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お願いします (1) What we know about how Egypt got along with its neighbors came to us quite by accident. In 1887 a peasant woman was poking through the ruins of an ancient city we now call Amarna. She was collecting the crumbled remains of mud bricks, which make excellent fertilizer. Digging through the rubble she came across a stash of tablets. The hunks of sun-dried clay looked more like dog biscuits a chicken had pecked than treasure, but the woman collected the unbroken ones on the off chance she could get a few small coins for them. She gathered as many as she could carry and sold them to her neighbor. The neighbor turned around and sold them for a slight profit to a local dealer in antiquities. No one knew what they were, or if they had any value. (2) Rumors of this odd discovery spread. Museum curators in the major European cities were curious. Were these tablets ancient? Were they records of some sort? Or was this just another money-making hoax? The curators sent scouts to Egypt to find out. The scouts had orders to buy as many tablets as they could if they turned out to be genuine. The British Museum sent Budge. (3) E.A. Wallis Budge knew the tablets were in the hands of native dealers, but just who those dealers were would not be easy to find out. Government officials in the Egyptian antiquities department had announced plans to seize the tablets and throw anyone connected to them in jail. The dealers weren't about to give up the tablets for nothing, and they didn't intend to go to prison either. Threats only made them stubborn. What tablets? They didn't know anything about tablets found at Amarna. The Egyptian official in charge, Monsieur Grebaut, just threatened louder. Anyone refusing to co-operate would be tortured. The dealers didn't trust anyone. Budge hoped he could draw them out. Today reputabld museums do not buy looted antiquities, but back in Budge's day that was how things were frequently done.


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(1) エジプトがどのように隣国とつきあっていたかについて、我々が現在知っていることは、全く偶然に我々の知るところとなりました。 1887年に、ある農婦が、我々が現在アマルナと呼ぶ古都の廃墟を棒でつついていました。 彼女は日干しレンガの砕けた残骸を集めていました。それは優れた肥料になるからです。 粗石を掘り進んでいくと、彼女はタブレット(粘土版)の隠し場所であった所に出くわしました。日干しにした粘土のかたまりは宝物と言うよりはむしろ鶏がついばんだ犬用のビスケットのように見えました、しかし、それらと交換に小額のお金を得ることができるかもしれない万に一つの見込みを期待して、その農婦は、砕けていないものを集めました。 彼女は、運べる限りたくさん集めて、それらを彼女の隣人に売りました。 その隣人は、今度は、地元の骨董屋にそれらをわずかな利益で売りました。 誰も、それらが何なのか、あるいは、それらに多少とも値打ちがあるのかどうか知りませんでした。 (2) この奇妙な発見の噂は、広まりました。 主要なヨーロッパの都市の博物館の学芸員が、好奇心を持ちました。 これらのタブレットは古代のものだろうか? それらは、何らかの記録だったのだろうか? あるいは、これもまた、金儲けのための作り話にすぎないのだろうか? 学芸員は、調査するために、偵察者をエジプトに派遣しました。 それらが本物であることがわかれば、出来るだけたくさんのタブレットを買うようにと言う命令を偵察者は受けていました。 大英博物館は、バッジを派遣しました。 (3) E.A.ウォリス・バッジは、そのタブレットが現地の業者の手の中にあるということを知っていましたが、その業者が誰なのかを調べることは、容易ではないだろうとも分かっていました。 エジプトの古代遺物部の役人は、タブレットを押収して、それらに関係がある者は誰でも投獄すると言う計画を発表していました。 業者たちは、ただでタブレットを手放すつもりは毛頭ありませんでした、また、彼らは刑務所にも行くつもりはありませんでした。脅しは、彼らを頑固にするだけでした。 どんなタブレットですか? 彼らは、アマルナで発見されたタブレットについて、何も知りませんでした。 担当しているエジプトの役人のグレバウト氏は、脅しを強めるだけでした。 協力を拒む者は誰でも、拷問されました。 業者は、誰も信用しませんでした。バッジは、彼が彼らをうちとけさせることができることを望みました。 今日、名の知られた博物館は、略奪された骨董品を買いませんが、バッジの頃には、そうしたことがしばしば行われていました。





