• ベストアンサー
  • すぐに回答を!

日本語訳を!!c6-4

お願いします!!続き Seals were important symbols of power. Once an ancient South Asian“sealed”a box or a door with a piece of clay he had stamped with his seal,no one could open it without the sealer's permission.People who did not own anything of great value had no need for seals,so scholars suspect that they were used only by wealthy traders,landowners,or religious leaders.Because seals were so valuable,working like a signature that could be used to approve payments and trade,the city government probably controlled seal making. Once a seal was made,probably only one person used it.But sometimes a father might pass a seal down to his son,or a mother to her daughter.After a seal had been used for a while,its edges would get worn and rounded.It would no longer make very clear impressions.Since people wouldn't want anyone else using their seal,they were very careful about getting rid of their worn-out seals.Archaeologists at Harappa have uncovered heavily worn seals buried in the floor of a house.Lots of broken seals and tablets have also been discovered in the litter filling the streets or in trash pits.The ansient Indus people either buried their old seals or broke them into small pieces before they threw them away,the same way people today cut up their old credit cards. But the ancient South Asians have nothing to fear from the archaeologists who found them-at least until someone figures out how to read the script the seals are written in! Until someone finally gets to the bottom of that script,we'll never know the whole story of Harappa and her sister cities.No matter how carefully we look at the puzzle pieces,some of them are still missing.Even so,archaeologists have a lot of fun trying to put them together.

共感・応援の気持ちを伝えよう!

  • 回答数1
  • 閲覧数47
  • ありがとう数2

質問者が選んだベストアンサー

  • ベストアンサー
  • 回答No.1
  • SPS700
  • ベストアンサー率46% (15220/32737)

    印章は、権力の重要な象徴だった。一旦、一人の南アジア人が、自分の印章を、入れ物、または扉につけた粘土に押し付けて「封印した」場合、本人の許可なくして何人たりともそれを開くことは許されなかった。大きな価値のある物を何も所有しない人には、印章は不要であった。従って裕福な商人、地主、あるいは宗教指導者が使ったものと学者たちは考えている。支払いや取引をを承認するといった署名のように重要であったために、町の役所では印章製造を統制したと思われる。     一度印章が作られると、おそらくただ一人の人物がそれを使用したもbのと思われる。時には、父親から息子へ、あるいは母親から娘へと、印章が手渡された場合もあり得る。印章が使われると、角が摩滅して丸みを帯びる。そのため印像がはっきりしないこともある。他の人が自分の印章を使うのを嫌ったので、古い印章の処理には注意が払われた。ハラッパで、考古学者たちはある家屋の床下から非常に摩滅した印章を発見した。多くの印章やタブレットの破片が道路の補修やゴミ捨て場でも発見された。古代インダス人は、古い印章を、埋めるか、今の人が古いクレジットカードを切り刻むように、捨てる前に細かく砕いた、と思われる。     しかし古代南アジア人は、ーー誰かが印章の書かれた文字を解読するまではーーそれ(印章)を発見した考古学者たちを恐れることは何もない。誰かが最終的に、この文字を完全に解読するまではハラッパやその姉妹都市の歴史の全貌は分からないであろう。いくら丹念にパズルの一片、一片を見ても、未だ全部揃った訳ではない。いずれにせよ、考古学者たちはパズルを解くのを結構楽しんでいる。

共感・感謝の気持ちを伝えよう!

質問者からのお礼

ありがとうございます。

関連するQ&A

  • 日本語訳を!!c8-3

    お願いします!!続き Other shops specialized in the ceramic art of faience,their shelves stocked with beads and bangles as welk as small bottles for perfume and medicines.Still others offered white soapstone beads and pendants,delicately fashioned inlay,and intricately carved and inscribed seals with geometric designs.At this same shop,merchants could have ordered inscribed reals with special animal designs that stood for their clan or religious beliefs. Seals show a person who talks to tigers from a thorny tree.Other seals and figurines show mother deities;a bearded,horned deity;or the ritual killing of a water buffalo.Many of these scenes include a holy man sitting on his heels and meditating in the shade of the pipal,or sacred fig,tree.Archaeologists believe that communities of holy men practiced the discipline of yoga in sacred groves outside the city walls.Sarang's family may well have gone to visit these holy men to bring them offerings as part of the harvest festival. Sarang's family certainly would have stopped in the potter's quarter to buy pots and small clay figurines for worship at the harvest festival.If Sarang had glanced into the courtyard behind any potter's shop,he might well have seen children at work.Artisans' shops were attached to their children would have helped with simple tasks,such as sweeping or fetching materials.Archaeologists have found that some of the flat clay disks that were used to cover pots have child-sized hand-and footprints pressed into them.Bead maker's children,with their small hands and good eyesight,probably also helped string tiny beads. Besides pots,potters made small figurines that were used as offerings to the deities.Even today,many Hindus use small clay or paper figures as part of their prayers and offerings to the deities.Could some of the deities they worship have come from Harappan times?No one knows.

