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お願いします (14) About the time that Amenhotep IV took the throne, he also took a wife―Nefertiti, which means "The Beautiful Woman Has Come." His parents' unusually close relationship could have been the model that led Amehotep IV to break tradition again and share his power with "the Foremost Wife of the King, whom he loves, the Mistress of the Two Lands,... Nefertiti, living and young, forever and ever." Amenhotep IV's devotion to Nefertiti was displayed on temple walls. Traditional paintings of the king as a muscled, fierce warrior were replaced with paintings of the king as a loving, doting famiky man―Amenhotep kissing his wife, Amenhotep with a daughter on his knee, Amenhotep surrounded by his family. (15) Soon Amenhotep IV found another obsession. He latched onto an obscure sun god that his father had fancied, Aten, which means "the disk." In the fifth year of Amenhotep IV's reign, he changed his name to Akhenaten which means "Spirit of the Sun Disk." The name change was not as shocking as what followed. Akhenaten announced that the gods Egyptians had been worshiping for thousands of years no longer existed. The Aten was the one and only. Akhenaten cut off funds to the temples. There would be no more tributes to these false gods, no more temples built in Thebes, no more revenues funneled into the priesthood. Those riches woukd now go directly to the Aten and (perhaps rather shrewdly) to his representative on Earth, the king himself―Akhenaten. (16) The Aten needed his own city, a new capital built on new ground. Akhenaten sailed the Nile in search of the right spot to build the city. On the east bank of the Nike, halfway between Memphis and Thebes, a semicircle of cliffs rose above an arc of windswept desert. It was there, on an isolated strip of land, that Akhenaten built the city we know as Amarna.

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(14) アメンホテプ4世が王に即位した頃、彼は、また、ネフェルティティと言う妻を娶りました ― ネフェルティティとは、「美しい女性が来ました」を意味します。 彼の両親の異常に親密な関係が、アメンホテプ4世に再び伝統を破って、「彼が愛する国王の第一夫人、2つの土地の女主人、... 永遠に生き生きとして若いネフェルティティ。」と彼の権力を共有する統治形式を取らせたのかもしれません。ネフェルティティへのアメンホテプ4世の愛情は、寺院の壁に示されました。筋肉たくましい、雄々しい戦士としての王を描いた伝統的な絵は、優しく愛情深い家庭的な男性としての王の絵に取って代わられました ― 彼の妻にキスしているアメンホテプ、娘をひざにのせたアメンホテプ、彼の家族に囲まれたアメンホテップが描かれました。 (15) すぐに、アメンホテップ4世は、もう一つの執念を見出しました。彼は、父がぼんやりと空想していた太陽神アテンを手に入れたのです、アテンとは「円盤」を意味します。 アメンホテップ4世の治世5年めには、彼は自分の名前を「日輪の魂」を意味するアクエンアテンに変えました。名前の変更は、あとに続いて起こったことほど衝撃的ではありませんでした。 アクエンアテンは、エジプト人が数千年間も崇拝してきた神がもはや存在しないと、発表しました。 アテン神が、唯一のものでした。 アクエンアテンは、寺院に与える資金を削減しました。 これらのまやかしの神に対する貢物はなくなり、テーベにこれ以上神殿が建設されることもなく、歳入が神官職に注ぎこまれることはなくなるでしょう。それらの富は、今や、アテン神に、そして、(おそらくかなり抜け目なく)地上におけるアテン神の代理である国王本人 ― すなわちアクエンアテンに直接捧げられることになるでしょう。 (16) アテン神は、彼自身の都、新しい土地に建てられた新しい首都を必要としました。アクエンアテンは、都を造るための適切な場所を捜してナイル川を船で旅しました。 メンフィスとテーベの中間地点のナイル川の東の岸に、半円形の崖が、吹きさらしの砂漠が弧をえがくあたりにそびえてました。 アクエンアテンが、我々がアマルナとして知っている都を造ったのは、そこの孤立した細長い土地でした。

