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お願いします (8) Budge sipped his coffee without any hurry, knowing Grebaut would be held up at the least until the next day. And that afternoon, a dealer arrived, bringing six clay tablets with him. Were they kadim ("old")? he asked. Or jaded ("new")? Were the tablets genuine? Or were they fake? Budge writes in By Nile and Tigris, "When I examined the tablets I found that the matter was not as simple as it looked. In shape and form, and colour and material, the tablets were unlike any and I had ever seen in London or Paris, and the writing on all of them was of a most unusual character and puzzled me for hours." (9) It was while he was puzzling over the wedge-shaped markings that he was able to make out the words, "to Nimmuriya, king of the land of Egypt." Budge writes, "The opening words of nearly all the tablets proved them to be letters or dispatches, and I felt certain that the tablets were both genuine and of very great historical importance." Budge stuck to his "letter" theory despite arguments from scholars who thought the tablets were fake and arguments from scholars who had misinterpreted the markings.


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(8) バッジは、あわてることなく、彼のコーヒーをすすりました、グレバウトが、その翌日まで少なくとも足止めされるということを知ったからです。 そして、その日の午後、一人の業者が、到着しました、彼は、6枚の粘土のタブレットを持ってきていました。 それらは、kadim(「古い」)ですか? 彼は尋ねました。 それとも、jaded(「新しい」)ですか? タブレットは本物ですか? それとも、それらは偽物ですか?バッジは、『ナイル川とチグリス川のほとりで』の中で書いています。「タブレットを調べたとき、私は、問題が見かけほど単純ではないとわかりました。 形や形式、色や材料の点で、それらのタブレットは、私がロンドンやパリで目にしたことのあるどれとも違っていました、そして、それらの全てに記された文章はとても変わった文字で、何時間も私を当惑させました。」 (9) 彼が、「エジプトの土地の王ニムリヤ陛下に」と言う言葉を理解できたのは、彼が、くさび形の模様について戸惑っている時でした。バッジは書いています、「ほとんど全てのタブレットの始めの語は、それらが手紙か公式文書であることを証明しました、それで、私は、タブレットが本物で、非常に歴史的に重要であると確信しました。」タブレットが偽であると考える学者からの異論や模様を誤解した学者からの反論にもかかわらず、バッジは、彼の「手紙」論にこだわりました。





  • 日本語訳を!(14)

    お願いします (1) What we know about how Egypt got along with its neighbors came to us quite by accident. In 1887 a peasant woman was poking through the ruins of an ancient city we now call Amarna. She was collecting the crumbled remains of mud bricks, which make excellent fertilizer. Digging through the rubble she came across a stash of tablets. The hunks of sun-dried clay looked more like dog biscuits a chicken had pecked than treasure, but the woman collected the unbroken ones on the off chance she could get a few small coins for them. She gathered as many as she could carry and sold them to her neighbor. The neighbor turned around and sold them for a slight profit to a local dealer in antiquities. No one knew what they were, or if they had any value. (2) Rumors of this odd discovery spread. Museum curators in the major European cities were curious. Were these tablets ancient? Were they records of some sort? Or was this just another money-making hoax? The curators sent scouts to Egypt to find out. The scouts had orders to buy as many tablets as they could if they turned out to be genuine. The British Museum sent Budge. (3) E.A. Wallis Budge knew the tablets were in the hands of native dealers, but just who those dealers were would not be easy to find out. Government officials in the Egyptian antiquities department had announced plans to seize the tablets and throw anyone connected to them in jail. The dealers weren't about to give up the tablets for nothing, and they didn't intend to go to prison either. Threats only made them stubborn. What tablets? They didn't know anything about tablets found at Amarna. The Egyptian official in charge, Monsieur Grebaut, just threatened louder. Anyone refusing to co-operate would be tortured. The dealers didn't trust anyone. Budge hoped he could draw them out. Today reputabld museums do not buy looted antiquities, but back in Budge's day that was how things were frequently done.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (4) When Monsier Grebaut's spies reported to him that Budge was in Egypt, he knew it must be about the tablets. He had Budge shadowed. The police reported Budge's every move to Monsieur Grebaut. Budge couldn't step outside his hotel room without being followed. Every antiquities dealer who met with Budge was investigated. When Budge traveled by train, the police climbed aboard, too. Monsieur Grebaut hoped Budge would lead him to the tablets. (5) In Luxor, while negotiating with a local dealer over a papyrus, word reached Budge that warrants for his arrest and the arrest of any dealer seen speaking to him were on their way. When Budge asked how long before the warrants arrived, the messenger explained that Monsieur Grebaut was bringing the warrants himself, traveling by steamer down the Nile. After coffee and more polite questions, the messenger told the whole story. It seems Monsieur Grebaut had not learned his lesson about threats. Single-minded in his quest to get Budge and the tablets, he had ordered the steamer captain to push on to Luxor and pass by the town where the captain's daughter was getting married. Just as they passed the captain's hometown the steamer "accidentally" ran aground on a sandbar. No matter how hard they tried, for some reason no one could free the steamer. It looked as if it wasn't going anywhere, at least until the wedding was over. (6) Frustrated, Monsieur Grebaut scoured the village for a donkey to hire so that he could ride the 12 miles to Luxor and arrest everyone who was mixed up in the whole tablet mess. But, oddly, there was not one donkey to rent anywhere in the village. (7) The messenger told Budge (probably with a sly smile) that the villagers had driven all the donkeys into the fields so none would be available for the unpleasant Monsieur Grebaut.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (10) We now know that the tablets are indeed letters―letters addressed to the king of Egypt more than 3,300 years ago, and copies of the replies he sent back. Nimmuriya is none other than Amenhotep III. And those chicken scratches are inscriptions written in the diplomatic language of the time, the language of ancient Babylon. Scholars today call the tablets the Amarna Letters―a priceless collection of letters between Egypt and its neighbors in the Near East. The mud bricks the peasant woman used for fertilizer once formed walls to an ancient Egyptian foreign office at Amarna―the House of the Correspondence of Pharaoh. And the stash of tablets was a file full of records stored there. Fewer than 400 survived outof who knows how many. The letters cover a timespan of nearly 30 years, from late in Amenhotep III's reign into his son's reign. The letters reveal greed and grievances. They detail petty fights and political alliances―30 years of diplomatic correspondence bdtween heads of state. (11) Scholars have divided the letters into two groups according to the opening words that led Budge to believe the tablets were letters. Some of the letters were between the king of Egypt and independent foreign rulers who considered themselves the king's equal. They opened their letters by addressing he king as "brother." (12) The second group of tablets begins quite differently. These senders wouldn't have dared to assume that they were brothers of the king, but merely "your servant, the dust of your two feet." The groveling continued for many lines. These chiefs of foreign lands under the king's dominion, or vassals, were so fearful of offending they don't even address the king by name, but instead called him "my king, my sun."

