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お願いします!!続き When did you begin to go on digs?While I was in college.But I started late.Some of my colleagues started when they were kids by going to day programs where you'd volunteer for a day and do some digging. Did you decide to go to South Asia because that's where your professors were working?No.Not at all.I had to work really hard to get over there.I knew I wanted to work nn ancient cities,but there are lots of places where I could that.I'm erom southern California,kind of he ddge nf the desert,and it's what I was used to,so I wanted to work some place arid,where you aren't tortured to death by bugs.I also wanted to go somewhere the snakes stay on the ground instead of dropping on you.My undergraduate professors at Rice University worked in West Africa,where there is completely fascinating archaeology,but way too many too diseases. What did you do at Harappa?I looked for kiln sites,to see where in the city people were manufacturing pottery,copper,faience,and other things.I did what's called a total walkover.That means I walked over the entire surface of the site at onemeter intervals with a very good assistant looking for a special type of debris characteristic of these crafts.You get melted bits of pottery,or pieces of crucible [small pots used for melting metal] with a little bit of metal left on it.We found that they were manufacturing in lots of different parts of the city.There wasn't a special quarter,like an industrial park.


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  • sayshe
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いつ、あなたは、発掘を始めたのですか?私が大学にいた頃です。しかし、始めるのが遅れました。私の同僚の何人かは、一日志願して、いくらかの発掘をするデイ・プログラムに行くことによって、彼らが子供のころに始めました。あなたは南アジアに行くことに決めたのは、そこがあなたの教授が働いていたところだったからですか?いいえ。全くそうではありません。私は、そこに行くには、本当に一生懸命に働かなければなりませんでした。私は古代都市に取り組みたいということがわかっていましたが、私がそうすることができそうな場所はたくさんあります。私は南カリフォルニアの砂漠の端の方の出身です、それで、砂漠は、私が慣れていたものですから、私はどこか乾燥した、死ぬほど虫に苦しまないところで働きたいと思いました。私は、また、どこか、蛇が上から落ちてこないで、地面にいるところに行きたいと思っていました。ライス大学の私の学部時代の教授が、西アフリカで仕事をしていました、そこに本当に魅力的な考古学がありますが、病気があまりにも多すぎるのです。 あなたは、ハラッパで何をしましたか?人々が都市のどこで陶器類、銅、ファイアンス陶器、その他のものを製造していたか調べるために、私は窯の跡を探しました。私は、いわゆる、シラミつぶしの踏査を行いました。つまり、この製品に特徴的な特別な種類の破片を探してくれる非常に良いアシスタントと共に、私は、1メートル間隔で遺跡の表面全体を歩いて横断したと言うことです。融けた陶器の一部や、るつぼ[金属を溶かすために使われる小さな器]の破片が、それにわずかの金属を付けて得られるのです。我々は、彼らが都市の様々の異なる場所で製造していたことがわかりました。工業団地のような特別な地区はありませんでした。





  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (16) For the lucky children, there was school (but it was rare for a girl to be that lucky). Education was a privilege for a select few. The majority of children never learned to read or write. Education began for children at about five years old. Those who did go to school walked, carrying a lunch of bread cakes and drinks. Or, if they were wealthy enough, tutors came to their home. During the Middle Kingdom, temples and palaces built Houses of Instruction where a chosen group of boys trained for their future jobs. In school, children sat cross-legged on the floor and recited passages over and over and over again. When they knew the sayings by heart they would write them over and over and over again. Papyrus was too expensive to waste on school children, so students practiced their penmanship with reed brushes and ink cakes (just like watercolors) on polished limestone or pieces of pottery. If tax collecting was in the limestone or pieces of pottery. If tax collecting was in the student's future, he would learn arithmetic, too. Teachers expected their students to work hard and were quick to whip those who didn't. One scribe wrote, "Don't waste your day in idleness, or you will be flogged. A boy's ear is on his back. He listens when he is beaten." (17) At 12 or 14 it was time to marry and begin a family. For in the words of a New Kingdom scribe, "Take to yourselves a wife while you are young, so that she may give you a son. You should begat him for yourself when you are still young, and should live to see him become a man." And above all, "Make a holiday! And do not tire of playing!"