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  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (11) Some scholars believe that Amenhotep IV was a normal-looking young man. Their theory is that the distorted human forms artists began drawing at this time were the result of a new artists style. The bodies, neither male nor female, but a bit of both, were meant to show the king as "everything." Other scholars have a different theory. They believe that Amenhotep IV was deformed by disease. They believe the long spidery fingers nd toes, the head that looks like pulled taffy, and the stick arms, full breasts and sagging belly represent a true likeness. Amenhotep IV's mummy has never been found, but if one turns up with an unusual body shape, we'll know who it is. (12) Scholars aren't sure if Amenhotep IV ruled alongside his father for a short time or not. It would have been excellent on-the-job training for the inexperienced prince. It would also have made it crystal clear to anyone who might have designs on the throne that the job was filled. From Amenhotep III's mummy we know toward the end he was fat and in poor health. Two of his teeth on the right side were abscessed. He would have been in constant pain. With Amenhotep IV ruling beside latest painkiller from Cyprus―opium. If he had packed his teeth with opium, he would not have been able to make clear-headed decisions; a co-ruler would have been not only useful, but also necessary. (13) When Amenhotep III died, embalmers used a new method. They injected tree resin and salt under the skin to plump it up nd give the body a more life like look. This innovation was the first in increasingly drastic changes that marked the reign of the rebel Amenhotep IV―a short blip in Egypt's history we know as the Amarna Period.

  • 16-1日本語訳

    お願いします。  It was the summer of 327 BCE,and Ambhi,king of Taxila,was not a happy camper.For one thing,Taxila was no longer as powerful and wealthy as it had been when the Persians ruled there.He was glad the Persians had gone,of course.Every once in a while,they'd send someone around asking for taxes,but as long as he paid them,the Persians pretty much left King Ambhi and his people alone.Nevertheless,he probably wished that the powerful Persians army was still in town.He could have used its help.Taxila's neighbor to the southeast,King Porus,was a brave and intelligent man who wanted Ambhi's kingdom for himself.  Still,the gossip was that the Persian army itself had fallen on hard times.Some young Greek felkow named Sikander had popped up out of nowhere-Macedonia,actually,but that was as good as nowhere-and was busily conquering the whole world.The rumor was that this Sikanddr character had never lost a battle.Of course,you couldn't believe everything you heard.A young boy still in his 20s couldn't possibly have conquered everything from the Nile River to Afghanistan,not to mention the mighty Persians-but still...the stories might be true.  King Ambhi's heart must have sunk when a messenger arrived with news of the horrible defeat of one of Taxila's neighbors.When the Greek Sikander and his troops had arrived in his kingdom,the neighboring king had foolishly tried to fight.But resistance had been futile.Not only had the king lost,but his city had been burned and looted.And that,the messenger would have told King Ambhi,was no rumor.He'd seen the terrible scene himself.Now Sikander's army was on the move again.Next stop:Taxila.  For one desperate moment,King Ambhi must have wished that he and his people could somehow jump out of Sikander's way.And then he realized that,in a way,they could.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (4) The mere mention of a name can be significant. In Year 10, a scarab was distributed announcing the arrival of a foreign princess to join Amenhotep's harem. But even on this scarab commemorating another woman, Queen Tiy's name is the name most closely linked to the king. Putting their names together clearly announces to the world her position as first queen. The last scarab, put out in Year 11, confirms their close relationship. It describes how a devoted Amenhotep III orders a lake made for his queen, Tiy. The lake was more than a mile long and a quarter of a mile wide. Some scholars estimate it may have been dug in just 15 days. "His Majesty celebrated the feast of the opening of the lake" by sailing witg his queen on the royal barge named his favorite name―the Dazzing Sun Disk. (5) Amenhotep the Magnificent was a very lucky king. He came to the throne when Egypt's treasury bulged with surplus harvests, the spoils of war, and goods from grade missions. And although the king would take sole credit for the country's good fortune, the man responsible for keeping things running smoothly was the vizier. Next to the king, the vizier was the most powerful person in Egypt. He, too, had many names, or titles. He was known as "Second to the King" and "Heart of the Lord" and "Eyes and Ears of the Sovereign." It was his job to keep law and order. He was in charge of taxes, all the records, troop movement, and even keeping track of the level of the Nile. The governors of every district reported to the vizier and the vizier reported to the king.

