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お願いします。  Have you ever gone camping? People who love to camp often talk about how well they can see the stars away from city lights.They talk about noticing how early some birds wake up in the morning,and how after a few days they have figured out the best places to find lizards or wild blueberries.When you're camping,you're living close to the earth.(Some people think too close!)You have the time to see patterns that you wouldn't notice in ordinary life-like the way mint stems are square,with leaves that stick out opposite each other,and that the best time to find salamanders is after it has rained.When you go camping,you can't help noticing and wondering about the natural world.You can't help being a scientist.  The peoples of ancient India lived close to the land all the time.In a way,they were all scientists.They may not have had the tools that modern scientists do.They never learned about magnifying lenses,so they had no microscopes or telescopes.They certainly didn't have any laboratories with gleaming glassware and stainless steel sinks.But they were curious about the world in which they lived,they paid attention,and they discovered some wonderful things.  The earliest and longest lasting of their discoveries are included in the traditional Indian medicine form called Ayurveda.Ayurveda has been around in one form or another for 5,000 years.It includes all kinds of treatments,such as herbal medicine,surgery,yoga,meditation,and massage,and teaches that disease often starts first in the mind.A lot of people still use Ayurveda.For example,many Indian mothers massage their babies with oils and apply heavy black eyeliner around their children's eyes.They believe that the massages help soothe their children and prevent stomabh pains,and that the eyeliner protects their children's eyes from infections and the bright Indian sun.


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 あなたは、これまでにキャンプに行ったことがありますか?キャンプ好きの人々は、彼らが都会の明かりから離れてどれほどよく星を見ることができるかしばしば話します。 鳥の中に朝どれほど早く目を覚ますものがいるか、また、数日経つと、トカゲや野生のブルーベリーを見つけるにはどの場所が最もよいかについてどの様にして彼らが答えを見つけ出したのか気付いたことについて、彼らは話します。 キャンプしているとき、あなたは大地の近くで生きています。(あまりに近すぎると考える人もいます!)あなたが普通の生活では気がつかない様なパターンを見る時間が、あなたにはあります ― 例えば、ミント(ハッカ)の茎が四角く、葉が互いの反対側に突き出ているとか、サンショウウオを見つける最高の時間が、雨が降った後であるとか言うことです。 キャンプに行くと、あなたは、自然界に気付き驚かずにはいられません。 あなたは、科学者にならざるを得ないのです。  古代インドの諸民族も、常に、大地の近くで暮らしました。 ある意味では、彼らはみんな科学者でした。 彼らには、現代の科学者が持っている様な道具がなかったかもしれません。 彼らは拡大鏡について学んだことなどは一度もなかったので、彼らは顕微鏡や望遠鏡を持っていませんでした。彼らには輝くガラス器具やステンレスの流し台のある実験室など確かにありませんでした。 しかし、彼らは自分たちの生活する世界に興味を持ちました、彼らは注意を払いました、そして、彼らはいくつかの素晴らしいことを発見しました。  彼らの発見で最も初期からのもので、最も長続きしたものは、アーユルベーダと呼ばれる伝統的なインド医学の形に含まれます。 アーユルベーダは、5,000年の間なんらかの形で存在してきました。 それは、ありとあらゆる治療、例えばハーブ療法、手術、ヨガ、瞑想、マッサージを含んで、病気が最初心の中でしばしば始まることを教えています。多くの人々は、いまでも、アーユルベーダを使います。 たとえば、多くのインドの母親が、油で彼らの赤ちゃんにマッサージをして、彼らの子供たちの目の回りに濃い黒いアイライナーを施します。 マッサージが彼らの子供たちをなだめ、胃痛を防止し、アイライナーが彼らの子供たちの目を感染症と明るいインドの太陽から保護するのに役立つと、彼らは信じています。





  • 日本語訳を教えてください(かなり長文です)(5)

