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お願いします!!続き Althongh they were made by hand and not machine,the fired bricks used used for building in the cities came in just one size and shape:a rectangle about 11 inches long and 5 1/2 inches wide(28 cm by 14 cm).These fired bricks were so strong that some of them have been recycled and are being reused in modern buildings.Bricks weren't the only things that were the same size-walls and doorways throughout the Indus Valkey are about the same size and design.Even wells were lined with the same styles of wedge-shaped bricks.And every city had a drainage system for carrying away rainwater and sewage from toilets and bathing areas. Who decided to make one-size-fits-all bricks?Who said that street had to run north/south and east/west?Today' cities are full of differences-the size,style,orientation,and building materials of any ten buildings are almost never the same.So why were the ancient Indus cities so similar? Maybe because one person-or one small group of people-was making all the decisions.Maybe a strong gouernment or strong religious leaders told everyone what to do.But there is no sign of large palaces or temples-the buildings of powerful governments and religious leaders.Perhaps the people of the Indus Vally had religious or historical beliefs that taught them that they should build everything in the same way.No one knows for sure. The cities of the Indus Valley were very well organized.They were divided into walled neighborhoods,with each neighborhood specializing in one kind of work.Potters lived in one area,and coppersmiths lived in another.People probably lived with their extended families-children,parents,cousins,aunts and uncles,and grandparents-all doing the same kind of work.


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それらは機械ではなく手で作られましたが、都市で建築に使われた焼きレンガは、全く大きさ形が一様です: 長さ約11インチ、幅5 1/2インチ(28cm×14cm)の長方形なのです。これらの焼きレンガはとても強かったので、それらの一部は、リサイクルされて、現代の建物でも再利用されています。大きさが同じであったのは、レンガだけではありません ― インダス渓谷一帯の壁や戸口は、ほぼ、同じ大きさとデザインです。井戸さえ、くさび形のレンガの同じスタイルで並んでいました。そして、あらゆる都市には、雨水やトイレや浴室から出る汚水を運び去る排水システムがありました。 誰が、全てに対応する同一サイズのレンガを作ることに決めたのでしょうか?誰が、街路が北/南と東/西に走らければならないと言ったのでしょうか?今日、都市は違いでいっぱいです ― 10の建物のどれをとっても、大きさ、様式、方向、建材は、ほとんど全く同じではありません。それでは、なぜ、古代のインダスの都市は、それほど類似していたのでしょうか? 多分、1人の人 ― あるいは1つの小集団の人々 ― がすべての決定をしていたからかもしれません。 多分、強い政府、もしくは、強い宗教指導者が、何をするべきかについて、みんなに命令したのでしょう。しかし、大きな宮殿や寺院 ― 強力な政府や宗教指導者の建物 ― を示す物が、ありません。おそらく、インダス渓谷の人々には、彼らが同様にすべてを造らなければならないと彼らに教えた、宗教的もしくは歴史的信条があったのでしょう。誰にも、はっきりとは分かりません。 インダス渓谷の都市は、非常によく整っていました。それら(都市)は、壁に囲まれた地区に分割され、各々の地区が1種類の仕事を専門としていました。陶工は1つの地区に住んでいて、銅器製造職人は別の地区に住んでいました。人々は彼らの大家族 ― 子供たち、両親、いとこ、叔母とおじ、そして、祖父母 ― と一緒に多分暮らしていたでしょう。そして、彼ら全員が、同じ種類の仕事をしていました。





  • 日本語訳を!!c7-4

    お願いします!!続き As you wandered through the city,you would have seen one building that stood out from all the othes,the so-called Great Hall.Not only was it bigger than all of the other buildings,but it was also built of wood on a brick foundation.(Because the local trees were small,the builders probably bought the wood in the highlands,then floated it down the river to the city during the monroon.) Archaeologists don't know what the building was used for.At first,they guessedthat it was used to store grain,but there's no evidence of that.Today,they believe that Harappa's Great Hall,as well as a similar large building in Mohenjo Daro,was probably a government or public meeting place. Although the great cities of the Indus were very similar,they were not identical.If you were a pilgrim from Harappa arriving in Mohenjo Daro for a religious festival,you might have felt that the people in Mohenjo Daro were a little bit more formal than your friend at home.For one thing,Mohenjo Daro didn't have just a Great Hall,but many other large buildings as well.Each section of the city had several large complexes.Some of these buildings may have been religious buildings or mansions for wealthy merchants.One building had a circle of bricks in its courtyard,which might have been the site of a sacred tree.A double staircase led to an upper courtyard surrounded by several rooms.When archaeologists excavated it,they found that the house was littered with lots of seals and fragments of a stone sculpture depicting a seated man wearing a cloak over his left shoulder who might have been a political or religious leader of some kind.