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  • g4330
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  (14)アメンホテプIVが王位に就いたその頃、彼はまた意味妻ネフェルティティ、取った"美しい女性が来ているの。"彼の両親の異常には密接な関係がAmehotep IVは再び伝統を破り、彼が愛する王の"まず妻、、土地を2つの女王、と彼の力を共有するために導いたモデル...ネフェルティティ、と生きてきたかもしれない若い、永遠に。"ネフェルティティとアメンホテプIVの献身は、神殿の壁に表示されました。筋肉のように王の伝統的な絵画、荒武者が愛する、溺愛famikyマンアメンホテプが彼の膝の上に娘と一緒に彼の妻、アメンホテプにキスをするように王の絵に置き換えられた、アメンホテプは彼の家族に囲まれています。 (15)すぐにアメンホテプIVは別の強迫観念を見つけました。彼は意味不明瞭な日彼の父が夢見たことを神、アテン、上にラッチされ、 "ディスクを。"アメンホテプIVの治世の第五年に、彼は意味するアクエンアテンに彼の名前変更"サンディスクの精神を。"名前の変更は続くものほど衝撃的ではなかった。アクエンアテンは神のエジプト人はもはや存在しなかった何千年もの間崇拝されたと発表した。アテンは唯一無二だった。アクエンアテンは寺院に資金を断つ。これらの偽の神々へのこれ以上の賛辞、テーベに建てられたこれ以上の寺院、聖職者に集中しないより収入もないでしょう。それらの富は、現在地球、王自身、アクエンアテンの彼の代表にアテンに直接行くと(おそらくむしろちゃっかり)woukd。 (16)アテンは、彼自身の都市、新しい地面上に構築された新たな資本を必要としていました。アクエンアテンは、都市を構築するための適切な場所を探してナイル川を航海した。途中メンフィスとテーベの間ナイキの東岸、日、崖の半円は、吹きさらしの砂漠の弧の上に昇った。それは、アクエンアテンは、我々はアマルナとして知っている町を建て、その土地の隔離されたストリップに、そこにあった。  

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  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (5) Brutus kept his promise. He and Lucretia's husband won the loyalty of the army and drove out Sextus's father, the tyrant Tarquin the Proud―Rome's third Etruscan king. They condemned him and his whole family to life in exile, never again to see Rome. And that was the end of kingship in Rome. From this point on, kingship became so unpopular that rex (king) became a term of hatred and dishonor. The arrogant king Tarquin had always been unpopular. But the Romans prized high morals above all, and his son's attack on a woman's honor was the last straw. (6) The story of Lucretia is one explanation for how kingship ended in Rome. But how had it begun? The Romans believed that Romulus became Rome's first king when he founded the city in 753 BCE. They believed that six more kings ruled Rome until Brutus forced Tarquin the Proud from his throne in 509 BCE. According to tradition, the first three kings who followed Romulus to the throne were Romans. But Roman kingship was not passed down in a royal family, as it is in Great Britain, for example. Instead, when a Roman king died, the Senate―a group of wealthy men who owned land―elected the next ruler. Even a foreigner could rule if he could gather enough support among the senators. And that's exactly what happened when the Senate elected an Etruscan, as the fifth king of Rome. Tarquinius Priscus, later known as Tarquinius the Elder, ruled well and brought Etruscan engineering and artistry to Rome. But his grandson Lucius Tarquinius, also called Tarquin the Proud, was another story. He was the tyrant who ruled as Rome's seventh and last king.