  • 日本語訳を!c9-1

    お願いします! Have you ever learned a new word,a word you are sure you have never seen before? But after you learn it,this brand-new word suddenly pops up everywhere-in English and history books,on TV,on the radio,and on billboards,until you feel as though it is following you around? The discovery of the Indus Valley civilizations in the 1920s worked a little bit like that,too.Archaeologists looking at sites that dated around 2000 BCE everywhere from Mesopotamia to Oman to Central Asia began noticing little clues left here and there by members of the previously unknown Indus Valley civilization. In Mesopotamia,for example,archaeologists dug up the tomb of Queen Puabi of Ur.Unlike the practical Harappans,who buried their dead with a few meaningful ornaments and some pottery but kept most of their things for the living to use,Mesopotamian burials were extravagant.In the case of Queen Puabi,for example,more than 20 servants,including armed guards and musicians,went with her into her grave.Her clothing and jewelry and those of her attendants were decorated with copper,carnelian,and lapis lazuli beads and shell inlay-even though Mesopotamia did not have copper miner or sources for the precious stones and shell.She was also buried with a sled and other wooden furniture-even though Mesopotamia did not have large trees for lumber.So where on earth did the copper,beads,wood,and shell inlay come from? This inscription on a tablet was the first clue.According to the records the Mesopotamians kept,these goods came from a land called Meluhha.The reat Mesopotamian king Sargon boasted that traders from all over came to his city,calked Agade: The ships from Meluhha, the ships from Magan, The ships from Dilmun He made tie-up alongside The quay of Agade.

  • 日本語訳を!!c7-8

    お願いします!!続き Do you feel that you get to know the people who lived in the places you are excavating?You really do.For one thing,there are fingerprints all over everything.You know,they're patting the clay and them it gets fired.And even though Harappa is a pretty disturbed site,every once in a while you stumble on something that is obviously just the way someone left it.We were digging in this little alley behind a house and found a little pit someone had dug,with some river mussels in it.It was their leftover lunch.And the Harappa are very creative people.Their figurines have a lot of character.It's hard to see humor across the centuries,but I certainly see people having a lot of fun with those figurines.Or maybe having a connection would be a better way to say it,since some of them are scary.Plus,my colleague is very good at that sort of thing.We'll find a pendant and he'll say someone must have been really upset to lose that. If you could have one question answered about the sites you've excavated,what would it be?I think I would probably want to know how the five great cities of the Indus were connected.Were they independent?Did the same family rule them all?That's what I'd lile to know. I think the really important thing about archaeology is that it connects people with the past.It's something we all share.No one in my family came from South Asia,but now I feel like that's a part of my heritage,too.Knowing about how those people solved their problems of living together in cities makes me think about the ways we try to solve a lot of the same problems in our cities today.The Indus people were so creative.I feel a lot of respect for them.And I feel like I share something with my colleagues in Pakistan.I think people need to appreciate each other's history.

  • 日本語訳を! 8-(6)