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    お願いします (8) Budge sipped his coffee without any hurry, knowing Grebaut would be held up at the least until the next day. And that afternoon, a dealer arrived, bringing six clay tablets with him. Were they kadim ("old")? he asked. Or jaded ("new")? Were the tablets genuine? Or were they fake? Budge writes in By Nile and Tigris, "When I examined the tablets I found that the matter was not as simple as it looked. In shape and form, and colour and material, the tablets were unlike any and I had ever seen in London or Paris, and the writing on all of them was of a most unusual character and puzzled me for hours." (9) It was while he was puzzling over the wedge-shaped markings that he was able to make out the words, "to Nimmuriya, king of the land of Egypt." Budge writes, "The opening words of nearly all the tablets proved them to be letters or dispatches, and I felt certain that the tablets were both genuine and of very great historical importance." Budge stuck to his "letter" theory despite arguments from scholars who thought the tablets were fake and arguments from scholars who had misinterpreted the markings.

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    お願いします (4) When Monsier Grebaut's spies reported to him that Budge was in Egypt, he knew it must be about the tablets. He had Budge shadowed. The police reported Budge's every move to Monsieur Grebaut. Budge couldn't step outside his hotel room without being followed. Every antiquities dealer who met with Budge was investigated. When Budge traveled by train, the police climbed aboard, too. Monsieur Grebaut hoped Budge would lead him to the tablets. (5) In Luxor, while negotiating with a local dealer over a papyrus, word reached Budge that warrants for his arrest and the arrest of any dealer seen speaking to him were on their way. When Budge asked how long before the warrants arrived, the messenger explained that Monsieur Grebaut was bringing the warrants himself, traveling by steamer down the Nile. After coffee and more polite questions, the messenger told the whole story. It seems Monsieur Grebaut had not learned his lesson about threats. Single-minded in his quest to get Budge and the tablets, he had ordered the steamer captain to push on to Luxor and pass by the town where the captain's daughter was getting married. Just as they passed the captain's hometown the steamer "accidentally" ran aground on a sandbar. No matter how hard they tried, for some reason no one could free the steamer. It looked as if it wasn't going anywhere, at least until the wedding was over. (6) Frustrated, Monsieur Grebaut scoured the village for a donkey to hire so that he could ride the 12 miles to Luxor and arrest everyone who was mixed up in the whole tablet mess. But, oddly, there was not one donkey to rent anywhere in the village. (7) The messenger told Budge (probably with a sly smile) that the villagers had driven all the donkeys into the fields so none would be available for the unpleasant Monsieur Grebaut.

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    お願いします (1) Ramesses III dispatched messengers. Advance squads of soldiers scrambled for the eastern Egyptian border. They raced to desert outposts and fortresses along the Delta, carrying an urgent message from their king. Hold your position. Stand firm. Keep the Egyptian border secure until the main army can be deployed. Reinforcements are coming. But until then, stay strong. Do not let the Sea Peoples past your line of defense. (2) By the end of the 13th century BCE, the Sea Peoples had swarmed across the eastern Mediterranean, burning and plundering everything in their path. They destroyed nearly every city, palace, town, and temple they came across. They had burned whole towns to ash and leveled cities to piles of rubble. Word reached Ramesses III that the Sea Peoples were on the move again, and this time it was Egypt they intended to crush. Ramesses III tells on the walls of his mortuary temple, "They were coming forward toward Egypt, while the flame was prepared before them." (3) Normally, the highly trained soldiers of the wealthiest country in the ancient world would not have been afraid of a disorderly crew of pirates, bandits, and ragamuffins. But the Egyptians believed this motley mob had already defeated the land of the Hittites and the island of Cyprus and that they were intent on conquering the world. The Sea Peoples had lost their homelands―had it been an earthquake that left them homeless? Or a drought that left them starving? Whatever drove them out had turned them into a dangerous enemy. They were desperate people who had nothing left to lose and everything to gain if they could force their way into Egypt.