  • 日本語訳をお願いします 2

    お願いします!! 続き Carved stone seals were common in the ancient world.Merchants and government officials stamped them into soft clay instead of writing a signature.The seals were usually decorated with pictures of animals and sometimes a few signs or symbols.Cunningham's seal had an animal and some lines that could have been letters.Except that the creature on his seal was not the usual bull or tiger,but something that looked like a one-horned bull-a unicorn.And if the lines were the letters or symbols of a language,it was not a script anyone had ever seen before. Alexander Cunningham spent the rest of his life thinking that his dig at Harappa in the Punjab had been a failure.He never realized that the seal he had found was a key to an unknown civilization,a civilization that no one ever suspected had existed.Before the seal was found at Harappa,archaeologists had believed that the oldest cities in India and Pakistan dated from about 700 BCE.They were wrong.The crumbling bricks that the engineers had used to raise the railroad out of the mud were 5,000 years old.They were what was left of an ancient civilization as large and well organized as those of Egypt and Mesopotamia.Historians call it the Indus civilization. The Indus civilization peaked with 1,500 settlements and serveral large cities,some with populations of up to 80,000 people.Its artisans were among the most skilled in the world,and its people traded with Mesopotamia and Central Asia.But in some ways,it was an easy civilization to overlook.Its people didn't build great pyramids or fancy tombs,as the Egyptians did.They didn't fight great battles and leave a great written legacy,like the Mesopotamians.

  • 日本語訳を!!c6-3

    お願いします!!続き Archaeologists know that the Indus script probably used both symbol-pictures and letters standing for different sounds.They have made out between 400 and 450 symbols,which are too few for a language without an alphabet and too many for a language with an alphabet.The script of the Mesopotamians,for example,used more than 600 symbols,each of which stood for a syllable and sometimes also for a whole word.The Canaanites,who lived to the west of Mesopotamia,later developedan alphabet of fewer than 50 symbols,each standing for a specific consonant. A lot of the examples we have of Indus script come from inscriptions on seals.The square seals of the Indus cities were made from a soft stone called steatite,or soapstone.The original color of the stone ranges from gray or tan to white.If the steatite was going to be used for a seal,the seal maker bleached it with a chemical solution and fired it in a kiln to make it hard and white.(For 100 years,archaeologists have been trying to figure out what that solution was,but no luck yet.) Some sealr were made from faience paste that could be molded,fired,and glazed.Faience is made from ground quartz that is melted and then reground to make a glassy paste.It can be colored with copper to make a blue-green or turquoise color,and then fired at high temperatures to make a shiny glazed object.

  • 日本語訳を!!c7-4

    お願いします!!続き As you wandered through the city,you would have seen one building that stood out from all the othes,the so-called Great Hall.Not only was it bigger than all of the other buildings,but it was also built of wood on a brick foundation.(Because the local trees were small,the builders probably bought the wood in the highlands,then floated it down the river to the city during the monroon.) Archaeologists don't know what the building was used for.At first,they guessedthat it was used to store grain,but there's no evidence of that.Today,they believe that Harappa's Great Hall,as well as a similar large building in Mohenjo Daro,was probably a government or public meeting place. Although the great cities of the Indus were very similar,they were not identical.If you were a pilgrim from Harappa arriving in Mohenjo Daro for a religious festival,you might have felt that the people in Mohenjo Daro were a little bit more formal than your friend at home.For one thing,Mohenjo Daro didn't have just a Great Hall,but many other large buildings as well.Each section of the city had several large complexes.Some of these buildings may have been religious buildings or mansions for wealthy merchants.One building had a circle of bricks in its courtyard,which might have been the site of a sacred tree.A double staircase led to an upper courtyard surrounded by several rooms.When archaeologists excavated it,they found that the house was littered with lots of seals and fragments of a stone sculpture depicting a seated man wearing a cloak over his left shoulder who might have been a political or religious leader of some kind.