  • 日本語訳を!(15)

    お願いします (1) Imagine your father owned the richest and most powerful country in the world. Not just rain it, owned it. It wasn't only the land that belonged to him, but also all the gold and grain in the treasury. He owned every brick in every building and every cow on every farm. The people and all that they owned were his as well. All of it one day would be passed down―but not to you, to your older brother. Since birth, he had been in training for the job while you watched from the sidelines. Tutors and generals and government overseers prepared your older brother for the day when he would take the reins. Your father, the king, and your mother, the queen, focused their attentions on your older brother, fussing over his every move, while you went unnoticed. That was life for Amenhotep IV, the second son of Amenhotep III. (2) Getting the lion's share of attention wasn't all good. You both learned to read and write, but when your brother was struggling with the language of diplomats, you could swish your damp brush in the ink cake and practice your penmanship on sayings like, "Report a thing observed, not heard." You both learned to drive a chariot, but while your brother had to practice looking regal, you could flush grouse out of the papyrus patch. The vizier grilled him on how each department in the government worked while you grilled the grouse. (3) When Amenhotep IV was a young boy, Egypt was...well, simply fabulous. The mid-1300s BCE was the golden age―literally. Gold flowed in from the Nubian mines so steadily that envious foreign leaders peevishly observed, "in my brother's country gold is as plentiful as dirt."

  • 日本語訳を! 3-(6)

    お願いします。  Would Imhotep have saved the best for last? Would it have been at the end of the tour when he led King Djoser across the courtyard to the tomb? Finally they would have reached the base of the world's first pyramid and the world's first building constructed out of stone. Did Imhotep unroll a papyrus scroll and point to where he had planned the stacking of solid rectangles, each just a bit smaller than the one under it until a staircase rose 200 feet toward the sky? Would the construction noise have faded for King Djoser as he stood at the base of his eternal home? Even a god-king must feel awe at the sight of a structure larger than anything built before it―a structure built not from mud brick that crumbles and decays with time, but built from stone, a monument built to be everlasting.  The laborers ten stories above King Djoser and Imhotep would have looked like ants pushing stones and fitting them into that highest step. Perhaps it didn't happen on a day that King Djoser was there, but it did happen all too often―a loose stone would fall. Dropping from that height even a pebble could be deadly. Scuffed loose, it would seriously wound someone below if it struck him. Imhotep had set up a small hospital for his workers. Anyone injured on the job would be cared for. Imhotep was not only an architect; he was a doctor as well. He wrote detailed directions on how to recognize an injury and how to treat it. The oldest known medical document is believed by some to have been written about 3000 BCE by Imhotep. It is called the Edwin Smith Papyrus, named after the Egyptologist Edwin Smith who bought the papyrus in 1862. One of the many instructions in the papyrus is what to do if a stone falls on a worker's head:  Title:Instructions concerning a wound in his head penetrating to the bone of his skull.  Treatment:... bind it with fresh meat the first day and treat afterward with grease, honey and lint every day until he recovers.

  • 16-2日本語訳

    お願いします。  What if he offered to help Sikander? If they were on the same side,there would be no battle.Taxila would be safe.What's more,Sikander might even help King Ambhi against his enemy King Porus.  So,when Sikander-whom you might know by his Gredk name,Alexander the Great-and his army marched up to the gates of Taxila,King Ambhi was there to welcome them.Just to make sure that Alexander understood that he,King Ambhi,was a friend,he threw Alexander's army a huge party hat lasted for a whole month.Arrian,a diplomat traveling with Alexander,wrote that when Alexander“arrived at Taxila,a great and flourishing city...Taxiles the governor of the city,and the Indians who belonged to it received him in a friendly manner,and he therefore added as much of the adjacent country to their territory as they requested.”The present that he offered Alexander as a symbol of his good will was just as impressive:5,000 soldiers and 56 war elephants.  These elephants and local troops would be important to provide backup for Alexander's elite corps of around 5,000 armored cavalry(men on horseback),14,500 archers,5,300 regular cavalry,and around 15,000 foot soldiers.Although his troops were brave,experienced,and skillful,Alexander knew that defeating Porus would be difficult. Porus had a large army of his own-3,000 cavalry and mnre than 1,000 chariots,50,000 font soldiers and archers,and 200 war elephants.His soldiers were also supposed to be the tallest and most powerful warriors in Asia,with an average height of more than six feet.They looked even taller because they wore their long hair coiled on their heads and wrapped in turbans so thick that even the sharpest sword could not cut through them.They were dressed in white cotton and white leather shoes,and wore earrings set with precious stones,golden armbands,and bracelets even into battle.

