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お願いします!!続き When did you begin to go on digs?While I was in college.But I started late.Some of my colleagues started when they were kids by going to day programs where you'd volunteer for a day and do some digging. Did you decide to go to South Asia because that's where your professors were working?No.Not at all.I had to work really hard to get over there.I knew I wanted to work nn ancient cities,but there are lots of places where I could that.I'm erom southern California,kind of he ddge nf the desert,and it's what I was used to,so I wanted to work some place arid,where you aren't tortured to death by bugs.I also wanted to go somewhere the snakes stay on the ground instead of dropping on you.My undergraduate professors at Rice University worked in West Africa,where there is completely fascinating archaeology,but way too many too diseases. What did you do at Harappa?I looked for kiln sites,to see where in the city people were manufacturing pottery,copper,faience,and other things.I did what's called a total walkover.That means I walked over the entire surface of the site at onemeter intervals with a very good assistant looking for a special type of debris characteristic of these crafts.You get melted bits of pottery,or pieces of crucible [small pots used for melting metal] with a little bit of metal left on it.We found that they were manufacturing in lots of different parts of the city.There wasn't a special quarter,like an industrial park.


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  • sayshe
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いつ、あなたは、発掘を始めたのですか?私が大学にいた頃です。しかし、始めるのが遅れました。私の同僚の何人かは、一日志願して、いくらかの発掘をするデイ・プログラムに行くことによって、彼らが子供のころに始めました。あなたは南アジアに行くことに決めたのは、そこがあなたの教授が働いていたところだったからですか?いいえ。全くそうではありません。私は、そこに行くには、本当に一生懸命に働かなければなりませんでした。私は古代都市に取り組みたいということがわかっていましたが、私がそうすることができそうな場所はたくさんあります。私は南カリフォルニアの砂漠の端の方の出身です、それで、砂漠は、私が慣れていたものですから、私はどこか乾燥した、死ぬほど虫に苦しまないところで働きたいと思いました。私は、また、どこか、蛇が上から落ちてこないで、地面にいるところに行きたいと思っていました。ライス大学の私の学部時代の教授が、西アフリカで仕事をしていました、そこに本当に魅力的な考古学がありますが、病気があまりにも多すぎるのです。 あなたは、ハラッパで何をしましたか?人々が都市のどこで陶器類、銅、ファイアンス陶器、その他のものを製造していたか調べるために、私は窯の跡を探しました。私は、いわゆる、シラミつぶしの踏査を行いました。つまり、この製品に特徴的な特別な種類の破片を探してくれる非常に良いアシスタントと共に、私は、1メートル間隔で遺跡の表面全体を歩いて横断したと言うことです。融けた陶器の一部や、るつぼ[金属を溶かすために使われる小さな器]の破片が、それにわずかの金属を付けて得られるのです。我々は、彼らが都市の様々の異なる場所で製造していたことがわかりました。工業団地のような特別な地区はありませんでした。





  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (16) For the lucky children, there was school (but it was rare for a girl to be that lucky). Education was a privilege for a select few. The majority of children never learned to read or write. Education began for children at about five years old. Those who did go to school walked, carrying a lunch of bread cakes and drinks. Or, if they were wealthy enough, tutors came to their home. During the Middle Kingdom, temples and palaces built Houses of Instruction where a chosen group of boys trained for their future jobs. In school, children sat cross-legged on the floor and recited passages over and over and over again. When they knew the sayings by heart they would write them over and over and over again. Papyrus was too expensive to waste on school children, so students practiced their penmanship with reed brushes and ink cakes (just like watercolors) on polished limestone or pieces of pottery. If tax collecting was in the limestone or pieces of pottery. If tax collecting was in the student's future, he would learn arithmetic, too. Teachers expected their students to work hard and were quick to whip those who didn't. One scribe wrote, "Don't waste your day in idleness, or you will be flogged. A boy's ear is on his back. He listens when he is beaten." (17) At 12 or 14 it was time to marry and begin a family. For in the words of a New Kingdom scribe, "Take to yourselves a wife while you are young, so that she may give you a son. You should begat him for yourself when you are still young, and should live to see him become a man." And above all, "Make a holiday! And do not tire of playing!"