    Why Chinese Mothers Are Superiorという記事の日本語訳教えてください。お願いします。 (And it's true that Chinese mothers get in the trenches, putting in long grueling hours personally tutoring, training, interrogating and spying on their kids.) Anyway, the understanding is that Chinese children must spend their lives repaying their parents by obeying them and making them proud. By contrast, I don't think most Westerners have the same view of children being permanently indebted to their parents. My husband, Jed, actually has the opposite view. "Children don't choose their parents," he once said to me. "They don't even choose to be born. It's parents who foist life on their kids, so it's the parents' responsibility to provide for them. Kids don't owe their parents anything. Their duty will be to their own kids." This strikes me as a terrible deal for the Western parent. Third, Chinese parents believe that they know what is best for their children and therefore override all of their children's own desires and preferences. That's why Chinese daughters can't have boyfriends in high school and why Chinese kids can't go to sleepaway camp. It's also why no Chinese kid would ever dare say to their mother, "I got a part in the school play! I'm Villager Number Six. I'll have to stay after school for rehearsal every day from 3:00 to 7:00, and I'll also need a ride on weekends." God help any Chinese kid who tried that one. Don't get me wrong: It's not that Chinese parents don't care about their children. Just the opposite. They would give up anything for their children. It's just an entirely different parenting model. Here's a story in favor of coercion, Chinese-style. Lulu was about 7, still playing two instruments, and working on a piano piece called "The Little White Donkey" by the French composer Jacques Ibert.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (16) For the lucky children, there was school (but it was rare for a girl to be that lucky). Education was a privilege for a select few. The majority of children never learned to read or write. Education began for children at about five years old. Those who did go to school walked, carrying a lunch of bread cakes and drinks. Or, if they were wealthy enough, tutors came to their home. During the Middle Kingdom, temples and palaces built Houses of Instruction where a chosen group of boys trained for their future jobs. In school, children sat cross-legged on the floor and recited passages over and over and over again. When they knew the sayings by heart they would write them over and over and over again. Papyrus was too expensive to waste on school children, so students practiced their penmanship with reed brushes and ink cakes (just like watercolors) on polished limestone or pieces of pottery. If tax collecting was in the limestone or pieces of pottery. If tax collecting was in the student's future, he would learn arithmetic, too. Teachers expected their students to work hard and were quick to whip those who didn't. One scribe wrote, "Don't waste your day in idleness, or you will be flogged. A boy's ear is on his back. He listens when he is beaten." (17) At 12 or 14 it was time to marry and begin a family. For in the words of a New Kingdom scribe, "Take to yourselves a wife while you are young, so that she may give you a son. You should begat him for yourself when you are still young, and should live to see him become a man." And above all, "Make a holiday! And do not tire of playing!"

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (13) The reaction of the Sabine men is easy to guess: they set out to rescue the women. They attacked the walled city of Rome. A fierce battle between the Sabines and the Romans raged until a strange thing happened. Torn between love for their Sabine fathers and brothers and their love for the Romans who were now their husbands, the Sabine women ran onto the battleground. With desperate cries, hair tumbling to their shoulders, and infants in their arms, they begged the warriors on both sides to stop killing each other. Moved by the women's words and tears, the men called a truce, and the two peoples became one. (14) So what do we discover about the ancient Romans from these stories? For one thing, they believed that many gods were involved in their lives. Often a hero or leader, such as Aeneas, is believed to have had one mortal parent and one immortal one. This would explain why he gods cared so much about Rome, its beginnings, and its continued success. (15) The first Roman histories give varying, sometimes contradictory, stories about the distant past―for example, the two very different legends about Rome's founding. That's because these tales began in prehistorical times, before people began writing down their histories. Storytellers passed the tales down orally for hundreds of years. (16) Family histories get passed down orally, too. And stories change and get better the more we tell them. Do members of your family have different versions of events that happened only 20 or 30 years ago? Do you exaggerate a bit when you tell your friends about your adventures? In the same way, the myths and legends of Rome“improved”through thousands of tellings over hundreds of years. But these stories may carry a part of the truth.

