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お願いします (4) Artists almost never signed their work. The art was not about the artist. Artists were not innovators, they were craftsmen, and as you can tell from their Middle Kingdom titles, they were more closely related to scribes than to the "artist" types we think of today. That's not to say Egyptian artists weren't talented. Oe sculptor created two life-size sculptures of a high priest and his princess wife that were so realistic they scared off tomb robbers. The stone eyes implanted in the statues appeared to watch the thieves, and frightened them so badly that they dropped their tools and ran. (5) Perhaps what contributed to the tomb robbers' fear was the Egyptian belief that art had magic. Often you will see crocodiles, hippos, and snakes drawn with spears sticking out of them. If a crocodile suddenly came to life right next to you, you would probably appreciate the spear. And since these murals were one day going to become a reality, it's nice that the banquet scene has plates piled high with delicious food. (6) It must have been the attention to rules that led Egyptian artists to discover the "sacred ratio." The proportions in the sacred ratio repeat throughout the natural world. Plants, flowers, and trees grow in the sacred ratio. Sunflowers, pinecones, and the nautilus shell spiral according to the sacred ratio. The earth and the moon measure, and the galaxies spin―all to this sacred proportion. Egyptian artists drew the human body according to the sacred ratio, in the same way modern artists do today.


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  • sayshe
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(4) 画家は、彼らの作品にほとんど署名しませんでした。 芸術は、画家に関係するものではありませんでした。 画家は革新者ではありませんでした、彼らは職人だったのです、だから、あなたが彼らの中王国時代の称号[注1]から分かるように、彼らは、われわれが今日考える「画家」タイプと言うよりはむしろ、書記にずっと近い存在でした。 それは、エジプトの画家が才能がなかったと言うことではありません。ある彫刻家は、位の高い神官と彼の妃の実物大の彫像を作りましたが、それらがあまりにも本物らしく見えたので、墓泥棒を恐怖で追い払ったほどでした。 像に埋め込まれた石の目は、泥棒を見張っているように見えたので、彼らをひどく怖がらせて、彼らは道具を落として逃げ去ったほどでした。 (5) おそらく、墓泥棒を恐れさせる原因となったのは、絵画には魔法がかかっているとエジプト人が信じていたことでした。 しばしば、あなたは、ワニやカバやヘビが槍を突き刺されて描かれているのを目にするでしょう。 もしもあなたのすぐ隣で、ワニが突然生き返るならば、あなたは多分槍に感謝することでしょう。 そして、これらの壁画が、いつかは、現実になるのだから、晩餐会の場面に、おいしい食物がうず高く積み重ねられた皿があるのは、素晴らしいのです。 (6) エジプトの画家に「神聖な比率」[注2]を発見させたのは、規則に対する心遣いであったにちがいありません。 神聖な比率の割合は、自然界の至る所で繰り返されています。 植物、花、木は、神聖な比率に合わせて成長します。 ヒマワリ、松ぼっくり、オウムガイの貝殻は、神聖な比率に従って螺旋を描いています。 地球と月の大きさ、銀河の回転 ― 全てがこの神聖な割合に一致しているのです。 現代の画家が今日しているのと同様に、エジプトの画家は、神聖な比率に従って人体を描いたのでした。 ☆[注1] 段落(3)で述べた "scribes of outlines" =「輪郭の書記」のことを指している。 ☆[注2] (6)の "sacred ratio" =「神聖な比率」とは、"golden ratio" =「黄金比」のことと思われます。 http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E9%BB%84%E9%87%91%E6%AF%94 http://www.pyramid-trip.com/mystery/number.html



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    お願いします (7) Egyptian art students learned the fundamentals of the sacred ratio by first drawing a grid that turned the work surface into a graph. They then could apply the proportions to almost anything―jewelry, hieroglyphs, pyramids, and architecture. The sacred ratio was so important to Egyptians they believed that tombs not following the proportions prevented the deceased from going to the afterlife and temples not built according to the rules would displease the gods. Pleasing mathematical proportions in art and architecture are not the only thing moderns have borrowed and built on from the ancient Egyptians. Many of our modern tales have their roots in Egyptian literature. Do you recognize parts of this story? (8) Once upon a time there was a young maiden named Rhodopis who was kidnapped by pirates and sold to a kind, old Egyptian. The old man spent his days sleeping under a tree, so he didn't know that the other servant girls in his house were mean to Rhodopis. (9) "Rhodopis, fetch the wood. Weed the garden, Rhodopis. Clean the stable. Wash the clothes. Mend my robe, Rhodopis." The chores continued from dawn to dusk. The servant girl's only friends were the animals. When she washed the clothes at the riverbank, Hippopotamus slid up the mud in incline to be near her. When she weeded the garden, Monkey climbed down the tree to sit by her side. And at the end of the day, Rhodopis sang and danced for her animal friends.

