を共有するために導いたモデル...ネフェルティティ、と生きてきたかもしれない若い、永遠に。"ネフェルティティとアメンホテプIVの献身は、神殿の壁に表示されました。筋肉のように王の伝統的な絵画、荒武者が愛する、溺愛famikyマンアメンホテプが彼の膝の上に娘と一緒に彼の妻、アメンホテプにキスをするように王の絵に置き換えられた、アメンホテプは彼の家族に囲まれています。 (15)すぐにアメンホテプIVは別の強迫観念を見つけました。彼は意味不明瞭な日彼の父が夢見たことを神、アテン、上にラッチされ、 "ディスクを。"アメンホテプIVの治世の第五年に、彼は意味するアクエンアテンに彼の名前変更"サンディスクの精神を。"名前の変更は続くものほど衝撃的ではなかった。アクエンアテンは神のエジプト人はもはや存在しなかった何千年もの間崇拝されたと発表した。アテンは唯一無二だった。アクエンアテンは寺院に資金を断つ。これらの偽の神々へのこれ以上の賛辞、テーベに建てられたこれ以上の寺院、聖職者に集中しないより収入もないでしょう。それらの富は、現在地球、王自身、アクエンアテンの彼の代表にアテンに直接行くと(おそらくむしろちゃっかり)woukd。 (16)アテンは、彼自身の都市、新しい地面上に構築された新たな資本を必要としていました。アクエンアテンは、都市を構築するための適切な場所を探してナイル川を航海した。途中メンフィスとテーベの間ナイキの東岸、日、崖の半円は、吹きさらしの砂漠の弧の上に昇った。それは、アクエンアテンは、我々はアマルナとして知っている町を建て、その土地の隔離されたストリップに、そこにあった。  



  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (3) The first commemorative scarab from Year 2, 1385 BCE (two years into his reign would make Amenhotep III at most 14) is known as the Marriage Scarab. The inscription begins with all five of Amenhotep III's names. It then names his wife, "The great royal-wife Tiy... she is the wife of the mighty king...." The second scaraa, also commissioned in Year 2, announces Amenhotep's second love―big-game hunting, a favorite royal pastime. When the young king heard that wild bulls had been spotted, he traveled by night alomg the Nile for the hunt. The wild-bull-hunt scarab claims: "a marvelous thing took place." Although Amenhotep III probably looked regal in his chariot pulled by the most magnificent horses in the country, marvelous might be a bit much. The animals were penned, so the "hunt" didn't require much hunting. Still, shooting arrows and throwing javelins from a chariot racing full tilt takes skill. And Amenhotep III would want to spread the word that he was indeed a skilled hunter. Egyptians believed that if their king was successful as a hunter, he would be successful on the battlefield. Hunting meant much more than killing a beast, it meant winning against the forces of chaos. That's tall order for such a young man. It's no wonder he sent beetles scurrying throughout the ancient world to tell of his triumphs.

  • 16-5日本語訳

    お願いします。  Chandragupta's most important weapon was not a war elephant,or even an army.It was his adviser,a clever and ambitious man named Kautilya.As a young man,Kautilya was an adviser to a king.He tried to convince the king to rule his people with knowledge and wisdom instead of ay force.Kautilya claimed that“a king who observes his duty of protecting his people justly and according to law will go to heaven,whereas one who does not protect them or inflicts unjust punishment will not.”The king refused and had Kautilya thrown out of his kingdom.From the gate,the king called to him,asking what good his knowledge was now.  Kautilya swore he wouldn't cut his hair until he proved that knowledge was stronger than physical force.He wrote a book that explained his ideas called the Arthashastra,which means“The Book of Wealth and Power.”Kautilya also found a young prince who was willing to take his advice.The prince's name was Chandragupta Maurya.  Chandragupta was an excellent student.Not only did he quickly defeat Kautilya's first boss,the king who had thought knowledge was useless,but he founded the Mauryan Dynasty,India's first centralized government.With kautilya's help,Chandragupta made many improvements to his empire,making it attractive to local rulers and their people.

  • 16-2日本語訳

    お願いします。  What if he offered to help Sikander? If they were on the same side,there would be no battle.Taxila would be safe.What's more,Sikander might even help King Ambhi against his enemy King Porus.  So,when Sikander-whom you might know by his Gredk name,Alexander the Great-and his army marched up to the gates of Taxila,King Ambhi was there to welcome them.Just to make sure that Alexander understood that he,King Ambhi,was a friend,he threw Alexander's army a huge party hat lasted for a whole month.Arrian,a diplomat traveling with Alexander,wrote that when Alexander“arrived at Taxila,a great and flourishing city...Taxiles the governor of the city,and the Indians who belonged to it received him in a friendly manner,and he therefore added as much of the adjacent country to their territory as they requested.”The present that he offered Alexander as a symbol of his good will was just as impressive:5,000 soldiers and 56 war elephants.  These elephants and local troops would be important to provide backup for Alexander's elite corps of around 5,000 armored cavalry(men on horseback),14,500 archers,5,300 regular cavalry,and around 15,000 foot soldiers.Although his troops were brave,experienced,and skillful,Alexander knew that defeating Porus would be difficult. Porus had a large army of his own-3,000 cavalry and mnre than 1,000 chariots,50,000 font soldiers and archers,and 200 war elephants.His soldiers were also supposed to be the tallest and most powerful warriors in Asia,with an average height of more than six feet.They looked even taller because they wore their long hair coiled on their heads and wrapped in turbans so thick that even the sharpest sword could not cut through them.They were dressed in white cotton and white leather shoes,and wore earrings set with precious stones,golden armbands,and bracelets even into battle.