    お願いします。 (17) But just when he was sure he was a goner, Sinuhe was rescued by a tribe of nomads. The head of the tribe tells Sinuhe, "stay with me; I shall do you good." True to his word, the headsman made Sinuhe a wealthy and important man. But when Sinuhe grew old he began to miss his beloved homeland. Sinuhe wanted to be buried in Egypt. He wanted to build his tomb―his resting place for eternity―in his own country. Sinuhe writes to Senwosert, now king of Egypt; "Whatever God fated this flight―be gracious, and buring e home! Surely You will let me see the place where my heart still stays! What matters more than my being buried in the land where I was born?" King Senwosert answers, "Return to Egypt! And you will see the Residence where you grew up." (18) Back in Egypt, the king gave Sinuhe a home and food and fine linen. All his needs were taken care of: "A pyramid of stone was built for me...the masons who construct the pyramid measured out its foundations; the draughtsman drew in it; the overseer of sculptors carved in it." Sinuhe's tale, like Egypt itself, was in for a happy ending. Using "landing" as a metaphor for death―an appropriate word choice for a tale of journey―Sinuhe ends his story by saying, "I was in the favors of the king's giving, until the day of landing came." And now Egypt was in the favors of the king, too. It had traveled from monarchy to anarchy and back again.

  • 日本語訳をお願いします

    文中の「x」は、AIのソフト名です。 I tried to process those files using x, but indeed, many were too short, too quiet or simply contained no voice but breathing sounds I think. I did not reply earlier because I still wanted to try another method that I think can still be useful for at least some or most of these files. The question is if this data coming from users using the system made for our integration, or are these taken in a mocked setting? If there was a way to make the user talk just a bit more, I think we would do better. What I will do next, is add a method in x to allow direct processing of buffers, so at least we will be able to force out the raw values of every buffer. This will take me few days I guess.

  • 日本語訳を!!c7-7

    お願いします!!続き Was there anything especially interesting in the debris?One thing was kind of cool.They melted their metal in clay containers called crucibles.But this clay melts at a lower temperature than metal,so they figured out how to temper the clay by adding straw.The straw insulated the clay so that it didn't melt.Adding straw also reduced the cracking that happens when you fire pots.The straw burns away,and there's room for the clay to expand where the straw used to be,so it doesn't crack.We also found some little dish things with powdered steatite on it.We think they used it kind of like Teflom.Steatite doesn't melt at these temperatures,so whatever was on it would slip off instead of melting together with clay. What do you like best about being an archaeologist?I like the combination of physical work and mental work and plain old accounting.I like that sometimes you're inside,sometimes you're outside.Sometimes you're being very scientific.Sometimes you'se just standing there,shoveling dirt.But mostly it's solving puzzles.We all like working out puzzles.I've noticed that a lot of archaeologists like murder mysteries.It's all about curiosity.That's the real draw-you're curious about people that lived before. What do you not like about it?I've managed to avoid all the things I was sure I wouldn't like,like working in swamps and stuff.It's not easy for me to write,but writing is a very important part of what I do,so I'm comstantly trying to be a better writer. What has surprised you the most about being an archaeologist?What I had to get accustomed to is that you never find out the answer,because there are always more questions.And if you don't like surprises,you won't like being an archaeologist.It's one surprise after another.

  • 日本語訳を!!c6-1

    お願いします!! What do you think is the world's most important invention? The wheel? The light bulb? If you asked most historians,they wouldn't hesitate:reading and writing,all the way.Just as pottery allowed ancient people to store food and goods in a place safe from water or insects,writing let people store knowledge.For the first time,the things people knew could be kept safe for their children,and not lost through their poor memories,sicknesses,or deaths.What's more,writing meant people could pass on information to others in different places or times.As long as people can read,they can know.The ability to read and write was-and is-power. Like a child who draws pictures before he or she writes words,ancient people first used symbols instead of letters.The first evidence for writing comes from pottery shards.Many ancient pots have marks on them that potters probably made before the clay was baked hard.That way each potter could tell which pots were hers,even when she shared a kiln with her neighbors.That's probably the first kind of writing you learned,too-your name,so you could mark every paper and drawing you made as yours.People started using these simple markings as early as 4500 BCE in the Indus Valley and continued using them long after the invention of writing. Potter's marks are scratched into the clay before firing,but many finished pieces of pottery have symbols that were scratched into them after they were fired,probably by their new owners.No one knows for sure what these symbols stand for.Archaeologists think that they might have been labdls that identified the contents of the pot,the name of the owner,or perhaps the name of tne person to whom it was being sent. If,for example,a wealthy man sent a pot of honey to a temple as an offering,he might have wanted to identify either himself or the temple where he was sending the gift.