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (17) Augustus Caesar, now the emperor of Rome, worked to reorganize the government and military. His greatest accomplishment was the creation of a system of government that lasted in Rome for five centuries: the Roman Empire. (18) Augustus created Rome's first police and fire brigade. He created a network of roads that connected the major cities of the empire, linking them all to Rome. He changed the way finance were handled and issued new gold and silver coins. He gave free food to the poor. He built the Forum of Augustus and decorated it with statues of his ancestors. He beautified the city and boasted of this accomplishment: “I found a city made of brick and left it a city of marble.” Augustus also sponsored artists and poets like Horace and Virgil, whose works glorified Rome─and, of course, himself. (19) Throughout his reign, Augustus never forgot that his great-uncle had been killed by jealous enemies who feared his power and popularity. Augustus pretended that his powers were all voluntarily given. He allowed freedom of speech and encouraged people to give him advice. But he was clever. He knew how to use power without seeming to seek or even treasure it. During his rule, magistrates were still elected to govern Rome. By sharing power with the magistrates, Augustus kept people from worrying that he was governing Rome alone. In fact, the soldiers were loyal to him and him alone─he paid their salaries and his treasury would pay their pensions. (20) The emperor's authority was so great that everyone left all the major decisions to him. But he was also very careful. Augustus kept a force of 4,500 soldiers to defend him. These soldiers, later called the Praetorian Guard, protected all of Italy. But some of them were always on hand to protect the emperor. To be on the safe side, the guards allowed only one senate at a time to approach the emperor, and they searched each man before he came close.

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(4)

    お願いします。 (11) Osiris and Isis were two of the original nine gods. They were the children of the goddess of the sky and the god of the earth. Osiris became king of Egypt. He married the great love of his life, his sister Isis. His brother, Seth, was jealous. Seth wanted everything that Osiris had. He wanted to be king. He wanted his power. He wanted Isis. Seth pushed sibling rivalry into the evil zone. He plotted to destroy Osiris. Plutarch writes, "Seth secretly measured the body of Osiris and had made to the corresponding size a beautiful chest which was exquisitely decorated. He brought the chest to a banquet, and when the guests showed pleasure and admiration at the sight of it, Seth promised playfully that whoever would lie down in it and show that he fitted it, should have the chest as a gift." Then, in true Cinderella-and-the-glass-slipper fashion, everyone tried the coffinlike chest on for size. Some were so fat they couldn't squeeze into the box. Others were so small they slid right out. But, finally, when Osiris tried the coffin, the fit was just right. Plutarch writes that Seth "ran and slammed the lid on, and after securing it with bolts from the outside and with molten lead poured on, they took it to the river and let it go to the sea... "Osiris drowned. Death came to Egypt for the first time. (12) Seth enjoyed everything that once belonged to Osiris. But whereas Osiris was kind, Seth was cruel. There was no ma'at in Egypt with Seth in charge. There was war and hunger and lawlessness. Only Isis was unafraid of Seth. She found Osiris's body and turned herself into a bird and sang to him. In a fury, Seth cut Osiris into pieces and scattered him all over Egypt. Isis and her sister searched "in a papyrus boat, sailing through the marshes" for all his parts. They collectedthe pieces of Osiris, and with the help of Anubis, god of the dead, they sewed him back together.

