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お願いします!! What do you think is the world's most important invention? The wheel? The light bulb? If you asked most historians,they wouldn't hesitate:reading and writing,all the way.Just as pottery allowed ancient people to store food and goods in a place safe from water or insects,writing let people store knowledge.For the first time,the things people knew could be kept safe for their children,and not lost through their poor memories,sicknesses,or deaths.What's more,writing meant people could pass on information to others in different places or times.As long as people can read,they can know.The ability to read and write was-and is-power. Like a child who draws pictures before he or she writes words,ancient people first used symbols instead of letters.The first evidence for writing comes from pottery shards.Many ancient pots have marks on them that potters probably made before the clay was baked hard.That way each potter could tell which pots were hers,even when she shared a kiln with her neighbors.That's probably the first kind of writing you learned,too-your name,so you could mark every paper and drawing you made as yours.People started using these simple markings as early as 4500 BCE in the Indus Valley and continued using them long after the invention of writing. Potter's marks are scratched into the clay before firing,but many finished pieces of pottery have symbols that were scratched into them after they were fired,probably by their new owners.No one knows for sure what these symbols stand for.Archaeologists think that they might have been labdls that identified the contents of the pot,the name of the owner,or perhaps the name of tne person to whom it was being sent. If,for example,a wealthy man sent a pot of honey to a temple as an offering,he might have wanted to identify either himself or the temple where he was sending the gift.


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あなたは世界で最も重要な発明は何だと思いますか?車?電球?あなたはほとんどの歴史家を尋ねたら、彼らは躊躇しません:読み取りと、陶器、古代人は、初めての書き込み、水や昆虫から安全な場所に食品や物品を格納するために認められているすべての書く方法、人々は知っていたものは彼らの子供のための安全な保管、さらに、書くことを意味し、人々がさまざまな場所や人が読み取ることができる限り、他人に情報を渡すことができ、その悪い思い出、病気が、または死を通じて失われていないことができます、彼らはされたとある電力を読み書きする能力を知ることができます。 終わる前に絵を描くか、彼女は言葉は、最初の粘土は、ハードベーキングされる前の陶工は、おそらく作ったそれらにマークしている書き込み用文字。最初の証拠の代わりにシンボルを用い陶器。多くの古代の鉢から来る古代の人々を書き込む子供のように。そのそれぞれの陶工は、彼女のは、おそらくあなたも、あなたの名前、学習書き込みの最初の種類は、ので、すべての紙をマークし、あなたが人として行わ描画ができると窯を共有していた場合でも、鍋が彼女だったかを伝えることができる方法インダスバレーの4500 BCEには早くもこれらの単純なマーキングを使用して開始し、執筆の発明後、彼らは長い間使用し続けた。 ポッターのマークは、焼成前に粘土の中に傷がなく、陶器の多くは完成した作品は、彼らが解雇された後、ずれかがこれらのシンボルは考古学に立つものを確実に知ることによって、それらに傷されたシンボルを持っていることを彼らは思われる方ポット、所有者の名前、あるいはそれが送られていた誰にTNE人の名前の内容を識別してきました。例えば、裕福な人がささげ物として神殿に蜂蜜のポットを送信した場合、彼は彼自身または彼は贈り物を送った寺のいずれかを識別したいと思っていたかもしれません。





  • 日本語訳を!!c6-2

    お願いします!!続き Symbols scratched into pots after they were fired are called graffiti.Graffiti probably developed at the same time as potter's marks,around 4000 BCE,but the earliest examples from Harappa date to around 3300 BCE.They count as the earliest evidence for writing in the Indus Valley.By about 2800-2600 BCE,the symbols that began as graffiti had become a written language,one that was spreading rapidly throughout the region. Why did writing spread so quickly? For one thing,it was useful,especially to merchants who traveled throtghout the Indus Valley.They used square seals with animal designs and bold script across the the top to seal goods for trade.They also developed a system of tablets for keeping accounts.Archaeologists have recently found a building that was a kind of “mint” that made the tablets that merchants used to keep track of their goods. Merchants weren't the only people who were quick to see the power of the written word.Religious leaders may have used writing to record the names of deities and important religious rituals. Archaeologists have been trying to understand the Indus script for more than a hundred years-without any luck.For one thing,they've only found about 2,000 examples of it,and none of the examples has more than 23 symbols (most have only five).But they have been able to figure out a few of its features.They know that the Indus script is not directly related to any known writing system.They know that it was written from right to left (as is the script used to write Urdu,the modern language of Pakistan). But sometimes longer inscriptions are written from the right in the first line,then from left to right on the mext line,and so on,back and forth until the end.This type of writing style is called boustrophedon,a Greek word that means “as the ox turns,”because it moves down one row and up the next,the way oxen plow a field,or people mow the lawn.

