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お願いします!! What do you think is the world's most important invention? The wheel? The light bulb? If you asked most historians,they wouldn't hesitate:reading and writing,all the way.Just as pottery allowed ancient people to store food and goods in a place safe from water or insects,writing let people store knowledge.For the first time,the things people knew could be kept safe for their children,and not lost through their poor memories,sicknesses,or deaths.What's more,writing meant people could pass on information to others in different places or times.As long as people can read,they can know.The ability to read and write was-and is-power. Like a child who draws pictures before he or she writes words,ancient people first used symbols instead of letters.The first evidence for writing comes from pottery shards.Many ancient pots have marks on them that potters probably made before the clay was baked hard.That way each potter could tell which pots were hers,even when she shared a kiln with her neighbors.That's probably the first kind of writing you learned,too-your name,so you could mark every paper and drawing you made as yours.People started using these simple markings as early as 4500 BCE in the Indus Valley and continued using them long after the invention of writing. Potter's marks are scratched into the clay before firing,but many finished pieces of pottery have symbols that were scratched into them after they were fired,probably by their new owners.No one knows for sure what these symbols stand for.Archaeologists think that they might have been labdls that identified the contents of the pot,the name of the owner,or perhaps the name of tne person to whom it was being sent. If,for example,a wealthy man sent a pot of honey to a temple as an offering,he might have wanted to identify either himself or the temple where he was sending the gift.


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あなたは世界で最も重要な発明は何だと思いますか?車?電球?あなたはほとんどの歴史家を尋ねたら、彼らは躊躇しません:読み取りと、陶器、古代人は、初めての書き込み、水や昆虫から安全な場所に食品や物品を格納するために認められているすべての書く方法、人々は知っていたものは彼らの子供のための安全な保管、さらに、書くことを意味し、人々がさまざまな場所や人が読み取ることができる限り、他人に情報を渡すことができ、その悪い思い出、病気が、または死を通じて失われていないことができます、彼らはされたとある電力を読み書きする能力を知ることができます。 終わる前に絵を描くか、彼女は言葉は、最初の粘土は、ハードベーキングされる前の陶工は、おそらく作ったそれらにマークしている書き込み用文字。最初の証拠の代わりにシンボルを用い陶器。多くの古代の鉢から来る古代の人々を書き込む子供のように。そのそれぞれの陶工は、彼女のは、おそらくあなたも、あなたの名前、学習書き込みの最初の種類は、ので、すべての紙をマークし、あなたが人として行わ描画ができると窯を共有していた場合でも、鍋が彼女だったかを伝えることができる方法インダスバレーの4500 BCEには早くもこれらの単純なマーキングを使用して開始し、執筆の発明後、彼らは長い間使用し続けた。 ポッターのマークは、焼成前に粘土の中に傷がなく、陶器の多くは完成した作品は、彼らが解雇された後、ずれかがこれらのシンボルは考古学に立つものを確実に知ることによって、それらに傷されたシンボルを持っていることを彼らは思われる方ポット、所有者の名前、あるいはそれが送られていた誰にTNE人の名前の内容を識別してきました。例えば、裕福な人がささげ物として神殿に蜂蜜のポットを送信した場合、彼は彼自身または彼は贈り物を送った寺のいずれかを識別したいと思っていたかもしれません。





  • 日本語訳を!!c6-2

    お願いします!!続き Symbols scratched into pots after they were fired are called graffiti.Graffiti probably developed at the same time as potter's marks,around 4000 BCE,but the earliest examples from Harappa date to around 3300 BCE.They count as the earliest evidence for writing in the Indus Valley.By about 2800-2600 BCE,the symbols that began as graffiti had become a written language,one that was spreading rapidly throughout the region. Why did writing spread so quickly? For one thing,it was useful,especially to merchants who traveled throtghout the Indus Valley.They used square seals with animal designs and bold script across the the top to seal goods for trade.They also developed a system of tablets for keeping accounts.Archaeologists have recently found a building that was a kind of “mint” that made the tablets that merchants used to keep track of their goods. Merchants weren't the only people who were quick to see the power of the written word.Religious leaders may have used writing to record the names of deities and important religious rituals. Archaeologists have been trying to understand the Indus script for more than a hundred years-without any luck.For one thing,they've only found about 2,000 examples of it,and none of the examples has more than 23 symbols (most have only five).But they have been able to figure out a few of its features.They know that the Indus script is not directly related to any known writing system.They know that it was written from right to left (as is the script used to write Urdu,the modern language of Pakistan). But sometimes longer inscriptions are written from the right in the first line,then from left to right on the mext line,and so on,back and forth until the end.This type of writing style is called boustrophedon,a Greek word that means “as the ox turns,”because it moves down one row and up the next,the way oxen plow a field,or people mow the lawn.