  • 英文の日本語訳お願いします!

    Basic survival demanded that the hands were almost never still, and so it was only during sleep (and sometimes not even then) that people were not saying something or other. No distinction was made between the gestures of language and the gestures of life. The labor of building a house, say, or preparing a meal was no less an expression than making the sign for I love you or I feel serious. When a hand was used to shield one’s face when frightened by a loud noise something was being said, and when fingers were used to pick up what someone else had dropped something was being said; and even when the hands were at rest, that, too, was saying something. おねがいします。

  • 日本語訳を! 4-(7)

    お願いします。  The first real breakthrough came from an Englishman named Thomas Young. By the time Young was 2, he was reading. By the time he was 7, he was fluent in 3 languages. By the time he was 14, he was fluent in 12 languages. Young was sure he would be the first to crack the code. He discovered that the hieroglyphs for the 13-year-old Pharaoh Ptolemy's name were repeated six times inside little ovals that the French called cartouches, because they looked like the paper rolls, or cartouches, that the French stored their gunpowder in for their muskets. Young worked on the demotic lines and was able to figure out many words, but the hieroglyphs stumped him. It took another young genius, building on Young's work―a man named Jean Francois Champollion―to finally translate the entire Rosetta Stone.  A simple thank-you note written by grateful priests turned out to be the key that opened the Egyptian past for modern scholars. No longer would scholars have to settle for the Greek, Roman, or Hebrew version of Egypt's history. Egypt's own stories could now come to life. Maybe there is magic in the written word after all. To be on the safe side, let's not write the word for that hairy, scary thing that rhymes with "feast.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    As the Allied operations in the Middle East were secondary to the Western Front campaign, reinforcements requested by General Sir Archibald Murray, commander of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF), were denied. Further, on 11 January 1917, the War Cabinet informed Murray that large scale operations in Palestine were to be deferred until September, and he was informed by Field Marshal William Robertson, the Chief of the Imperial General Staff , that he should be ready to send possibly two infantry divisions to France. One week later, Murray received a request for the first infantry division and dispatched the 42nd (East Lancashire) Division. He was assured that none of his mounted units would be transferred from the EEF, and was told "that there was no intention of curtailing such activities as he considered justified by his resources." Murray repeated his estimate that five infantry divisions, in addition to the mounted units, were needed for offensive operations.

  • 日本語訳を! 8-(2)

    お願いします。 (5) It was also common for governors to brag that they could support the people in their cnmmunity while the rest of Egypt starved. Ankhtyfy apparently was just as conceited as all the others because his inscription says, I gave bread to the hungry and clothing to the naked...I gave sandals to the barefooted. The whole country has become like locusts going upstream and downstream in search of food; but never did I allow anybody in need to go from this province to another one. I am the hero without equal. (6) Boasts like these led scholars to believe that the First Intermediate Period and all its chaos were brought about by famine. Was all of Egypt starving? Is that why the country fell apart? Archaeologists who study ancient climates don't think that is true. There were droughts in the Old Kingdom and the king was still able to maintain control. And there were good harvests during the First Intermediate Period and yet chaos ruled. The boasts about feeding the hungry were most likely meant to send the message to the people that they needed the governor, that without their local ruler they would suffer as the rest of the country was supposedly suffering. (7) Governors had always recruited military troops from their provinces for their king. Now instead of sending soldiers to the capital, they were using the troops for their own scrambles for power. The strong grew stronger, and the wealthy grew wealthier. The central government splintered. The king's power slipped further.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (6) The vizier was a man who wore many hats (or, in at least two cases, she was a woman who wore many hats). As "Overseer of Works," the vizier was in charge of all of the king's engineering projects. He saw to it that men and materials were on site to build monuments, tombs, and temples, to repair dikes, dig canals, and dredge waterways. As "Keeper of the Seal," the vizier was responsible for the records, for marriage contracts, wills, deeds to property, court transcripts, and keeping a head count of cattle and people. His duties were endless. One vizier didn't exaggerate when he wrote, "I spent many hours in the service of my lord." (7) The vizier served the king, the gods, and the people. An 18th-dynasty scribe writes that the vizier  Did what the king loves: he raised ma'at to its lord.... reporting daily on all his effective actions....  Did what the gods love: he enforced the laws and laid down rules, administered the temples, provided the offerings, allotted the food and offered the beloved ma'at....  Did what the nobility and people love: he protected both rich and poor, provided for the widow without a family and pleased the revered and the old. (8) All this work was too much for one person. Many officials reported to the vizier. And each of them had a title, usually with the name "overseer." There was the "Overseer of the Double House of Silver" (the treasurer), the "Overseer of the King's House" (the royal steward), and there was even the "Overseer of the Royal Toenail Clippings" (no explanation necessary). The officials who came in contact with the king personally could add yet another name to their title that meant, "Known to the King" (an addition the Toenail Clipping official most likely deserved).