  • 日本語訳を!c13-1

    お願いします!  “All creatures from Brahma to the small insect have to face the result of their deeds,”said the Vedic deity Vishnu. If you were a student who never practiced your Vedas,or a farmer who let your land go to seed,or a craftsman who sold leaky pots,your parents or your wife or your customers would probably get angry with you.But that's not all.What Vishnu meant was that you could pay in your next life for not meeting your duties in this one.Your actions had results,which were called karma.Many ancient South Asians believed that most people's souls came back into the world after they died,and not necessarily in a human body.  On the other hand,if you were especially good,you could come back as a Brahmin.Brahmins were considered to be the most pure of all human beings.Only they knew the hymns and rituals from the Vedas to call the deities to the fire sacrifice.They knew how to start a fire with a bow drill and,once that fire was started,how to offer sacrificed animals and clarified butter(or“ghee”)to the flames as they chanted special hymns.  By around 1000 BCE,the Vedic rituals practiced by Brahmins began to change.Earlier traditions of the Indus civilization and other local beliefs began to creep back into use.The Brahmins began to use Harappan-style conch-shell ladles to pour sacrifices and blow Harappan-style conch shells to call the deities.They began to practice the ancient Harappan discipline of yoga and decorate the floors where they performed rituals with sacred designs called mandalas,made out of powdered conch shells and rice powder.

  • 日本語訳を!c13-2

    お願いします!続き  A person who could call the deities to sacrifice was a very special person indeed.These were the Brahmin teachers.In the Vedic books called the Upanishads,they teach and talk bbout the Ultimate Supreme Being,called Brahman.Many religious people believed that the Ultimate Supreme Being pervaded all of creation.According to the Upanishads,“The finest essence here-that constitutes the self of this whole world; that is the truth; that is the self.And that's how you are....”Knowledge of Brahman made one enlightened and stopped the endless cycle of death and rebirth.But even if you were a Brahmin,there were no guarantees that you would be enlightened.  Being good was not enough to be reincarnated as a human,never mind to reach the level of Brahman.You also had to purify yourself through special lituals.People tried to wash away the sins that they committed during their life through rituals such as bathing in sacred rivers,singing hymns to the deities,giving alms to the poor and to charitable organizatioms,and taking care of old and weak animals as well as people.They gave away all their wealth,devoted themselves to meditation, and made pilgrimages to sacred places.  Many of these sacred places were found along the shores of India's Ganga River.Just as the Indus Valley civilization grew from the life-giving waters of the Indus and Saraswati Rivers,so the Brahmanical religion grew up along the banks of the Ganga River.The people of ancient South Asia thought of the river as a beautiful deity.According to the Ramayama,“[The]Ganga[river is]flowing along the valley,coming down from the Himalayas,carrying within her the essence of rare herbs and elements found on her way.She courses through many a kingdom,and every inch of the ground she touches becomes holy.”