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    お願いします (4) The mere mention of a name can be significant. In Year 10, a scarab was distributed announcing the arrival of a foreign princess to join Amenhotep's harem. But even on this scarab commemorating another woman, Queen Tiy's name is the name most closely linked to the king. Putting their names together clearly announces to the world her position as first queen. The last scarab, put out in Year 11, confirms their close relationship. It describes how a devoted Amenhotep III orders a lake made for his queen, Tiy. The lake was more than a mile long and a quarter of a mile wide. Some scholars estimate it may have been dug in just 15 days. "His Majesty celebrated the feast of the opening of the lake" by sailing witg his queen on the royal barge named his favorite name―the Dazzing Sun Disk. (5) Amenhotep the Magnificent was a very lucky king. He came to the throne when Egypt's treasury bulged with surplus harvests, the spoils of war, and goods from grade missions. And although the king would take sole credit for the country's good fortune, the man responsible for keeping things running smoothly was the vizier. Next to the king, the vizier was the most powerful person in Egypt. He, too, had many names, or titles. He was known as "Second to the King" and "Heart of the Lord" and "Eyes and Ears of the Sovereign." It was his job to keep law and order. He was in charge of taxes, all the records, troop movement, and even keeping track of the level of the Nile. The governors of every district reported to the vizier and the vizier reported to the king.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (17) Augustus Caesar, now the emperor of Rome, worked to reorganize the government and military. His greatest accomplishment was the creation of a system of government that lasted in Rome for five centuries: the Roman Empire. (18) Augustus created Rome's first police and fire brigade. He created a network of roads that connected the major cities of the empire, linking them all to Rome. He changed the way finance were handled and issued new gold and silver coins. He gave free food to the poor. He built the Forum of Augustus and decorated it with statues of his ancestors. He beautified the city and boasted of this accomplishment: “I found a city made of brick and left it a city of marble.” Augustus also sponsored artists and poets like Horace and Virgil, whose works glorified Rome─and, of course, himself. (19) Throughout his reign, Augustus never forgot that his great-uncle had been killed by jealous enemies who feared his power and popularity. Augustus pretended that his powers were all voluntarily given. He allowed freedom of speech and encouraged people to give him advice. But he was clever. He knew how to use power without seeming to seek or even treasure it. During his rule, magistrates were still elected to govern Rome. By sharing power with the magistrates, Augustus kept people from worrying that he was governing Rome alone. In fact, the soldiers were loyal to him and him alone─he paid their salaries and his treasury would pay their pensions. (20) The emperor's authority was so great that everyone left all the major decisions to him. But he was also very careful. Augustus kept a force of 4,500 soldiers to defend him. These soldiers, later called the Praetorian Guard, protected all of Italy. But some of them were always on hand to protect the emperor. To be on the safe side, the guards allowed only one senate at a time to approach the emperor, and they searched each man before he came close.

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    お願いします (13) By 50 BCE, the Triumvirate had ended. Crassus had been killed in battle, and Pompey had become very jealous of Caesar's military success and his great popularity. Pompey had married Caesar's daughter, Julia, but when she died in childbirth, the bond between the two men was broken. Before Caesar returned from Gaul, Pompey sided wit the Senate to declare his former father-in-law an enemy of the State. The Senate demanded that Caesar give up his army and return to Rome. Knowing that he would be arrested if he obeyed, he refused. But now his life and career were at stake. Did he dare go back to Italy at all? (14) In January of 49 BCE, Caesar's forces were camped just north of the Rubicon, the river that marked the boundary between Gaul and Ital. As soon as Caesar heard the Senate's ruling, he slipped away from the camp with a few trusted men. It was night, and everyone else was feasting. No one noticed that he was missing. When he reached the banks of the Rubicon, he paused, thinking about his next step. After a moment, he declared, “The die is cast” and crossed the river. This was his way of saying that his mind was made up and wouldn't be changed. Now he was ready to meet his former ally, the great general Pompey, in battle. (15) Caesar was never one to stand around, waiting for someone else to do something. Decisive as always, he began his march right away. He set out in the dead of winter with a single legion of soldiers. He knew that by marching on Rome he would start a civil war. What he didn't know─and couldn't have known─was that this war would last for nearly two decades and destroy the Republic.