  • 日本語訳を!!c7-1

    お願いします!! Archaeologist can't read the records the people of the Indus Vally left because they haven't decoded the script. So they have to use other clues-like trash. What's left of people's ruined basements,garbage,and sewers tell us a lot about what it was like to live in the Indus Valley 4,000 years ago. Sometimes ancient cities are buried through tragic events such as an earthquake or a volcanic eruption.But usually cities get buried bit by bit,while people are still living there.Old buildings fall down and are covered with dust and garbage.Because it's easier,people build on top of the old buildings rather than clear them out and start from the ground again.As this happens,the streets are repaved and get higher and higher over time. The cities of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa,located in what is now Pakistan,had enough room for 40,000 to 80,000 people.That's about as many eople as can fit into the huge Olympic stadium in Athens.But no one is sure if that many people actually lived there full-time.How many of those buildings were empty during the farming season,when people may have gone home to their family farms to help with planting and harvesting? How many of the buildings sheltered merchants or pilgrims who were just passing through?Or people who had come to celebrate religious festivals? The streets of Indus towns and cities in India and Pakistan are strangely similar.Each has streets that run north and south and east and west.Why?No one knows,although religious beliefs might have had something to do with it.For example,Christian cathedrals face the rising sun in the east and Muslims pray facing their sacred city,Mecca.

  • 日本語訳を!!c6-2

    お願いします!!続き Symbols scratched into pots after they were fired are called graffiti.Graffiti probably developed at the same time as potter's marks,around 4000 BCE,but the earliest examples from Harappa date to around 3300 BCE.They count as the earliest evidence for writing in the Indus Valley.By about 2800-2600 BCE,the symbols that began as graffiti had become a written language,one that was spreading rapidly throughout the region. Why did writing spread so quickly? For one thing,it was useful,especially to merchants who traveled throtghout the Indus Valley.They used square seals with animal designs and bold script across the the top to seal goods for trade.They also developed a system of tablets for keeping accounts.Archaeologists have recently found a building that was a kind of “mint” that made the tablets that merchants used to keep track of their goods. Merchants weren't the only people who were quick to see the power of the written word.Religious leaders may have used writing to record the names of deities and important religious rituals. Archaeologists have been trying to understand the Indus script for more than a hundred years-without any luck.For one thing,they've only found about 2,000 examples of it,and none of the examples has more than 23 symbols (most have only five).But they have been able to figure out a few of its features.They know that the Indus script is not directly related to any known writing system.They know that it was written from right to left (as is the script used to write Urdu,the modern language of Pakistan). But sometimes longer inscriptions are written from the right in the first line,then from left to right on the mext line,and so on,back and forth until the end.This type of writing style is called boustrophedon,a Greek word that means “as the ox turns,”because it moves down one row and up the next,the way oxen plow a field,or people mow the lawn.

  • 日本語訳を!!c8-4

    お願いします!!続き Harappan cities were orderly,well-organized places-were they possibly controlled by kings? One clue led some early scholars to think that they might have been.The most famous stone sculpture of the Indus valley is called the Priest King.It's one of only nine stone sculptures,mostly of men,that have been found at Mohenjo Daro.All were broken and defaced,which probably means that the people they represented had lost favor.The lower half of the Priest King is missing,but most stone sculptures with a preserved,lower portion are seated with one knee bent to the ground and the other raised.People sitting in this position are seen on many of the Indus seals worshipping a deity in a tree or a figure seated in a cross-legged yoga position.This suggests that the sculpture does not represent a priest-king,as its name suggests,but instead an important clan or community leader. We know a lot about the objects Sarang and his family would have seen in the town,but many questions remain.What was the harvest festival like? Would Sarang and his family have seen dancing and heard singing? Were there plays about the deities? Or were the celebrations solemn,with fasting and prayer? We can only guess.But it's probably safe to say that Sarang would have thought that his trip to the city was one of the most exciting times of the year.