  • 日本語訳で困っています。

    以下の文章が難しくてどう訳せばいいかわかりません。 だれか教えてください。お願いします。 (1)the purpose of education is to help you adjust to a new environment. (2)the education overseas can be different from that of your own country. (3)education can bring about personal and intellectual growth. (4)education abroad can help you settle back into your former lifestyle.

  • 日本語訳を教えて下さい

    Naturally,these societies differ from one another in many ways, reflecting difference in their histories, in the social and biophysical environments to which they must adapt today , and in their precise level of technological advance. these societies have,for decades,been struggling with problems that constantly threaten to overwhelm them.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (7) Tiberius was elected a tribune of the people in 133 BCE. This office was first established to protect the plebeians, but later tribunes used it to advance their own careers. And as soon as Tiberius took office, he set to work for the rights of the plebes. The aristocrats in the Senate claimed that he was interested only in his own glory, but Tiberius denied it. He said that a trip through northern Italy had showed him how desperate the peasants really were. “The men who fight and die for Italy have only air and light. Without house or home, they wander with their wives and children in the open air.... They fight and die for the luxury and riches of others.” Tiberius insisted that Rome should give the land it gained through war to the poor. Conquered territory became state land. Technically, it belonged to Rome, but if wealthy citizens paid a small tax, they were allowed to farm it as their own. In this way most of the conquered territory passed into the hands of those who needed it least─the rich. Some aristocrats, including many senators, got tens of thousands of acres in this way. They used slave labor to work the land and made huge profits. (8) Tiberius made up his mind to change this law. He proposed that no one─no matter who his ancestors were─should be allowed to keep more than 300 acres of state land. The rest should be given to the poor. Once the homeless had land, he reasoned, they would be able to support themselves. They would no longer roam the cities in angry, hungry mobs. And, as landowners, they would be eligible to serve in the army. This would help the people, help the army, and help Rome─a “win” for everyone. But most of the senators stood against Tiberius, and it's easy to see why. His proposed law would rob them of the huge profits that they had enjoyed for so long.

  • 日本語訳を!!c8-1

    お願いします!! During the holidays,big cities like New York and London are even more crowded than usual.Why do people go to all the trouble and expense to travel to a big city? Because the theaters and museums and major-league sports.And even more activities than usual are going om during the holidays,like Thanksgiving and New Year's Day parades and holiday concerts and performances. The weeks after the spring and fall harvests were probably a holiday for the people of the Indus Valley civilization.Farmers,fishermen,and herders gathered their goods and their families and made the long trip to the nearest city to sell their goods and thank the deities for the bounty of the harvest.Imagine the son of a farmer who is 12 or 13-old enough to bear the two-day walk to Harappa one autumn in about 2100 BCE.We'll call this boy Sarang.Sarang would have begun the journey by helping to load the family's oxcart with the barley,wheat,and cotton that they had raised that year on their farm.He may have helped to harness the oxen that pulled the heavy load.He was probably wildly excited-and probably driven crazy by the oxen's slow pace through the wooded countryside and by the loud creaking of the cart. If they lived too far away to make the journey in single day,Sarang and his family would have set up camp with other travelers they had met along the way to help protect their goods from the bandits who hid in the forest.Eventually they would have emerged from the forest to see the walled city of Harappa in the distance,rising pale and beautiful above the plain.