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    お願いします (9) The Egyptian seamen used their oars to maneuver the warships even closer. They tossed grappling hooks into the Sea Peoples' vessels. When the hooks took hold the Egyptians heaved on the lines and capsized the Sea Peoples' boats. As they tumbled into the water they were "butchered and their corpses hacked up." Others were grabbed, chained, and taken prisoner before they could swim to shore. (10) In the victory scene at the mortuary temple, we see a pile of severed hands presented to Ramesses III. Prisoners taken alive were branded and assigned to labor forces. The vizier counted everything―hands, spoils, prisoners―for an official report. Ma'at had conquered chaos. The battle against the Sea Peoples had been won. "Their hearts and their souls are finished for all eternity. Their weapons are scattered in the sea."

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    お願いします (10) Aulus Gellius, a Roman lawyer of the second century CE, writes about Vesta's priestesses. A girl chosen to be a Vestal Virgin must...be no younger than six and no older than ten years old.... As soon as a girl is chosen, she is taken to the House of Vesta and handed over to the priests. She immediately leaves her father's control. (11) The chief duty of the Vestal Virgins was to keep Vesta's flame burning. If the flame went out, it meant that one of the Vestal Virgins had been careless in her sacred duties or had broken her vow of chastity. Either way, the Romans believed that the city was in great danger and could be destroyed. They dressed the offending priestess in funeral clothes and carried her to an underground cell, leaving her to die. (12) The earliest Romans were farmers who saw the gods in all the forces of nature. They believed that gods ruled the sun, the moon, and the planets and that gods lived within the trees, in wind, and in rivers. These early, simple beliefs played a part in Rome's later religion as well. But as Rome became more connected with other peoples through war and trade, its religion became more complex. (13) The Romans were as quick to borrow language and inventions. If they encountered a new god that they thought might be useful, they adopted him or her. For example, when the Romans attacked the Etruscan city of Veii in 396 BCE, they begged Juno, their enemy's goddess, to help them in battle. “To you, Juno Regina, who now lives in Veii, I pray that after our victory you will accompany us to our city─soon to be your city─to be received in a temple worthy of your greatness.” When the Romans conquered Veii, they assumed that Juno had helped them. To thank the goddess, they built a temple in her honor in Rome.

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    お願いします (10) We now know that the tablets are indeed letters―letters addressed to the king of Egypt more than 3,300 years ago, and copies of the replies he sent back. Nimmuriya is none other than Amenhotep III. And those chicken scratches are inscriptions written in the diplomatic language of the time, the language of ancient Babylon. Scholars today call the tablets the Amarna Letters―a priceless collection of letters between Egypt and its neighbors in the Near East. The mud bricks the peasant woman used for fertilizer once formed walls to an ancient Egyptian foreign office at Amarna―the House of the Correspondence of Pharaoh. And the stash of tablets was a file full of records stored there. Fewer than 400 survived outof who knows how many. The letters cover a timespan of nearly 30 years, from late in Amenhotep III's reign into his son's reign. The letters reveal greed and grievances. They detail petty fights and political alliances―30 years of diplomatic correspondence bdtween heads of state. (11) Scholars have divided the letters into two groups according to the opening words that led Budge to believe the tablets were letters. Some of the letters were between the king of Egypt and independent foreign rulers who considered themselves the king's equal. They opened their letters by addressing he king as "brother." (12) The second group of tablets begins quite differently. These senders wouldn't have dared to assume that they were brothers of the king, but merely "your servant, the dust of your two feet." The groveling continued for many lines. These chiefs of foreign lands under the king's dominion, or vassals, were so fearful of offending they don't even address the king by name, but instead called him "my king, my sun."