  • 日本語訳をお願いします 2

    お願いします!! 続き Carved stone seals were common in the ancient world.Merchants and government officials stamped them into soft clay instead of writing a signature.The seals were usually decorated with pictures of animals and sometimes a few signs or symbols.Cunningham's seal had an animal and some lines that could have been letters.Except that the creature on his seal was not the usual bull or tiger,but something that looked like a one-horned bull-a unicorn.And if the lines were the letters or symbols of a language,it was not a script anyone had ever seen before. Alexander Cunningham spent the rest of his life thinking that his dig at Harappa in the Punjab had been a failure.He never realized that the seal he had found was a key to an unknown civilization,a civilization that no one ever suspected had existed.Before the seal was found at Harappa,archaeologists had believed that the oldest cities in India and Pakistan dated from about 700 BCE.They were wrong.The crumbling bricks that the engineers had used to raise the railroad out of the mud were 5,000 years old.They were what was left of an ancient civilization as large and well organized as those of Egypt and Mesopotamia.Historians call it the Indus civilization. The Indus civilization peaked with 1,500 settlements and serveral large cities,some with populations of up to 80,000 people.Its artisans were among the most skilled in the world,and its people traded with Mesopotamia and Central Asia.But in some ways,it was an easy civilization to overlook.Its people didn't build great pyramids or fancy tombs,as the Egyptians did.They didn't fight great battles and leave a great written legacy,like the Mesopotamians.

  • 日本語訳を!!c7-8

    お願いします!!続き Do you feel that you get to know the people who lived in the places you are excavating?You really do.For one thing,there are fingerprints all over everything.You know,they're patting the clay and them it gets fired.And even though Harappa is a pretty disturbed site,every once in a while you stumble on something that is obviously just the way someone left it.We were digging in this little alley behind a house and found a little pit someone had dug,with some river mussels in it.It was their leftover lunch.And the Harappa are very creative people.Their figurines have a lot of character.It's hard to see humor across the centuries,but I certainly see people having a lot of fun with those figurines.Or maybe having a connection would be a better way to say it,since some of them are scary.Plus,my colleague is very good at that sort of thing.We'll find a pendant and he'll say someone must have been really upset to lose that. If you could have one question answered about the sites you've excavated,what would it be?I think I would probably want to know how the five great cities of the Indus were connected.Were they independent?Did the same family rule them all?That's what I'd lile to know. I think the really important thing about archaeology is that it connects people with the past.It's something we all share.No one in my family came from South Asia,but now I feel like that's a part of my heritage,too.Knowing about how those people solved their problems of living together in cities makes me think about the ways we try to solve a lot of the same problems in our cities today.The Indus people were so creative.I feel a lot of respect for them.And I feel like I share something with my colleagues in Pakistan.I think people need to appreciate each other's history.

  • 日本語訳を!!c7-5

    お願いします!!続き But as a pilgrim,you would probably have been most interested in the large building that today is called the Great Bath.You would go first into a small bathing area that was supplied with a well.You'd take off your outer clothes,which were dusty from your journey,and wash yourself.Once you were clean,you would move on into a large courtyard.You might walk along the roofed edges of the courtyard to better admire the sacred pool in the center.When you were ready for the bath that would clean your spirit as well as yourbody,you would walk into the large pool by one of the two wide stairways that led down into the healing water. Travelers from both Mohenjo Daro and Harappa probably would have felt least at home in Dholavira,the third major city of the Indus.Dholavira,located in what is now the modern country of India,was on an island in an inland bay far to the south of Mohenjo Daro.The farming was not good in the areas around Dholavira-the climate was too dry-so most people supported themselves by herding,fishing,and trading.To collect and store enough rainwater,the people of Dholavira built stone tanks or reservoirs that stretched over more than a third of their city. Dry Dholavira may not have had much mud,but it had lots of stone.Most of its houses and drains were made of sandstone blocks.Dholavira was the grandest of the cities,with huge walls and ceremonial gates separating the quarters was even topped by an inscription of ten symbols,each one a little more than a foot tall. Dholavira's magnificent gates couldn't change the fact that,in general,the people of the Indus Valley cities did not choose to build huge monuments to a king or religious ruler.Their cities were simple and workaday,without unnecessary flourishes or great pieces of monumental art.But towering high bbove the plain,with gleaming red-brick gateways and light gray mud-brick walls,they still must have been a commanding sight.