  • 日本語訳を! 4-(1)

    お願いします。  Humans are fascinated by firsts. Who was the first to step on the moon, the first to cross the sea―the first to write? Until recently, scientists thought the earliest writers were the Sumerians in Mesopotamia (which today is Iraq). But 300 pieces of pots no bigger than postage stamps are suggesting that writing began just as early in Egypt.  Scientists have been digging for decades in Abydos, an ancient royal cemetery west of the Nile, 300 miles south of Cairo. The ancient Egyptians buried their first kings in Abydos because they believed the mouth to the canyon there was the entrance to the next world. In a tomb that could be King Scorpion's, scientists are finding hundreds of pieces of pottery with some of the earliest writings in the world.  What words inspired some ancient Egyptian to invent writing? Were the words poetic? Were they wise? Did they reveal the true meaning of life? Did they point the way to the nearest watering hole? Nothing quite so meaningful―the inscriptions on the clay jars and vases are records of oil and linen deliveries. There was no money 5,300 years ago. Taxes were paid in goods. Sometimes they were paid with oil and linen. These very early written words were tax records. There is a saying that nothing in life is certain―except death and taxes. Maybe it's fitting that some of the earliest writings are tax records found in a cemetery.  We take writing for granted. In those first school years we carefully learn to draw the letters. We recite the sound each letter makes. But suppose no one had writtin before us, no teacher to show us what a letter looks like, no sound to go with it. How would you begin to write? The Egyptians began with pictures.

  • 日本語訳を! 8-(6)

    お願いします。 (17) But just when he was sure he was a goner, Sinuhe was rescued by a tribe of nomads. The head of the tribe tells Sinuhe, "stay with me; I shall do you good." True to his word, the headsman made Sinuhe a wealthy and important man. But when Sinuhe grew old he began to miss his beloved homeland. Sinuhe wanted to be buried in Egypt. He wanted to build his tomb―his resting place for eternity―in his own country. Sinuhe writes to Senwosert, now king of Egypt; "Whatever God fated this flight―be gracious, and buring e home! Surely You will let me see the place where my heart still stays! What matters more than my being buried in the land where I was born?" King Senwosert answers, "Return to Egypt! And you will see the Residence where you grew up." (18) Back in Egypt, the king gave Sinuhe a home and food and fine linen. All his needs were taken care of: "A pyramid of stone was built for me...the masons who construct the pyramid measured out its foundations; the draughtsman drew in it; the overseer of sculptors carved in it." Sinuhe's tale, like Egypt itself, was in for a happy ending. Using "landing" as a metaphor for death―an appropriate word choice for a tale of journey―Sinuhe ends his story by saying, "I was in the favors of the king's giving, until the day of landing came." And now Egypt was in the favors of the king, too. It had traveled from monarchy to anarchy and back again.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (6) The vizier was a man who wore many hats (or, in at least two cases, she was a woman who wore many hats). As "Overseer of Works," the vizier was in charge of all of the king's engineering projects. He saw to it that men and materials were on site to build monuments, tombs, and temples, to repair dikes, dig canals, and dredge waterways. As "Keeper of the Seal," the vizier was responsible for the records, for marriage contracts, wills, deeds to property, court transcripts, and keeping a head count of cattle and people. His duties were endless. One vizier didn't exaggerate when he wrote, "I spent many hours in the service of my lord." (7) The vizier served the king, the gods, and the people. An 18th-dynasty scribe writes that the vizier  Did what the king loves: he raised ma'at to its lord.... reporting daily on all his effective actions....  Did what the gods love: he enforced the laws and laid down rules, administered the temples, provided the offerings, allotted the food and offered the beloved ma'at....  Did what the nobility and people love: he protected both rich and poor, provided for the widow without a family and pleased the revered and the old. (8) All this work was too much for one person. Many officials reported to the vizier. And each of them had a title, usually with the name "overseer." There was the "Overseer of the Double House of Silver" (the treasurer), the "Overseer of the King's House" (the royal steward), and there was even the "Overseer of the Royal Toenail Clippings" (no explanation necessary). The officials who came in contact with the king personally could add yet another name to their title that meant, "Known to the King" (an addition the Toenail Clipping official most likely deserved).

