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お願いします!!続き Archaeologists know that the Indus script probably used both symbol-pictures and letters standing for different sounds.They have made out between 400 and 450 symbols,which are too few for a language without an alphabet and too many for a language with an alphabet.The script of the Mesopotamians,for example,used more than 600 symbols,each of which stood for a syllable and sometimes also for a whole word.The Canaanites,who lived to the west of Mesopotamia,later developedan alphabet of fewer than 50 symbols,each standing for a specific consonant. A lot of the examples we have of Indus script come from inscriptions on seals.The square seals of the Indus cities were made from a soft stone called steatite,or soapstone.The original color of the stone ranges from gray or tan to white.If the steatite was going to be used for a seal,the seal maker bleached it with a chemical solution and fired it in a kiln to make it hard and white.(For 100 years,archaeologists have been trying to figure out what that solution was,but no luck yet.) Some sealr were made from faience paste that could be molded,fired,and glazed.Faience is made from ground quartz that is melted and then reground to make a glassy paste.It can be colored with copper to make a blue-green or turquoise color,and then fired at high temperatures to make a shiny glazed object.


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    考古学者はインダス文字は、象徴画と、異なる音を表す文字の両方を使ったものと知っている。彼らは400から450のシンボルを解読しているが、これはアルファベットを持たない言語には少なすぎるし、アルファベットを有する言語にしては多すぎる。たとえば、メソポタミア人は音節、時には単語全体を表すシンボルを使い、その数は600以上だった。メソポタミアの西に住んでいたカナン人は、各シンボルが特定の子音を表す50個以下のアルファベットを案出した。          現存のインダス文字の多くは印章の文字に遡る。インダス地域の都市の印章は、凍石、あるいは石けん石と呼ばれる柔らかい石に彫られている。原石の色は灰色から淡黄色、白色の範囲にわたっているが。凍石が印章に使われる際には、印章彫りの職人がある薬品の溶液に晒し、竃で焼いて白色の硬度の高いものにした。(ここ百年の間、考古学者はこの薬品が何であるか特定しようとつとめてきたが未だ解明されてはいない)印章の中には、陶土をこねて型に入れ、釉薬をかけて作られたものもある。彩釉陶器は、石英の粉を溶解し、これを再び粉末状にしたガラスを練って作られた。これに青緑色あるいは空色を出すため銅で着色し、高い熱で焼いて彩釉陶器を作った。 (最初の部分は、インダス文字は、意味を表す象形文字と、音を表す表音文字との混成である、ということです。次は、純粋の表意文字なら漢字のように数が多く、音素を表す文字なら50も要らない、ということです。)





  • 日本語訳を!!c6-2

    お願いします!!続き Symbols scratched into pots after they were fired are called graffiti.Graffiti probably developed at the same time as potter's marks,around 4000 BCE,but the earliest examples from Harappa date to around 3300 BCE.They count as the earliest evidence for writing in the Indus Valley.By about 2800-2600 BCE,the symbols that began as graffiti had become a written language,one that was spreading rapidly throughout the region. Why did writing spread so quickly? For one thing,it was useful,especially to merchants who traveled throtghout the Indus Valley.They used square seals with animal designs and bold script across the the top to seal goods for trade.They also developed a system of tablets for keeping accounts.Archaeologists have recently found a building that was a kind of “mint” that made the tablets that merchants used to keep track of their goods. Merchants weren't the only people who were quick to see the power of the written word.Religious leaders may have used writing to record the names of deities and important religious rituals. Archaeologists have been trying to understand the Indus script for more than a hundred years-without any luck.For one thing,they've only found about 2,000 examples of it,and none of the examples has more than 23 symbols (most have only five).But they have been able to figure out a few of its features.They know that the Indus script is not directly related to any known writing system.They know that it was written from right to left (as is the script used to write Urdu,the modern language of Pakistan). But sometimes longer inscriptions are written from the right in the first line,then from left to right on the mext line,and so on,back and forth until the end.This type of writing style is called boustrophedon,a Greek word that means “as the ox turns,”because it moves down one row and up the next,the way oxen plow a field,or people mow the lawn.