  • 日本語訳を! 4-(2)

    お願いします。  At first the pictures stood for the real thing. A picture of the sun meant "the sun." As you can imagine, being able to write about only objects is limiting. How would you write the word "hot"? There is no object named "hot." So the pictures began to stand for ideas related to the object. A picture of the sun might mean light, or day, or―hot. It wasn't long before this was limiting, too. How would you write the word "belief"? What object could you draw that is related to the word belief? But if the objects could also represent a sound, then you could write "belief" as a picture of a bee followed by the picture of a leaf and the reader would be able to figure it out. (This example is an English word. The word for belief in Egyptian would be different, of course.)  It wasn't long before there were hundreds of symbols. Reading them was as complicated as writing them because Egyptian writers, called scribes, sometimes wrote right to left, sometimes left to right, and sometimes top to bottom (but never bottom to top). The only clue to which direction you should be reading the inscription was the way the animals and people faced. You read toward the faces.  There was no punctuation. There were no periods or question marks so that the reader would know where one sentence ended and the next began. Not even a space between words helped to make the meaning clear. And if that doesn't complicate things enough, the fact that vowels were not used does. Imagine not being able to write a vowel, or should we write mgnntbngllwdtwrtvwl, or worse yet, lwvtrwtdwllgnbtnngm?

  • 17-1日本語訳

    お願いします。  Have you ever gone camping? People who love to camp often talk about how well they can see the stars away from city lights.They talk about noticing how early some birds wake up in the morning,and how after a few days they have figured out the best places to find lizards or wild blueberries.When you're camping,you're living close to the earth.(Some people think too close!)You have the time to see patterns that you wouldn't notice in ordinary life-like the way mint stems are square,with leaves that stick out opposite each other,and that the best time to find salamanders is after it has rained.When you go camping,you can't help noticing and wondering about the natural world.You can't help being a scientist.  The peoples of ancient India lived close to the land all the time.In a way,they were all scientists.They may not have had the tools that modern scientists do.They never learned about magnifying lenses,so they had no microscopes or telescopes.They certainly didn't have any laboratories with gleaming glassware and stainless steel sinks.But they were curious about the world in which they lived,they paid attention,and they discovered some wonderful things.  The earliest and longest lasting of their discoveries are included in the traditional Indian medicine form called Ayurveda.Ayurveda has been around in one form or another for 5,000 years.It includes all kinds of treatments,such as herbal medicine,surgery,yoga,meditation,and massage,and teaches that disease often starts first in the mind.A lot of people still use Ayurveda.For example,many Indian mothers massage their babies with oils and apply heavy black eyeliner around their children's eyes.They believe that the massages help soothe their children and prevent stomabh pains,and that the eyeliner protects their children's eyes from infections and the bright Indian sun.

  • 日本語訳を! 4-(1)

    お願いします。  Humans are fascinated by firsts. Who was the first to step on the moon, the first to cross the sea―the first to write? Until recently, scientists thought the earliest writers were the Sumerians in Mesopotamia (which today is Iraq). But 300 pieces of pots no bigger than postage stamps are suggesting that writing began just as early in Egypt.  Scientists have been digging for decades in Abydos, an ancient royal cemetery west of the Nile, 300 miles south of Cairo. The ancient Egyptians buried their first kings in Abydos because they believed the mouth to the canyon there was the entrance to the next world. In a tomb that could be King Scorpion's, scientists are finding hundreds of pieces of pottery with some of the earliest writings in the world.  What words inspired some ancient Egyptian to invent writing? Were the words poetic? Were they wise? Did they reveal the true meaning of life? Did they point the way to the nearest watering hole? Nothing quite so meaningful―the inscriptions on the clay jars and vases are records of oil and linen deliveries. There was no money 5,300 years ago. Taxes were paid in goods. Sometimes they were paid with oil and linen. These very early written words were tax records. There is a saying that nothing in life is certain―except death and taxes. Maybe it's fitting that some of the earliest writings are tax records found in a cemetery.  We take writing for granted. In those first school years we carefully learn to draw the letters. We recite the sound each letter makes. But suppose no one had writtin before us, no teacher to show us what a letter looks like, no sound to go with it. How would you begin to write? The Egyptians began with pictures.