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    お願いします (13) By 50 BCE, the Triumvirate had ended. Crassus had been killed in battle, and Pompey had become very jealous of Caesar's military success and his great popularity. Pompey had married Caesar's daughter, Julia, but when she died in childbirth, the bond between the two men was broken. Before Caesar returned from Gaul, Pompey sided wit the Senate to declare his former father-in-law an enemy of the State. The Senate demanded that Caesar give up his army and return to Rome. Knowing that he would be arrested if he obeyed, he refused. But now his life and career were at stake. Did he dare go back to Italy at all? (14) In January of 49 BCE, Caesar's forces were camped just north of the Rubicon, the river that marked the boundary between Gaul and Ital. As soon as Caesar heard the Senate's ruling, he slipped away from the camp with a few trusted men. It was night, and everyone else was feasting. No one noticed that he was missing. When he reached the banks of the Rubicon, he paused, thinking about his next step. After a moment, he declared, “The die is cast” and crossed the river. This was his way of saying that his mind was made up and wouldn't be changed. Now he was ready to meet his former ally, the great general Pompey, in battle. (15) Caesar was never one to stand around, waiting for someone else to do something. Decisive as always, he began his march right away. He set out in the dead of winter with a single legion of soldiers. He knew that by marching on Rome he would start a civil war. What he didn't know─and couldn't have known─was that this war would last for nearly two decades and destroy the Republic.

  • 18-4日本語訳

    お願いします。 He told his people that he wanted them to live in a way that would lead to an“increase of their inner worthiness.”Ashoka also promoted the teachings of the Buddha and sent missionaries,including his son and his daughter,to lands as dar away as Sri Lanka so that his people would not make the same mistakes he had.As he said,“All men are my children.As for my own children,I desire that they may be provided with all the welfare and happiness of this world and of the next,so do I desire for all men as well.”  As part of his reforms,Ashoka banned the sacrifice of animals.This confused and angered many of his people,especially the Brahmins who made their living by performing animal sacrifices.The Brahmins were powerful enemies,break away from the Mauryan Empire after Ashoka's death.The last Mauryan ruler was assassinated in 185 BCE by one of his generals-who was,not so coincidentalky,a Brahmin.Although other kings would follow,no ruler would be strong enough to unite the many different people of the subcontinent into a single political state for 1,600 years.

  • 日本語訳を!!12

    お願いします (1) Ptolemy XII was pharaoh of Egypt, the wealthiest country in the Mediterranean world. Ptolemy loved to party─he was called “The Flute Player” because he was so fond of music. But Ptolemy was not just a playful fellow. He was also a troublesome one, so troublesome that his own people wanted him out. They booted him from power in 58 BCE and put his eldest daughter, Berenice, on the throne instead. (2) Ptolemy fought back. He traveled to Rome and bribed the general Ptolemy to support him against Berenice. Ptolemy took troops to Egypt, defeated Berenice's supporters, and returned the playboy king to his throne. In gratitude, Ptolemy named Ptolemy as legal guardian to his eldest son. Ptolemy then gave orders for Berenice to be beheaded. (3) Who was this man who ordered his own daughter's death? (4) Ptolemy XII was actually a Greek. His long-ago ancestor, the first Ptolemy, had served as a general under Alexander the Great, who, in 331 BCE, had conquered a huge empire─including Egypt. When Alexander died, his three top generals divided the empire among themselves. The one who chose Egypt made himself its king and called himself Ptolemy I. By the time Ptolemy XII came to the throne, his family had ruled Egypt for almost 250 years. But they still spoke Greek and considered themselves part of the Greek world. (5) Although Ptolemy had executed his eldest daughter, there was another whom he especially loved─a bright, lively girl named Cleopatra VII. The king seems to have found her the most interesting of all his children. He proclaimed her a goddess when she was about four years old.