  • 日本語訳を!c9-4

    お願いします!続き After about a month of travel,the ship from Dholavira arrived at the delta of the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers.Here they paused until the captain could hire a local fisherman to help guide the ship through the treacherous channels of the delta before it arrived at last in the great city of Ur. Many people of the Indus Valley had made the trip before,and some of them had probably settled there to live.The captain most likely would have contacted a merchant originally from the Indus Valley to help convert Mesopotamian weights and measures and interpret for his Akkadian-speaking customers. The people of southern Mesopotamia may have paid for some of their goods with fine embroidered woolen shawls and blankets.They might also have traded in silver from Anatolia,which was widely used in Mesopotamia,and perhaps even in the more valuable gold bangles from Egypt.These simple,round bracelets were a convenient way to measure and carry gold,and could be melted down and made into other objects. On the slower return journey,the captain stopped at Dilmun,the island that today is called Bahrain,and traded Mesopotamian silver and textiles for pearls from the Persian Gulf.He also stopped at Magan,in what is now Oman,for copper and large,heavy seashells. Finally,around the beginning of June,the captain would have seen the long red flag at the top of his mast begin to flap in the southwesterly winds.That meant it was time to set sail and catch the winds before the monsoon became too strong.After filling the water pots,he and his crew headed east to the mouth of the Indus and the Gulf of Kutch.The whole trip took almost five months,but he was coming home with a ship full of valuable things that he could sell for a good profit in Dholavira and up the Indus River at Mohenjo Daro.

  • 日本語訳を!c9-1

    お願いします! Have you ever learned a new word,a word you are sure you have never seen before? But after you learn it,this brand-new word suddenly pops up everywhere-in English and history books,on TV,on the radio,and on billboards,until you feel as though it is following you around? The discovery of the Indus Valley civilizations in the 1920s worked a little bit like that,too.Archaeologists looking at sites that dated around 2000 BCE everywhere from Mesopotamia to Oman to Central Asia began noticing little clues left here and there by members of the previously unknown Indus Valley civilization. In Mesopotamia,for example,archaeologists dug up the tomb of Queen Puabi of Ur.Unlike the practical Harappans,who buried their dead with a few meaningful ornaments and some pottery but kept most of their things for the living to use,Mesopotamian burials were extravagant.In the case of Queen Puabi,for example,more than 20 servants,including armed guards and musicians,went with her into her grave.Her clothing and jewelry and those of her attendants were decorated with copper,carnelian,and lapis lazuli beads and shell inlay-even though Mesopotamia did not have copper miner or sources for the precious stones and shell.She was also buried with a sled and other wooden furniture-even though Mesopotamia did not have large trees for lumber.So where on earth did the copper,beads,wood,and shell inlay come from? This inscription on a tablet was the first clue.According to the records the Mesopotamians kept,these goods came from a land called Meluhha.The reat Mesopotamian king Sargon boasted that traders from all over came to his city,calked Agade: The ships from Meluhha, the ships from Magan, The ships from Dilmun He made tie-up alongside The quay of Agade.

  • 日本語訳を!!c6-1

    お願いします!! What do you think is the world's most important invention? The wheel? The light bulb? If you asked most historians,they wouldn't hesitate:reading and writing,all the way.Just as pottery allowed ancient people to store food and goods in a place safe from water or insects,writing let people store knowledge.For the first time,the things people knew could be kept safe for their children,and not lost through their poor memories,sicknesses,or deaths.What's more,writing meant people could pass on information to others in different places or times.As long as people can read,they can know.The ability to read and write was-and is-power. Like a child who draws pictures before he or she writes words,ancient people first used symbols instead of letters.The first evidence for writing comes from pottery shards.Many ancient pots have marks on them that potters probably made before the clay was baked hard.That way each potter could tell which pots were hers,even when she shared a kiln with her neighbors.That's probably the first kind of writing you learned,too-your name,so you could mark every paper and drawing you made as yours.People started using these simple markings as early as 4500 BCE in the Indus Valley and continued using them long after the invention of writing. Potter's marks are scratched into the clay before firing,but many finished pieces of pottery have symbols that were scratched into them after they were fired,probably by their new owners.No one knows for sure what these symbols stand for.Archaeologists think that they might have been labdls that identified the contents of the pot,the name of the owner,or perhaps the name of tne person to whom it was being sent. If,for example,a wealthy man sent a pot of honey to a temple as an offering,he might have wanted to identify either himself or the temple where he was sending the gift.