  • 日本語訳を! 4-(3)

    お願いします。  To the ancient Egyptians the written word was more than just a few scratches in clay. To them, once written, words had an eternal life―a voice. They could even be dangerous. For protection the picture of a crocodile was ofen drawn with a spear through it, or the snake drawn with its head chopped off. Imagine being afraid to write the word "beast" because you believed it could come to life and get you―talk about nightmares!  Egyptians called their writing medu neter, which means "words of god." Thousands of years later the Greeks named there writings hieroglyphs, which means "sacred carvings," because they found them covering temples and tombs.  Very few people in ancient Egypt could read and write, perhaps only 1 percent of the population. Imagine being one of the few who possessed the power to give a word life. Imagine being the keeper of the "words of god." The scribes shared this mysterious skill with rulers and gods.  Learning hieroglyphs wasn't easy. There were more than 700 signs to memorize. It took students years to master them. While other children were outside playing, the students studying to be scribes spent their days bent over pieces of pottery, drawing and re-drawing the hieroglyphs. Students erasedtheir work with a wet rag and started again until they had pleased their teachers.

  • 日本語訳を!!c7-6

    お願いします!!続き When did you begin to go on digs?While I was in college.But I started late.Some of my colleagues started when they were kids by going to day programs where you'd volunteer for a day and do some digging. Did you decide to go to South Asia because that's where your professors were working?No.Not at all.I had to work really hard to get over there.I knew I wanted to work nn ancient cities,but there are lots of places where I could that.I'm erom southern California,kind of he ddge nf the desert,and it's what I was used to,so I wanted to work some place arid,where you aren't tortured to death by bugs.I also wanted to go somewhere the snakes stay on the ground instead of dropping on you.My undergraduate professors at Rice University worked in West Africa,where there is completely fascinating archaeology,but way too many too diseases. What did you do at Harappa?I looked for kiln sites,to see where in the city people were manufacturing pottery,copper,faience,and other things.I did what's called a total walkover.That means I walked over the entire surface of the site at onemeter intervals with a very good assistant looking for a special type of debris characteristic of these crafts.You get melted bits of pottery,or pieces of crucible [small pots used for melting metal] with a little bit of metal left on it.We found that they were manufacturing in lots of different parts of the city.There wasn't a special quarter,like an industrial park.

  • 日本語訳をお願いします 2

    お願いします!! 続き Carved stone seals were common in the ancient world.Merchants and government officials stamped them into soft clay instead of writing a signature.The seals were usually decorated with pictures of animals and sometimes a few signs or symbols.Cunningham's seal had an animal and some lines that could have been letters.Except that the creature on his seal was not the usual bull or tiger,but something that looked like a one-horned bull-a unicorn.And if the lines were the letters or symbols of a language,it was not a script anyone had ever seen before. Alexander Cunningham spent the rest of his life thinking that his dig at Harappa in the Punjab had been a failure.He never realized that the seal he had found was a key to an unknown civilization,a civilization that no one ever suspected had existed.Before the seal was found at Harappa,archaeologists had believed that the oldest cities in India and Pakistan dated from about 700 BCE.They were wrong.The crumbling bricks that the engineers had used to raise the railroad out of the mud were 5,000 years old.They were what was left of an ancient civilization as large and well organized as those of Egypt and Mesopotamia.Historians call it the Indus civilization. The Indus civilization peaked with 1,500 settlements and serveral large cities,some with populations of up to 80,000 people.Its artisans were among the most skilled in the world,and its people traded with Mesopotamia and Central Asia.But in some ways,it was an easy civilization to overlook.Its people didn't build great pyramids or fancy tombs,as the Egyptians did.They didn't fight great battles and leave a great written legacy,like the Mesopotamians.