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    お願いします!! 続き Carved stone seals were common in the ancient world.Merchants and government officials stamped them into soft clay instead of writing a signature.The seals were usually decorated with pictures of animals and sometimes a few signs or symbols.Cunningham's seal had an animal and some lines that could have been letters.Except that the creature on his seal was not the usual bull or tiger,but something that looked like a one-horned bull-a unicorn.And if the lines were the letters or symbols of a language,it was not a script anyone had ever seen before. Alexander Cunningham spent the rest of his life thinking that his dig at Harappa in the Punjab had been a failure.He never realized that the seal he had found was a key to an unknown civilization,a civilization that no one ever suspected had existed.Before the seal was found at Harappa,archaeologists had believed that the oldest cities in India and Pakistan dated from about 700 BCE.They were wrong.The crumbling bricks that the engineers had used to raise the railroad out of the mud were 5,000 years old.They were what was left of an ancient civilization as large and well organized as those of Egypt and Mesopotamia.Historians call it the Indus civilization. The Indus civilization peaked with 1,500 settlements and serveral large cities,some with populations of up to 80,000 people.Its artisans were among the most skilled in the world,and its people traded with Mesopotamia and Central Asia.But in some ways,it was an easy civilization to overlook.Its people didn't build great pyramids or fancy tombs,as the Egyptians did.They didn't fight great battles and leave a great written legacy,like the Mesopotamians.

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    お願いします (7) But now the battle moved to the Mediterranean. Egypt was not known for having much of a navy. Its navy was essentially the army with a little training at sea. Egyptians hated the sea―or the "Great Green" as they called it. Now they must fight the Sea Peoples on the Great Green. (8) From the text inscribed at Ramesses III's mortuary temple, we know that the Sea Peoples "penetrated the channels of the Nile Mouths" and that Ramesses III attacked "like a whirlwind against them." Although the Egyptian seamen were not as skilled as the Sea Peoples, their boats had oars―not just sails like the Sea Peoples' vessels. On open waters the Egyptian navy wouldn't have had a chance, but in the confined river mouths they could maneuver using oars. The Egyptian warships herded the Sea Peoples' boats closer and closer to land, where Ramesses III had lined the shore with archers. When the enemy ships were forced within firing range, the Egyptian archers let go volley after volley of arrows. The air filled with the hiss of their flight and the thwack of their landing. Egyptian marine archers joined the land archers firing from the boat decks in unison. Arrows fell like rain on the Sea Peoples who, armed with only swords and spears, cowered helplessly.

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    お願いします!!続き Seals were important symbols of power. Once an ancient South Asian“sealed”a box or a door with a piece of clay he had stamped with his seal,no one could open it without the sealer's permission.People who did not own anything of great value had no need for seals,so scholars suspect that they were used only by wealthy traders,landowners,or religious leaders.Because seals were so valuable,working like a signature that could be used to approve payments and trade,the city government probably controlled seal making. Once a seal was made,probably only one person used it.But sometimes a father might pass a seal down to his son,or a mother to her daughter.After a seal had been used for a while,its edges would get worn and rounded.It would no longer make very clear impressions.Since people wouldn't want anyone else using their seal,they were very careful about getting rid of their worn-out seals.Archaeologists at Harappa have uncovered heavily worn seals buried in the floor of a house.Lots of broken seals and tablets have also been discovered in the litter filling the streets or in trash pits.The ansient Indus people either buried their old seals or broke them into small pieces before they threw them away,the same way people today cut up their old credit cards. But the ancient South Asians have nothing to fear from the archaeologists who found them-at least until someone figures out how to read the script the seals are written in! Until someone finally gets to the bottom of that script,we'll never know the whole story of Harappa and her sister cities.No matter how carefully we look at the puzzle pieces,some of them are still missing.Even so,archaeologists have a lot of fun trying to put them together.

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    On the night between 31 October and 1 November 1918, a small Italian human torpedo called "Mignatta", which carried two men, entered the base of Pola and placed a limpet mine below the hull of the anchored battleship SMS Viribus Unitis. Unknown to them, the entire Austrian fleet had just been handed over to the new National Council of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs; this had happened in the evening of 31 October, when the Italian ships assigned to the operation had already left the port, and thus could not be informed.  After placing the mines, the two Italian operators were captured, and they informed the crew that the ship was going to sink, although they did not reveal that they had placed mines on the hull; however, the explosions were delayed and the crew started reboarding the ship, believing they were lying. Shortly thereafter, the mines exploded, causing the Viribus Unitis to sink. The Slav National Council made no efforts to raise the ship, as Italy occupied the region only a few days later.