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(1)

    番号で分けているのでお願いします。 (1) The ancient Egyptians had a god for everything. That palm tree set back from the Nile sprouting on the rise behind your cousin's house? It had a god. The make-up your father applied from his palette in the morning? It had a god, too. More than 2,000 names of gods have been found written in limestone, on papyrus, and scratched on mud-brick walls. Some gods were powerful and worshipped by many, and some were wispy spirits known to just a few. There were gods whose spirits lived inside real things, such as the Nile, the sun , the sky, and the earth. And there were gods for protection against dangers, such as the bites of crocodiles, scorpions, and snakes. There were gods who stood for learning―the art of music and medicine; and there were gods who stood for the learned―the scribes and the architects. You name it, the Egyptians had a god for it. (2) There were good gods and bad gods, and fierce gods to protect you from the bad gods. There were gods for the living and gods for the dead. Some gods were human, some were animal, and some were a little of both. The bulls of one breed were so sacred that they lived like kings, and when they died the Egyptians mummified them, just like they would a pharaoh. They covered the bulls in jewels and placed them in coffins carved out of solid blocks of granite each weighing 80 tons. These sacred bulls even had their own cemeteries. At a burial site at Saqqara archaeologists have found 24 bulls, each in an elaborately carved coffin. (3) The most important god in Egypt was the sun god. The Egyptians pictured the sun god pushing the sun across the sky just as the scarab beetles pushed tiny dirt balls across the ground. Every morning the Egyptians were grateful when the sun was born again like the tiny scarab eggs hatching in the dirt ball. And every evening when the sun set, they worried that an evil snake would swallow the sun as it passed through the Underworld.

  • 日本語訳を!c9-1

    お願いします! Have you ever learned a new word,a word you are sure you have never seen before? But after you learn it,this brand-new word suddenly pops up everywhere-in English and history books,on TV,on the radio,and on billboards,until you feel as though it is following you around? The discovery of the Indus Valley civilizations in the 1920s worked a little bit like that,too.Archaeologists looking at sites that dated around 2000 BCE everywhere from Mesopotamia to Oman to Central Asia began noticing little clues left here and there by members of the previously unknown Indus Valley civilization. In Mesopotamia,for example,archaeologists dug up the tomb of Queen Puabi of Ur.Unlike the practical Harappans,who buried their dead with a few meaningful ornaments and some pottery but kept most of their things for the living to use,Mesopotamian burials were extravagant.In the case of Queen Puabi,for example,more than 20 servants,including armed guards and musicians,went with her into her grave.Her clothing and jewelry and those of her attendants were decorated with copper,carnelian,and lapis lazuli beads and shell inlay-even though Mesopotamia did not have copper miner or sources for the precious stones and shell.She was also buried with a sled and other wooden furniture-even though Mesopotamia did not have large trees for lumber.So where on earth did the copper,beads,wood,and shell inlay come from? This inscription on a tablet was the first clue.According to the records the Mesopotamians kept,these goods came from a land called Meluhha.The reat Mesopotamian king Sargon boasted that traders from all over came to his city,calked Agade: The ships from Meluhha, the ships from Magan, The ships from Dilmun He made tie-up alongside The quay of Agade.

  • 日本語訳を! 4-(2)

    お願いします。  At first the pictures stood for the real thing. A picture of the sun meant "the sun." As you can imagine, being able to write about only objects is limiting. How would you write the word "hot"? There is no object named "hot." So the pictures began to stand for ideas related to the object. A picture of the sun might mean light, or day, or―hot. It wasn't long before this was limiting, too. How would you write the word "belief"? What object could you draw that is related to the word belief? But if the objects could also represent a sound, then you could write "belief" as a picture of a bee followed by the picture of a leaf and the reader would be able to figure it out. (This example is an English word. The word for belief in Egyptian would be different, of course.)  It wasn't long before there were hundreds of symbols. Reading them was as complicated as writing them because Egyptian writers, called scribes, sometimes wrote right to left, sometimes left to right, and sometimes top to bottom (but never bottom to top). The only clue to which direction you should be reading the inscription was the way the animals and people faced. You read toward the faces.  There was no punctuation. There were no periods or question marks so that the reader would know where one sentence ended and the next began. Not even a space between words helped to make the meaning clear. And if that doesn't complicate things enough, the fact that vowels were not used does. Imagine not being able to write a vowel, or should we write mgnntbngllwdtwrtvwl, or worse yet, lwvtrwtdwllgnbtnngm?