  • 日本語訳を!!c6-2

    お願いします!!続き Symbols scratched into pots after they were fired are called graffiti.Graffiti probably developed at the same time as potter's marks,around 4000 BCE,but the earliest examples from Harappa date to around 3300 BCE.They count as the earliest evidence for writing in the Indus Valley.By about 2800-2600 BCE,the symbols that began as graffiti had become a written language,one that was spreading rapidly throughout the region. Why did writing spread so quickly? For one thing,it was useful,especially to merchants who traveled throtghout the Indus Valley.They used square seals with animal designs and bold script across the the top to seal goods for trade.They also developed a system of tablets for keeping accounts.Archaeologists have recently found a building that was a kind of “mint” that made the tablets that merchants used to keep track of their goods. Merchants weren't the only people who were quick to see the power of the written word.Religious leaders may have used writing to record the names of deities and important religious rituals. Archaeologists have been trying to understand the Indus script for more than a hundred years-without any luck.For one thing,they've only found about 2,000 examples of it,and none of the examples has more than 23 symbols (most have only five).But they have been able to figure out a few of its features.They know that the Indus script is not directly related to any known writing system.They know that it was written from right to left (as is the script used to write Urdu,the modern language of Pakistan). But sometimes longer inscriptions are written from the right in the first line,then from left to right on the mext line,and so on,back and forth until the end.This type of writing style is called boustrophedon,a Greek word that means “as the ox turns,”because it moves down one row and up the next,the way oxen plow a field,or people mow the lawn.

  • 日本語訳を!!c6-1

    お願いします!! What do you think is the world's most important invention? The wheel? The light bulb? If you asked most historians,they wouldn't hesitate:reading and writing,all the way.Just as pottery allowed ancient people to store food and goods in a place safe from water or insects,writing let people store knowledge.For the first time,the things people knew could be kept safe for their children,and not lost through their poor memories,sicknesses,or deaths.What's more,writing meant people could pass on information to others in different places or times.As long as people can read,they can know.The ability to read and write was-and is-power. Like a child who draws pictures before he or she writes words,ancient people first used symbols instead of letters.The first evidence for writing comes from pottery shards.Many ancient pots have marks on them that potters probably made before the clay was baked hard.That way each potter could tell which pots were hers,even when she shared a kiln with her neighbors.That's probably the first kind of writing you learned,too-your name,so you could mark every paper and drawing you made as yours.People started using these simple markings as early as 4500 BCE in the Indus Valley and continued using them long after the invention of writing. Potter's marks are scratched into the clay before firing,but many finished pieces of pottery have symbols that were scratched into them after they were fired,probably by their new owners.No one knows for sure what these symbols stand for.Archaeologists think that they might have been labdls that identified the contents of the pot,the name of the owner,or perhaps the name of tne person to whom it was being sent. If,for example,a wealthy man sent a pot of honey to a temple as an offering,he might have wanted to identify either himself or the temple where he was sending the gift.

  • 日本語訳を!!c7-8

    お願いします!!続き Do you feel that you get to know the people who lived in the places you are excavating?You really do.For one thing,there are fingerprints all over everything.You know,they're patting the clay and them it gets fired.And even though Harappa is a pretty disturbed site,every once in a while you stumble on something that is obviously just the way someone left it.We were digging in this little alley behind a house and found a little pit someone had dug,with some river mussels in it.It was their leftover lunch.And the Harappa are very creative people.Their figurines have a lot of character.It's hard to see humor across the centuries,but I certainly see people having a lot of fun with those figurines.Or maybe having a connection would be a better way to say it,since some of them are scary.Plus,my colleague is very good at that sort of thing.We'll find a pendant and he'll say someone must have been really upset to lose that. If you could have one question answered about the sites you've excavated,what would it be?I think I would probably want to know how the five great cities of the Indus were connected.Were they independent?Did the same family rule them all?That's what I'd lile to know. I think the really important thing about archaeology is that it connects people with the past.It's something we all share.No one in my family came from South Asia,but now I feel like that's a part of my heritage,too.Knowing about how those people solved their problems of living together in cities makes me think about the ways we try to solve a lot of the same problems in our cities today.The Indus people were so creative.I feel a lot of respect for them.And I feel like I share something with my colleagues in Pakistan.I think people need to appreciate each other's history.