  • 日本語訳を! 8-(6)

    お願いします。 (17) But just when he was sure he was a goner, Sinuhe was rescued by a tribe of nomads. The head of the tribe tells Sinuhe, "stay with me; I shall do you good." True to his word, the headsman made Sinuhe a wealthy and important man. But when Sinuhe grew old he began to miss his beloved homeland. Sinuhe wanted to be buried in Egypt. He wanted to build his tomb―his resting place for eternity―in his own country. Sinuhe writes to Senwosert, now king of Egypt; "Whatever God fated this flight―be gracious, and buring e home! Surely You will let me see the place where my heart still stays! What matters more than my being buried in the land where I was born?" King Senwosert answers, "Return to Egypt! And you will see the Residence where you grew up." (18) Back in Egypt, the king gave Sinuhe a home and food and fine linen. All his needs were taken care of: "A pyramid of stone was built for me...the masons who construct the pyramid measured out its foundations; the draughtsman drew in it; the overseer of sculptors carved in it." Sinuhe's tale, like Egypt itself, was in for a happy ending. Using "landing" as a metaphor for death―an appropriate word choice for a tale of journey―Sinuhe ends his story by saying, "I was in the favors of the king's giving, until the day of landing came." And now Egypt was in the favors of the king, too. It had traveled from monarchy to anarchy and back again.

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(3)

    お願いします。 (7) On the road leading to Abydos, there was a stela, which is a slab of rock with inscriptions on it. The stela tells the story of King Neferhotep's concern over the spirit of the god Osiris, who lived in the statue, which lived in the shrine, which lived in the innermost room inside the temple at Abydos. According to the stela, King Neferhotep "desired to see the ancient writings." The ancient works were kept by the priests, "the real scribes of hieroglyphs, the masters of all secrets." King Neferhotep told the priests who watched over the ancient records that he planned a "great investigation" into the proper care of the statue of Osiris. The priests replied, "Let your majesty proceed to the house of writings and let your majesty see every hieroglyph." (8) King Neferhotep studied the ancient writings in the library. He learned how the gods were cared for from the beginning of time. He learned exactly what rituals pleased the gods. He decided that he should go to Abydos himself to explain to the priests what he had learned. King Neferhotep sent a messenger ahead telling the priests to bring the statue of Osiris to meet his royal barge on the Nile when he landed. (9) When King Neferhotep arrived near Abydos, the priests met him. The statue of Osiris had traveled with them in its shrine. The shrine had been placed in a cabin on a boat modeled after the boat that the Egyptians believed the gods used to navigate the stars. The boat rested across poles shouldered by a procession of priests. (10) On the seven-mile journey from the Nile to the temple, King Neferhotep was entertained by the priests, who acted out the Legend of Osiris. We know bits and pieces of the legend from inscriptions on the tomb walls and from songs such as the Great Hymn to Osiris. The most complete version of the legend, however, was written much later, probably in the first century CE, by the Greek historian Plutarch. The legend has been told in many ways. This is one version:

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (3) The first commemorative scarab from Year 2, 1385 BCE (two years into his reign would make Amenhotep III at most 14) is known as the Marriage Scarab. The inscription begins with all five of Amenhotep III's names. It then names his wife, "The great royal-wife Tiy... she is the wife of the mighty king...." The second scaraa, also commissioned in Year 2, announces Amenhotep's second love―big-game hunting, a favorite royal pastime. When the young king heard that wild bulls had been spotted, he traveled by night alomg the Nile for the hunt. The wild-bull-hunt scarab claims: "a marvelous thing took place." Although Amenhotep III probably looked regal in his chariot pulled by the most magnificent horses in the country, marvelous might be a bit much. The animals were penned, so the "hunt" didn't require much hunting. Still, shooting arrows and throwing javelins from a chariot racing full tilt takes skill. And Amenhotep III would want to spread the word that he was indeed a skilled hunter. Egyptians believed that if their king was successful as a hunter, he would be successful on the battlefield. Hunting meant much more than killing a beast, it meant winning against the forces of chaos. That's tall order for such a young man. It's no wonder he sent beetles scurrying throughout the ancient world to tell of his triumphs.

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