  • 日本語訳を!c10-3

    お願いします!続き The way that people buried their dead changed during the Late Harappan times.At first,they changed only the way they placed the bodies,which were buried on their side and oriented northeast to southwest instead of north and south.The dead were buried with pottery and occasionally ornaments.Later,burial practices really changed.The dead body was left in the open and exposed to animals and insects until only the bones were left.Later,people collected the bones of the dead and put them into a large painted jar that was buried along with smaller pots and offerings,The pottery from the earlier burials looked like Harappan pottery-now the urns used for pot burials had very different painted designs.Changing religious ideas during a difficult time could have been the cause of these new styles.Or,a new people might have introduced them. By 1200 BCE,weapons and tools made of iron began to appear.By 600 BCE,iron was common.Although scholars used to think the South Asians learned how to make iron from people in Turkey,they now believe South Asians discovered it for themselves. And does the appearance of iron weapons mean that people were fighting wars in South Asia? Scriptures called the Rig Veda,which probably come from this time although they weren't written down until several hundred years later,describe forests being cut down as well as the rain and thunder deity Indus destroying forts and conquering his enemies: With all-outstripping chariot-wheel,O Indra,thou far-famed,hast overthrown the twice ten kings of men... Thou goest on from fight to fight intrepidly,destroying castle after castle here witg strength.

  • 日本語訳をお願いします 2

    お願いします!! 続き Carved stone seals were common in the ancient world.Merchants and government officials stamped them into soft clay instead of writing a signature.The seals were usually decorated with pictures of animals and sometimes a few signs or symbols.Cunningham's seal had an animal and some lines that could have been letters.Except that the creature on his seal was not the usual bull or tiger,but something that looked like a one-horned bull-a unicorn.And if the lines were the letters or symbols of a language,it was not a script anyone had ever seen before. Alexander Cunningham spent the rest of his life thinking that his dig at Harappa in the Punjab had been a failure.He never realized that the seal he had found was a key to an unknown civilization,a civilization that no one ever suspected had existed.Before the seal was found at Harappa,archaeologists had believed that the oldest cities in India and Pakistan dated from about 700 BCE.They were wrong.The crumbling bricks that the engineers had used to raise the railroad out of the mud were 5,000 years old.They were what was left of an ancient civilization as large and well organized as those of Egypt and Mesopotamia.Historians call it the Indus civilization. The Indus civilization peaked with 1,500 settlements and serveral large cities,some with populations of up to 80,000 people.Its artisans were among the most skilled in the world,and its people traded with Mesopotamia and Central Asia.But in some ways,it was an easy civilization to overlook.Its people didn't build great pyramids or fancy tombs,as the Egyptians did.They didn't fight great battles and leave a great written legacy,like the Mesopotamians.

  • 日本語訳を!!c7-6

    お願いします!!続き When did you begin to go on digs?While I was in college.But I started late.Some of my colleagues started when they were kids by going to day programs where you'd volunteer for a day and do some digging. Did you decide to go to South Asia because that's where your professors were working?No.Not at all.I had to work really hard to get over there.I knew I wanted to work nn ancient cities,but there are lots of places where I could that.I'm erom southern California,kind of he ddge nf the desert,and it's what I was used to,so I wanted to work some place arid,where you aren't tortured to death by bugs.I also wanted to go somewhere the snakes stay on the ground instead of dropping on you.My undergraduate professors at Rice University worked in West Africa,where there is completely fascinating archaeology,but way too many too diseases. What did you do at Harappa?I looked for kiln sites,to see where in the city people were manufacturing pottery,copper,faience,and other things.I did what's called a total walkover.That means I walked over the entire surface of the site at onemeter intervals with a very good assistant looking for a special type of debris characteristic of these crafts.You get melted bits of pottery,or pieces of crucible [small pots used for melting metal] with a little bit of metal left on it.We found that they were manufacturing in lots of different parts of the city.There wasn't a special quarter,like an industrial park.

  • 17-5日本語訳

    お願いします。  The people of ancient India,like those of ancient Rome,used a counting board to keep track of sums.A counting board had columns marked off,each standing for units of 1,10,100,and so on.You put pebbles or other counters in each column to stand for your number.So far,so good,you could easily record how many pebbles were in each column.But if one of the columns was empty,things got sticky.Without zero,two ones could stand for one 100 and one 1,or one 10 and one 1,or-you get the idea.Finally,someone had the bright idea of putting a small dot(which later became a circle)wherever there was an empty column.In fact,the Sanskrit word for zero is shunya,which means“empty.”  By making arithmetic easier,the invention of zero has probably had more impact on the daily lives of people than any other scientific or technological discovery from ancient India.But if you'd asked a Mauryan emperor like Chandragupta what invention was most important to the strength of his kingdom,he probably would have told you the process of smelting iron.