  • 日本語訳を! 4-(1)

    お願いします。  Humans are fascinated by firsts. Who was the first to step on the moon, the first to cross the sea―the first to write? Until recently, scientists thought the earliest writers were the Sumerians in Mesopotamia (which today is Iraq). But 300 pieces of pots no bigger than postage stamps are suggesting that writing began just as early in Egypt.  Scientists have been digging for decades in Abydos, an ancient royal cemetery west of the Nile, 300 miles south of Cairo. The ancient Egyptians buried their first kings in Abydos because they believed the mouth to the canyon there was the entrance to the next world. In a tomb that could be King Scorpion's, scientists are finding hundreds of pieces of pottery with some of the earliest writings in the world.  What words inspired some ancient Egyptian to invent writing? Were the words poetic? Were they wise? Did they reveal the true meaning of life? Did they point the way to the nearest watering hole? Nothing quite so meaningful―the inscriptions on the clay jars and vases are records of oil and linen deliveries. There was no money 5,300 years ago. Taxes were paid in goods. Sometimes they were paid with oil and linen. These very early written words were tax records. There is a saying that nothing in life is certain―except death and taxes. Maybe it's fitting that some of the earliest writings are tax records found in a cemetery.  We take writing for granted. In those first school years we carefully learn to draw the letters. We recite the sound each letter makes. But suppose no one had writtin before us, no teacher to show us what a letter looks like, no sound to go with it. How would you begin to write? The Egyptians began with pictures.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    Prior to Sykes's departure to meet Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Sazonov in Petrograd on 27 February 1916, Sykes was approached with a plan by Samuel in the form of a memorandum which Sykes thought prudent to commit to memory and then destroy. He also suggested to Samuel that if Belgium should assume the administration of Palestine it might be more acceptable to France as an alternative to the international administration which France wanted and the Zionists did not. Of the boundaries marked on a map attached to the memorandum he wrote: "By excluding Hebron and the East of the Jordan there is less to discuss with the Moslems, as the Mosque of Omar then becomes the only matter of vital importance to discuss with them and further does away with any contact with the bedouins, who never cross the river except on business. I imagine that the principal object of Zionism is the realization of the ideal of an existing centre of nationality rather than boundaries or extent of territory. The moment I return I will let you know how things stand at Pd."

  • 日本語訳を!c9-2

    お願いします!続き At first,no modern scholar knew where Meluhha was.Then archaeologists realized that “Meluhha”must be the Akkadian (a Mesopotamian language) word for the land we know as the Indus Valley.Harappan merchants must have brought the precious stones and beautiful dark wood to Mesopotamia.These merchants would do almost anything for a profit,including sailing to Mesopotamia on the last winds of the winter monsoon. Imagine a sea captain from Dholavira,on India's northeastern coast,making the last preparations for his annual winter voyage to Mesopotamia.The northeast winds of the retreating monsoon were picking up,and he was anxious to roll the last big pottery storage jars into the hold of his ship.Although no boats from this period have survived,we know from seals and clay models that his boat was probably made of wood and included mast,sail,and central cabin.Shallow-bottomed riverboats,which did not have masts or sails,were also made of wood or of reed waterproofed with tar-in fact,some bits of tar with the impression of reeds still survive in Oman. Our captain's crew set up a small kitchen with a cooking area in a corner of the boat protected from the wind.They hung strings of onions and garlic from the roof,and stowed small clay pots filled with ginger,salt,and spices on shelves built along the kitchen's back wall.They piled stacks of firewood and dried cow dung chips for cooking fuel on the deck,wherever they could find room in between long black beams of shisham wood(Indian rosewood) for which the Mesopotamian carpenters and shipbuilders would pay a high price.