  • 日本語訳を!!c7-2

    お願いします!!続き Althongh they were made by hand and not machine,the fired bricks used used for building in the cities came in just one size and shape:a rectangle about 11 inches long and 5 1/2 inches wide(28 cm by 14 cm).These fired bricks were so strong that some of them have been recycled and are being reused in modern buildings.Bricks weren't the only things that were the same size-walls and doorways throughout the Indus Valkey are about the same size and design.Even wells were lined with the same styles of wedge-shaped bricks.And every city had a drainage system for carrying away rainwater and sewage from toilets and bathing areas. Who decided to make one-size-fits-all bricks?Who said that street had to run north/south and east/west?Today' cities are full of differences-the size,style,orientation,and building materials of any ten buildings are almost never the same.So why were the ancient Indus cities so similar? Maybe because one person-or one small group of people-was making all the decisions.Maybe a strong gouernment or strong religious leaders told everyone what to do.But there is no sign of large palaces or temples-the buildings of powerful governments and religious leaders.Perhaps the people of the Indus Vally had religious or historical beliefs that taught them that they should build everything in the same way.No one knows for sure. The cities of the Indus Valley were very well organized.They were divided into walled neighborhoods,with each neighborhood specializing in one kind of work.Potters lived in one area,and coppersmiths lived in another.People probably lived with their extended families-children,parents,cousins,aunts and uncles,and grandparents-all doing the same kind of work.

  • 日本語訳を!c9-5

    お願いします!続き But the sea captain's voyage proves that the people of the Indus Valley could have been the source of some of the goods the Mesopotamians bought from “Meluhha.”What about blue lapis lazuli and tin (which they mixed with copper to make bronze),which are not found along either the Indus River or the coast of the Arabian Sea? It turns out that Indus River merchants followed more than one trade route.According to the later Ramayana,an Indian poem by Valmiki,“With the end of the rainy season,nature's traffic resumed on land,air,and water.”At the end of October,after the rains were over and the rivers had gone down to tgeir normal levels,a second group of Indus merchants packedtheir goods into flat-bottomed riverboats and headed north.Their journey upriver was frustratingly slow at first,as men and oxen walking along the banks strained to pull the riverboats against the current.Some ancient clay models of flat-bottomed riverboats have a hole in the center.This hole would have been used for either a mast or a pulling pole.A pulling pole is made by setting up a long pole with a rope tied to the top so that it does not get caught on bushes and trees along the edge of the river.People walk along the river edge pulling the boat,a painfully slow and difficult process that is called“walking”a boat up the river. The boats would have been even harder to pull laden with grain,butter,oil,and dried fish.Their cargo also included lightweight luxuries such as finely woven cotton,shell bangles,carved ivory gaming pieces for board games,strands of blue-green glazed faience beads,and the exquisite long carnelian beads.Inlaid furniture and painted pottery were packed carefully into woven baskets so that they could be loaded onto pack oxen or carried by porters.