  • 日本語訳を!!c6-3

    お願いします!!続き Archaeologists know that the Indus script probably used both symbol-pictures and letters standing for different sounds.They have made out between 400 and 450 symbols,which are too few for a language without an alphabet and too many for a language with an alphabet.The script of the Mesopotamians,for example,used more than 600 symbols,each of which stood for a syllable and sometimes also for a whole word.The Canaanites,who lived to the west of Mesopotamia,later developedan alphabet of fewer than 50 symbols,each standing for a specific consonant. A lot of the examples we have of Indus script come from inscriptions on seals.The square seals of the Indus cities were made from a soft stone called steatite,or soapstone.The original color of the stone ranges from gray or tan to white.If the steatite was going to be used for a seal,the seal maker bleached it with a chemical solution and fired it in a kiln to make it hard and white.(For 100 years,archaeologists have been trying to figure out what that solution was,but no luck yet.) Some sealr were made from faience paste that could be molded,fired,and glazed.Faience is made from ground quartz that is melted and then reground to make a glassy paste.It can be colored with copper to make a blue-green or turquoise color,and then fired at high temperatures to make a shiny glazed object.

  • 日本語訳を! 6-(1)

    お願いします。 (1) In monster movies the Mummy lurches forward, dragging his leg. Ancient Egyptians wouldn't have been scared by this stumbling bag of rags. In fact, they would probably have pointed and laughed, because every Egyptian knew mummies don't lurch. They don't drag their legs. They walk with the grace of an athlete, because in the Field of Reeds, which is where the dead lived, that limp would magically disappear. Deaf in one ear? No problem. Festering wound? No problem. Perfect health is yours in the Field of Reeds. (2) The Egyptians imagined that the Field of Reeds looked like home―only better. A gentle river meandered through fertile fields while munching cows looked on. The cows were fat and happy. They didn't even need to swish their tails, because there were no annoying flies in the Field of Reeds. The fields were always bursting with ripe foods ready to pick. No one was ever sick or hungry, and best of all, no one had to work. (3) The trick was getting in. The Egyptians believed that everyone had three spirits―the Ba, the Ka, and the Akh. Each spirit played a different role when the body died. In its natural state, the Ba―the person's personality―looked like a bird with a miniature version of the dead person's head. After death the Ba lived in the tomb, but was free to come and go as it pleased. The Ba often went to the land of the living where it changed into anything it fancied.

  • 18-3日本語訳

    お願いします。  Ashoka wanted Kalinga not only for its riches,but also because the highways that connected north and south India ran right through the middle of the state.And war elephants or no war elephants,what Ashoka wanted,he usually got.His attack was brutal and effective.By the time the war was over,one out of every four Kalingans was dead or wounded.Many more had been taken prisoner and were separated from what was left of their families.Those who survived faced lives as broken and barren as their wrecked houses and ruined fields.Ashoka reported that“150,000”were deported,100,000 were killed,and many more died(from other causes).”  As Ashoka stared out over the ruins left by his armies,something changed.He'd seen the agony of defeated people before,but this was different.He was different.He remembered the lessons of dharma,artha,kama,and moksha,and realized suddenly that there was nothing honorable,creative,beautiful,or peaceful about this victory.  So Ashoka,who called himself“Beloved of the Deities,”sent out a royal edict,a message,which he had proclaimed in every village and carved into rock pillars for all to see:“After the Kalingas had been conquered,Beloved of the Deities came to feel a strong inclination towards dharma,a love for dharma,and for instruction of dharma.Now Beloved of the Deities feels deep remorse for having comquered the Kalingas.”  Ashoka adopted a new philosophy,one he called“conquest by dharma,”instead of by arms.As he explained in one of his proclamations:  I have had this edict written so that sons and great-grandsons may not consider making new conquests,or that if military conquests are made,that they be done with forbearance and light punishment,or better still that they consider making conquest by dharma only,for that bears fruit in this world and the next.May all their intense devotion be given to this which has result in this world and the next.