  • 日本語訳を!c13-2

    お願いします!続き  A person who could call the deities to sacrifice was a very special person indeed.These were the Brahmin teachers.In the Vedic books called the Upanishads,they teach and talk bbout the Ultimate Supreme Being,called Brahman.Many religious people believed that the Ultimate Supreme Being pervaded all of creation.According to the Upanishads,“The finest essence here-that constitutes the self of this whole world; that is the truth; that is the self.And that's how you are....”Knowledge of Brahman made one enlightened and stopped the endless cycle of death and rebirth.But even if you were a Brahmin,there were no guarantees that you would be enlightened.  Being good was not enough to be reincarnated as a human,never mind to reach the level of Brahman.You also had to purify yourself through special lituals.People tried to wash away the sins that they committed during their life through rituals such as bathing in sacred rivers,singing hymns to the deities,giving alms to the poor and to charitable organizatioms,and taking care of old and weak animals as well as people.They gave away all their wealth,devoted themselves to meditation, and made pilgrimages to sacred places.  Many of these sacred places were found along the shores of India's Ganga River.Just as the Indus Valley civilization grew from the life-giving waters of the Indus and Saraswati Rivers,so the Brahmanical religion grew up along the banks of the Ganga River.The people of ancient South Asia thought of the river as a beautiful deity.According to the Ramayama,“[The]Ganga[river is]flowing along the valley,coming down from the Himalayas,carrying within her the essence of rare herbs and elements found on her way.She courses through many a kingdom,and every inch of the ground she touches becomes holy.”

  • 日本語訳を!(12)

    お願いします (1) Ancient Egyptians didn't worry about ending up on the worst-dressed list. No one appeared in carvings on the temple walls with a blurry blob over his face to mask the identity of a "fashion don't." But that't not because Egyptians weren't into grooming. The Greek historian Herodotus wrote that they were obsessed with it. The Egyptians weren't concerned about what to wear because, unlike today, where styles change every season, Egyptian fashion remained the same for thousands of years. (2) So what would an Egyptian fashion magazine look like (other than the fact it would be written on papyrus, need only one issue every 1,000 years or so, and could only be read by a few people since only about 1 percent of Egyptians could read)? (3) The cover girl's head would be shown in profile―that was how Egyptian artists drew people. She would be wearing a simple linen tube called a kalasiris that fell loosely to just above her ankles. If a man posed for the cover, he'd be dressed in a linen skirt, or schenti, that wrapped around his hips. That's what people wore, rich or poor. How the outfit was made could be quite different, though. If you happened to be royalty, your kalasiris or schenti would be woven from the finest plants, called flax, into a sheer, flowing, baby-soft linen. Weavers might then embroider the linen with thread of spun gold. If you happened to be an unskilled laborer, your clothes would be a bit scratchy because the fabric was woven from coarse vegetable fibers. (4) An ancient fashion magazine would certainly have ads for jewelry. Ancient Egyptians loved their jewelry, especially rings. They wore two or three on every finger. Even the poorest class wove grass and wildflowers for necklaces, bracelets, and rings. Jewelry wasn't just for women. Men were just as fashion conscious. Many male mummies have pierced ears. The king awarded his soldiers and faithful followers with large hoop earrings and gold jewelry known as "Gold of the Brave."

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (16) For the lucky children, there was school (but it was rare for a girl to be that lucky). Education was a privilege for a select few. The majority of children never learned to read or write. Education began for children at about five years old. Those who did go to school walked, carrying a lunch of bread cakes and drinks. Or, if they were wealthy enough, tutors came to their home. During the Middle Kingdom, temples and palaces built Houses of Instruction where a chosen group of boys trained for their future jobs. In school, children sat cross-legged on the floor and recited passages over and over and over again. When they knew the sayings by heart they would write them over and over and over again. Papyrus was too expensive to waste on school children, so students practiced their penmanship with reed brushes and ink cakes (just like watercolors) on polished limestone or pieces of pottery. If tax collecting was in the limestone or pieces of pottery. If tax collecting was in the student's future, he would learn arithmetic, too. Teachers expected their students to work hard and were quick to whip those who didn't. One scribe wrote, "Don't waste your day in idleness, or you will be flogged. A boy's ear is on his back. He listens when he is beaten." (17) At 12 or 14 it was time to marry and begin a family. For in the words of a New Kingdom scribe, "Take to yourselves a wife while you are young, so that she may give you a son. You should begat him for yourself when you are still young, and should live to see him become a man." And above all, "Make a holiday! And do not tire of playing!"