  • 日本語訳をお願いします。4

    至急こちらをお願いします。続き Does that mean that there were no women potters in later times? Probably not.In many regions of South Asia,even though men may throw pottery using the wheel,the women and young girls do most of the clay preparation and fime decoration work. Not every community lived near riverbed clay deposits,of course,so not every village had its own potter.But they may have had some other precious resource.Young people who lived near the sea,for example,became skilled divers and shell workers.Shell was used to make small tools and ornaments,especially bangles. People who lived in the Baluchistan Mountains to the west or the Aravalli hills to the east of Indus Valley learned how to work the copper in their soil.At first they collected bits of copper that were already in metal form and pounded them into beads or small pins and knives.They also developed techniques for getting copper from copper ore.Metal workers used wood charcoal to make very hot fires that could melt the metal out of the rock.To make the charcoal,people had to cut down forests.Over thousands of years,the copper-producing areas became deforested. Like shell bangles,stone beads were very common in South Asia,where they were symbols of wealth and power.The earliest bead makers drilled stone beads of soft limestone and soapstone in the highlands of Baluchistan and the deserts of Rajasthan.There were also deposits of chert,a hard stone that is easy to split into sharp-edged tonls,and jasper,a kind of quartz,suitable for making drill bits.Later bead makers shaped and drilled other types of stones,such as green serpentine from Baluchistan and blue lapis lazuli from Afghanistan.

  • 日本語訳

    The vertical row count of scales below the lateral line (SBL) was modified from that of Hubbs and Lagler , the count being made upward and backward from the anal fin origin to the lateral line. の日本語訳を教えてください

  • 日本語訳を!!c6-4

    お願いします!!続き Seals were important symbols of power. Once an ancient South Asian“sealed”a box or a door with a piece of clay he had stamped with his seal,no one could open it without the sealer's permission.People who did not own anything of great value had no need for seals,so scholars suspect that they were used only by wealthy traders,landowners,or religious leaders.Because seals were so valuable,working like a signature that could be used to approve payments and trade,the city government probably controlled seal making. Once a seal was made,probably only one person used it.But sometimes a father might pass a seal down to his son,or a mother to her daughter.After a seal had been used for a while,its edges would get worn and rounded.It would no longer make very clear impressions.Since people wouldn't want anyone else using their seal,they were very careful about getting rid of their worn-out seals.Archaeologists at Harappa have uncovered heavily worn seals buried in the floor of a house.Lots of broken seals and tablets have also been discovered in the litter filling the streets or in trash pits.The ansient Indus people either buried their old seals or broke them into small pieces before they threw them away,the same way people today cut up their old credit cards. But the ancient South Asians have nothing to fear from the archaeologists who found them-at least until someone figures out how to read the script the seals are written in! Until someone finally gets to the bottom of that script,we'll never know the whole story of Harappa and her sister cities.No matter how carefully we look at the puzzle pieces,some of them are still missing.Even so,archaeologists have a lot of fun trying to put them together.

  • 日本語訳を!c9-2

    お願いします!続き At first,no modern scholar knew where Meluhha was.Then archaeologists realized that “Meluhha”must be the Akkadian (a Mesopotamian language) word for the land we know as the Indus Valley.Harappan merchants must have brought the precious stones and beautiful dark wood to Mesopotamia.These merchants would do almost anything for a profit,including sailing to Mesopotamia on the last winds of the winter monsoon. Imagine a sea captain from Dholavira,on India's northeastern coast,making the last preparations for his annual winter voyage to Mesopotamia.The northeast winds of the retreating monsoon were picking up,and he was anxious to roll the last big pottery storage jars into the hold of his ship.Although no boats from this period have survived,we know from seals and clay models that his boat was probably made of wood and included mast,sail,and central cabin.Shallow-bottomed riverboats,which did not have masts or sails,were also made of wood or of reed waterproofed with tar-in fact,some bits of tar with the impression of reeds still survive in Oman. Our captain's crew set up a small kitchen with a cooking area in a corner of the boat protected from the wind.They hung strings of onions and garlic from the roof,and stowed small clay pots filled with ginger,salt,and spices on shelves built along the kitchen's back wall.They piled stacks of firewood and dried cow dung chips for cooking fuel on the deck,wherever they could find room in between long black beams of shisham wood(Indian rosewood) for which the Mesopotamian carpenters and shipbuilders would pay a high price.