  • 日本語訳を! 2-(1)

    お願いします。  If you had an important story to tell, but most of your audience couldn't read, you might tell the story by drawing it in pictures. If you wanted the story to last a very long time, you might draw those pictures in stone. That's what an Egyptian storyteller did, and his work has lasted more than 5,000 years. It's the story of the first king of Egypt. And the stone is called the Palette of Narmer.  Long before the first king, before there were people of great power, before there were towns to lead, before there were villages with headsmen, the people of Egypt lived like all prehistoric peoples. They lived in small groups on the move. They followed the food.  Ten thousand years ago the area around the Nile hadn't dried up into desert yet. Rain fell more often and fields of grass grew. Elephants plodded about, flapping their ears in the heat. Giraffes nibbled on thorny trees. Vultures rode the warm air currents in search of something dead to eat. The people of Egypt hunted gazelle and dug root vegetables.  By 6,000 years ago, the people of Egypt had begun to herd cattle. When the Nile swelled and flowed over its banks, the people would follow their cattle away from the river. Extended families sometimes joined other groups while the cattle munched in the grasslands. By the end of summer, the heat and the lack of rain shriveled the grass, and the herderr brought the cattle back to the edge of the floodplain―back to the Nile. They planted seeds and grew an early form of wheat called emmer. They grew peas, barley, and melons.  Small villages began to crop up along the Nile, just out of reach of the floodwaters. When the people argued, someone from the group would step in to solve the problem. Pretty soon they would look to that person to solve all of the problems. Power was born.

  • 日本語訳を! 3-(4)

    お願いします。  The richer the country, the more powerful its leader―and Egypt was becoming very rich indeed. The king became as distance and as "imperishable" as the stars―a god-king on earth, and in death truly divine. He was responsible for the stability, the order, the balance―ma'at. The simple tombs lined with brick and topped with a flat rectangular stone that had buried royalty in the past were no longer grand enough. What would the people think?  King Djoser wanted something that showed Egypt and the world just how powerful he was―showed this world and the next. He was fortunate enough to have a true genius for an architect―an architect capable of envisioning (and building) a tomb worthy of a god-king's passageway to the afterlife: a stairway to heaven. The architect's name was Imhotep and he built the first pyramid.  King Djoser must have traveled from the capital city of Memphis to the burial grounds at Saqqara now and again to inspect Imhotep's progress. King Djoser and Imhotep would have entered through a narrow passage positioned to capture the sun's first rays at daybreak. There were many false entrances along the nearly 20-foot-high wall surrounding the burial grounds, but only one way inside. They would have passed under the stone roof at the entrance carved to look like split logs and then through two giant doors permanently flung open. What did King Djoser think the first time he inspected the work site? How did he feel when he walked between the two parallel lines of stone columns carved to look like reeds bound in bunches? At the far end, the columns were placed closer and closer together to give the illusion of an even longer passageway. It must have seemed to him to stretch forever. This was no brick-lined hole in the ground. The burial complex was as big as 24 soccer fields.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (9) Although Egyptians kept their hair short, they were concerned about what hair they did have. The Ebers Papyrus has recipes for hair care. To strengthen hair, a mixture of crushed donkey teeth and honey is recommended. To prevent graying, it advises applying the blood of a black animal accompanied by a spell that transfers the black from the animal to the hair. For hair loss it says: "Recipe to make the hair of a bald person grow: fat of lion, fat of hippopotamus, fat of crocodile, fat of cat, fat of serpent, and fat of ibex are mixed together and the head of the bald person is anointed therewith." A more straightforward cure for baldness was the application of chopped lettuce o the bald spot. (10) You would think a place where people went out and about with chopped lettuce on their heads would have absolutely no "fashion don'ts," but there were definite no-nos. (11) Fashion don't: Wool or leather in temples or in front of the king. Remember, the gods were often part animal. It was not in good taste to be wearing animal parts to worship. Wool from sheep and goats was considered unclean, so it was never worn next to the skin. Although cloaks were made of wool, they were always worn over linen. (12) Fashhon don't: Wearing shoes outdoors. Always carry your shoes on a journey and put them on when you arrive at your destination. (13) Fashion don't: Facial hair. Beards were considered unclean (remember the fleas and lice) and the mark of a barbarian. The one exception to this fashion don't was the braided fake beard worn by the pharaoh―but then who is going to criticize the pharaoh's fashion sense?