  • 日本語訳を教えてください(かなり長文です)(3)

    Why Chinese Mothers Are Superiorという記事です。日本語訳を教えてください。お願いします。 My friend Susan, the host, tried to rehabilitate me with the remaining guests. The fact is that Chinese parents can do things that would seem unimaginable—even legally actionable—to Westerners. Chinese mothers can say to their daughters, "Hey fatty—lose some weight." By contrast, Western parents have to tiptoe around the issue, talking in terms of "health" and never ever mentioning the f-word, and their kids still end up in therapy for eating disorders and negative self-image. (I also once heard a Western father toast his adult daughter by calling her "beautiful and incredibly competent." She later told me that made her feel like garbage.) Chinese parents can order their kids to get straight As. Western parents can only ask their kids to try their best. Chinese parents can say, "You're lazy. All your classmates are getting ahead of you." By contrast, Western parents have to struggle with their own conflicted feelings about achievement, and try to persuade themselves that they're not disappointed about how their kids turned out. I've thought long and hard about how Chinese parents can get away with what they do. I think there are three big differences between the Chinese and Western parental mind-sets. First, I've noticed that Western parents are extremely anxious about their children's self-esteem. They worry about how their children will feel if they fail at something, and they constantly try to reassure their children about how good they are notwithstanding a mediocre performance on a test or at a recital. In other words, Western parents are concerned about their children's psyches. Chinese parents aren't. They assume strength, not fragility, and as a result they behave very differently. For example, if a child comes home with an A-minus on a test, a Western parent will most likely praise the child. The Chinese mother will gasp in horror and ask what went wrong.

  • 日本語訳が分かりません。

    以下の英文を日本語に訳し、さらに英語で返事をしないといけないのですが意味がよく理解できません。 どなたか教えてください。 By the way do you know that in the capital city of Japan they do a kind of experiment with a mouse (which they excise some genes) so that the mouse it not afraid or scared anymore of cats. Which this the scientists want and proved that the fear of the mouse is inborn or naturaly. And that when you just "removed" that gene it will not try to escape. So what do you think about it?is it not incredible. I mean if they can do this also with us human beings then they can "remove" all the fear that we have on certainly or particulary things. 私が分かる範囲では、 「By the way do you know that in the capital city of Japan they do a kind of experiment with a mouse (which they excise some genes) so that the mouse it not afraid or scared anymore of cats.」 ・・・ところであなたは日本の首都を知っていますか。彼らはexperimentの一種でねずみと一緒です。そしてそのねずみは猫のそんなに怖い物ではなかった。 「Which this the scientists want and proved that the fear of the mouse is inborn or naturaly.」 ・・・どの科学者はそれが欲しく、供給したかったのか....? 「And that when you just "removed" that gene it will not try to escape.」 ・・・...? 「So what do you think about it?is it not incredible.」 ・・・あなたはこれについてどう思いますか? 「I mean if they can do this also with us human beings then they can "remove" all the fear that we have on certainly or particulary things.」 ・・・もし彼らがこれをまた人間の初めとしてできたのなら...? よろしくお願いいたします。

  • 日本語訳を!!c7-8

    お願いします!!続き Do you feel that you get to know the people who lived in the places you are excavating?You really do.For one thing,there are fingerprints all over everything.You know,they're patting the clay and them it gets fired.And even though Harappa is a pretty disturbed site,every once in a while you stumble on something that is obviously just the way someone left it.We were digging in this little alley behind a house and found a little pit someone had dug,with some river mussels in it.It was their leftover lunch.And the Harappa are very creative people.Their figurines have a lot of character.It's hard to see humor across the centuries,but I certainly see people having a lot of fun with those figurines.Or maybe having a connection would be a better way to say it,since some of them are scary.Plus,my colleague is very good at that sort of thing.We'll find a pendant and he'll say someone must have been really upset to lose that. If you could have one question answered about the sites you've excavated,what would it be?I think I would probably want to know how the five great cities of the Indus were connected.Were they independent?Did the same family rule them all?That's what I'd lile to know. I think the really important thing about archaeology is that it connects people with the past.It's something we all share.No one in my family came from South Asia,but now I feel like that's a part of my heritage,too.Knowing about how those people solved their problems of living together in cities makes me think about the ways we try to solve a lot of the same problems in our cities today.The Indus people were so creative.I feel a lot of respect for them.And I feel like I share something with my colleagues in Pakistan.I think people need to appreciate each other's history.