  • 日本語訳をお願いします 4

    お願いします!!続き Most cities build walls to keep enemies out.But Harappa didn't seem to have enemies,at least any that were willing to attack it.Archaeologists have not found many weapons or pictures of warfare in Harappa.The city walls show no sign of attack and don't seem to have been designed for defense.If an enemy got past the massive gateway,the orderly streets and open courtyards inside the city would have been hard to defend. If the city wall wasn't meant to protect against war,maybe it was meant to keep out thieves.But most thieves probably would have preferred to rob travelers or traders when they were alone in the desert or forest,The city walls did help protect against another kind of threat-the floodwaters of the nearby Ravi River.But perhaps the most important functiom of the walls was to help the city collect the taxes needed in order to maintain its walls,clean its streets,and protect its people. By 2600 BCE,Harappa had two major walled sections,each with gateways that could control who entered the city.Walls also surrounded the suburbs next to these large sections.In one suburb,archaeologists found a massive gateway with several small rooms alongside the entryway.In the litter filling the rooms,they found seals,broken clay impressions or sealings,and stone weights,the ancient world's version of pens,stamps,and weight registers.Those rooms were offices,probably for inspectors who taxed all goods coming into and going out of the city. When traders arrived at a city,they parked their oxcarts outside the city gates at a place that was part-hotel,partwarehouse called a caravanserai.Staying outside the city meant that the merchants could come and go from the caravanserai as they pleased without worrying about the city gates,which were probably only open between morning and evening.They could also leave things locked in heir rooms that they didn't intend to sell,so that they wouldn't have to pay taxes on them.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (9) Although Egyptians kept their hair short, they were concerned about what hair they did have. The Ebers Papyrus has recipes for hair care. To strengthen hair, a mixture of crushed donkey teeth and honey is recommended. To prevent graying, it advises applying the blood of a black animal accompanied by a spell that transfers the black from the animal to the hair. For hair loss it says: "Recipe to make the hair of a bald person grow: fat of lion, fat of hippopotamus, fat of crocodile, fat of cat, fat of serpent, and fat of ibex are mixed together and the head of the bald person is anointed therewith." A more straightforward cure for baldness was the application of chopped lettuce o the bald spot. (10) You would think a place where people went out and about with chopped lettuce on their heads would have absolutely no "fashion don'ts," but there were definite no-nos. (11) Fashion don't: Wool or leather in temples or in front of the king. Remember, the gods were often part animal. It was not in good taste to be wearing animal parts to worship. Wool from sheep and goats was considered unclean, so it was never worn next to the skin. Although cloaks were made of wool, they were always worn over linen. (12) Fashhon don't: Wearing shoes outdoors. Always carry your shoes on a journey and put them on when you arrive at your destination. (13) Fashion don't: Facial hair. Beards were considered unclean (remember the fleas and lice) and the mark of a barbarian. The one exception to this fashion don't was the braided fake beard worn by the pharaoh―but then who is going to criticize the pharaoh's fashion sense?

  • 日本語訳をお願いします 3

    お願いします!! 続き Have you ever met someone who looks totally ordinary,but turns out to have a really interesting life? Maybe she plays in a rock band.Or he designs theme park rides.The people of the Indus civilization left no great monuments behind.But that's because they were too busy making a good life for themselves,lives whose richness was in the living,not the stuff they left behind.It wasn't until the early 1920s that archaeologists realized that there might be more in the mounds of crumbling brick than met the eye.And so,30 years after Sir Alexander Cunningham's death in 1893,archaeologists finally rediscovered the great city nf Harappa. Harappa was built on a low ridge between the Ravi and Satluj Rivers.It was a good location for a city.The land was fertile and villagers could hunt for animals and gather wood for fuel in the ndarby forests.The rivers kept the fields around the city well watered,and the mud from floods made the land fertile.Lakes full of fish sparkled in the distance.Traveling merchants liked to stop in Harappa,where they could get a good meal and a snug bed safe behind the mud-brick city walls. As it happens,Harappa's city walls are as mysterious as its script,the signs and symbols Cunningham found on the stone seal.Building and taking care of town walls must have been expensive and complicated.The earliest city wall at Harappa was 8 feet wide (2.5 meters) and may have stood more than 13 feet (4 meters) high.Archaeologists have added up the work hours required to dig the clay,shape and dry the mud bricks,mix the mortar that joined the bricks together,bring materials to the site by oxcart,and then actually build the wall.They estimate that it would have taken more than 500 people a full three months to construct a city wall when Harappa was still a small city.The city walls must have been very important-but why?