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    お願いします (26) In the end, he was killed at the height of the powers by men he thought were his friends. It was particularly sad that Brutus was among the assassins. According to Suetonius, Caesar, as he wasdying, turned to Brutus and said, “You too, my son?” (27) Brutus didn't feel guilty about betraying Caesar. He was proud of it. His ancestor was the Brutus who had expelled the last King, Tarquin the Proud, from Rome. Brutus issued a coin to celebrate the Ides of March as Caesar's assassination day. The coin shows the deadly daggers that had killed Caesar and the “cap of liberty” traditionally worn by slaves after they were freed. Brutus bragged that he had saved Rome from slavery. (28) But the murder of Julius Caesar did Rome no good. The city faced another 13 years of civil unrest and war. Assassination did help Caesar's reputation, though. In his will, Caesar left a gift of money to every Roman citizen. More that ever, he was the common man's hero, so admired that later rules of Rome adopted the name Caesar. (29) Brutus and his friends thought they were serving Rome and saving the Republic by killing a man who had become too powerful, a man they feared might make himself king. They were shortsighted. The Republic was already dying...almost dead. Rome would soon be dominated by a single ruler. That man would be Caesar's great-nephew and heir, Augustus Caesar.

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(4)

    お願いします。 (11) Osiris and Isis were two of the original nine gods. They were the children of the goddess of the sky and the god of the earth. Osiris became king of Egypt. He married the great love of his life, his sister Isis. His brother, Seth, was jealous. Seth wanted everything that Osiris had. He wanted to be king. He wanted his power. He wanted Isis. Seth pushed sibling rivalry into the evil zone. He plotted to destroy Osiris. Plutarch writes, "Seth secretly measured the body of Osiris and had made to the corresponding size a beautiful chest which was exquisitely decorated. He brought the chest to a banquet, and when the guests showed pleasure and admiration at the sight of it, Seth promised playfully that whoever would lie down in it and show that he fitted it, should have the chest as a gift." Then, in true Cinderella-and-the-glass-slipper fashion, everyone tried the coffinlike chest on for size. Some were so fat they couldn't squeeze into the box. Others were so small they slid right out. But, finally, when Osiris tried the coffin, the fit was just right. Plutarch writes that Seth "ran and slammed the lid on, and after securing it with bolts from the outside and with molten lead poured on, they took it to the river and let it go to the sea... "Osiris drowned. Death came to Egypt for the first time. (12) Seth enjoyed everything that once belonged to Osiris. But whereas Osiris was kind, Seth was cruel. There was no ma'at in Egypt with Seth in charge. There was war and hunger and lawlessness. Only Isis was unafraid of Seth. She found Osiris's body and turned herself into a bird and sang to him. In a fury, Seth cut Osiris into pieces and scattered him all over Egypt. Isis and her sister searched "in a papyrus boat, sailing through the marshes" for all his parts. They collectedthe pieces of Osiris, and with the help of Anubis, god of the dead, they sewed him back together.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (8) Budge sipped his coffee without any hurry, knowing Grebaut would be held up at the least until the next day. And that afternoon, a dealer arrived, bringing six clay tablets with him. Were they kadim ("old")? he asked. Or jaded ("new")? Were the tablets genuine? Or were they fake? Budge writes in By Nile and Tigris, "When I examined the tablets I found that the matter was not as simple as it looked. In shape and form, and colour and material, the tablets were unlike any and I had ever seen in London or Paris, and the writing on all of them was of a most unusual character and puzzled me for hours." (9) It was while he was puzzling over the wedge-shaped markings that he was able to make out the words, "to Nimmuriya, king of the land of Egypt." Budge writes, "The opening words of nearly all the tablets proved them to be letters or dispatches, and I felt certain that the tablets were both genuine and of very great historical importance." Budge stuck to his "letter" theory despite arguments from scholars who thought the tablets were fake and arguments from scholars who had misinterpreted the markings.

  • 18-4日本語訳

    お願いします。 He told his people that he wanted them to live in a way that would lead to an“increase of their inner worthiness.”Ashoka also promoted the teachings of the Buddha and sent missionaries,including his son and his daughter,to lands as dar away as Sri Lanka so that his people would not make the same mistakes he had.As he said,“All men are my children.As for my own children,I desire that they may be provided with all the welfare and happiness of this world and of the next,so do I desire for all men as well.”  As part of his reforms,Ashoka banned the sacrifice of animals.This confused and angered many of his people,especially the Brahmins who made their living by performing animal sacrifices.The Brahmins were powerful enemies,break away from the Mauryan Empire after Ashoka's death.The last Mauryan ruler was assassinated in 185 BCE by one of his generals-who was,not so coincidentalky,a Brahmin.Although other kings would follow,no ruler would be strong enough to unite the many different people of the subcontinent into a single political state for 1,600 years.