  • 日本語訳を! 4-(3)

    お願いします。  To the ancient Egyptians the written word was more than just a few scratches in clay. To them, once written, words had an eternal life―a voice. They could even be dangerous. For protection the picture of a crocodile was ofen drawn with a spear through it, or the snake drawn with its head chopped off. Imagine being afraid to write the word "beast" because you believed it could come to life and get you―talk about nightmares!  Egyptians called their writing medu neter, which means "words of god." Thousands of years later the Greeks named there writings hieroglyphs, which means "sacred carvings," because they found them covering temples and tombs.  Very few people in ancient Egypt could read and write, perhaps only 1 percent of the population. Imagine being one of the few who possessed the power to give a word life. Imagine being the keeper of the "words of god." The scribes shared this mysterious skill with rulers and gods.  Learning hieroglyphs wasn't easy. There were more than 700 signs to memorize. It took students years to master them. While other children were outside playing, the students studying to be scribes spent their days bent over pieces of pottery, drawing and re-drawing the hieroglyphs. Students erasedtheir work with a wet rag and started again until they had pleased their teachers.

  • 17-1日本語訳

    お願いします。  Have you ever gone camping? People who love to camp often talk about how well they can see the stars away from city lights.They talk about noticing how early some birds wake up in the morning,and how after a few days they have figured out the best places to find lizards or wild blueberries.When you're camping,you're living close to the earth.(Some people think too close!)You have the time to see patterns that you wouldn't notice in ordinary life-like the way mint stems are square,with leaves that stick out opposite each other,and that the best time to find salamanders is after it has rained.When you go camping,you can't help noticing and wondering about the natural world.You can't help being a scientist.  The peoples of ancient India lived close to the land all the time.In a way,they were all scientists.They may not have had the tools that modern scientists do.They never learned about magnifying lenses,so they had no microscopes or telescopes.They certainly didn't have any laboratories with gleaming glassware and stainless steel sinks.But they were curious about the world in which they lived,they paid attention,and they discovered some wonderful things.  The earliest and longest lasting of their discoveries are included in the traditional Indian medicine form called Ayurveda.Ayurveda has been around in one form or another for 5,000 years.It includes all kinds of treatments,such as herbal medicine,surgery,yoga,meditation,and massage,and teaches that disease often starts first in the mind.A lot of people still use Ayurveda.For example,many Indian mothers massage their babies with oils and apply heavy black eyeliner around their children's eyes.They believe that the massages help soothe their children and prevent stomabh pains,and that the eyeliner protects their children's eyes from infections and the bright Indian sun.

  • 日本語訳を!c10-1

    お願いします! “Like a bronze city,surpassing all other rivers and waters,pure in her course from the mountains to the sea”is how the Saraswati River is described in ancient South Asian scripture called the Rig Veda.And yet 100 years ago,historians didn't know anything about the river.That's because in about 1900 BCE,the Saraswati River was beginning to dry up.What was a farmer to do? During the Late Harappan period,from 1900 to 1,000 BCE,many people,confused and frightened by the change in the land they knew so well and desperate for food and water,packed up what was left of their shriveled farms and moved to the cities on the Indus and Ravi Rivers or new farmlands in the Ganga plain. Soon the countryside was no longer good for farmers because the rivers had dried up.Even more people poured into the cities,which were full to overflowing.Looking for safety and shelter,the new immigrants built shacks anywhere they could find a corner find a corner to call their own.When the cornerr were gone,they started building shacks in the middle of the street.The government could not keep up with the overcrowding,and garbage began to build up in the streets. At about the same time,just after 1900 BCE,merchants stopped traveling to distant places to find precious goods such as turquoise,lapis lazuli,and carnelian to bring to the city to sell.Craftsmen began making glassy faience that looked like turquoise,lapis lazuli,and red carnelian for customers who could no longer find the real thing.These lookalikes were so good that they sometimes fooled even modern archaeologists until the“stones”were examined under a microscope.In time the craftmen learned how to make true glass that could be colored the reddish brown of carnelian and the black and white of agates,the stone that marbles are made from.