  • 日本語訳を!(10)

    お願いします (1) The invaders didn't swoop across Egypt like a tidal wave. At the beginning of the Second Intermediate Peiod, they trickled in―immigrants from the east settling into the delta of northern Egypt. We call the invaders the Hyksos. Soon so many Hyksos had moved into the delta that they had their own king―and that irritated the king of Egypt. This as Egyptian soil, after all. Who did that foreign king think he was ruling in Egypt? No matter how hard the Hyksos tried to blend in, they were still foreigners. It didn't matter if they worshipped Egyptian gods, wore Egyptian clothes, or ate Egyptian food. They were still foreigners. Even their Egyptian name, heqa-khasut, smacked of somewhere else. It meant "chiefs of foreign lands." (2) True, the Hyksos brought with them the hump-backed Zebu cattle that the Egyptians liked so much. And those apples sure were tasty...not to mention the olives. And oh, the sound of the lyre and the lute! Their notes echoed through the chambers of the royal palace. Then there was the vertical loom. For weaving linen it couldn't be beat. The Hyksos' potter's wheels were better, too. But why were the Hyksos hiring scribes to copy Egyptian texts? Stealing Egyptian medical practices, no doubt. And it was totally unacceptable to build Avaris, a walled fortree, and claim it as their capital. (3) Manetho, an Egyptian priest, writes that the Hyksos' king "found a city very favorably situated on the east of the...Nile, and called it Avaris. This place he rebuilt and fortified with massive walls, planting there a garrison of as many as 240,000 heavy-armed men to guard his frontier." Nowhere did the Hyksos' foreignness offend Egyptians as much as at Avaris. Why, those Hyksos dared to live in the same place that they buried their dead. Barbarians!

  • 日本語訳を!(21)

    お願いします (1) Rules, rules, rules...we may think that rules and creativity don't go together, but for the Egyptians, art was all about rules. Are you painting the king? Make sure you don't draw anything in front of his face or body. That was not a trick shot the king was making with the bow flexed behind his back. The painter was just obeying the rule. When sculpting people seated, make sure that their hands rest on their knees. Always draw the important people bigger. Follow the rules. (2) Walk into any art museum anywhere in the world and you will be able to pick out the Egyptian art immediately. The rules created a style that lasted with almost no change for 3,000 years. The style is called frontalism. Egyptian artists drew the head in profile and the body straight on. By drawing figures with these angles, artists could show a large number of body parts―both arms, both legs, the nose. The Egyptians believed that the drawings could come to life and journey to the afterlife. It's nice to go to eternity with as much of your body as possible. (3) Unlike modern painters who try to give their paintings depth, Egyptian painters made everything look flat. Two artists often worked on the same painting. One artist drew the outline. During the Middle Kingdom, these artists were called "scribes of outlines." And the second artist, known as a "colorist," painted in the color as if he were working on a coloring book. Do you thing he was told to "stay within the lines"?

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  • poomen
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chiyotomo すぐに回答ほしいです 臥日本語訳! お願いします (4)ほとんど自分の仕事を締結したことがないアーティスト。芸術は芸術家ではないでした。アーティストはイノベーターではなかった、彼らは職人だった、とあなたはそれらの中間の王国のタイトルからも分かるように、彼らは、より密接に、我々が今日考える"アーティスト"のタイプに比べて律法に関連していた。それはエジプトの芸術家が才能はなかったわけではない。大江の彫刻家は、彼らが墓強盗をオフにおびえていたので、現実的な大祭司と彼の王女の妻の2等身大の彫刻を作成しました。彫像に移植石目が泥棒を見に登場し、ひどく、彼らは彼らのツールを落として走ったことを彼らにおびえた。 墓強盗'恐怖に寄与何おそらく(5)芸術は魔法を持っていたエジプトの信念だった。しばしば、それらから突き出槍で描かれたワニ、カバ、ヘビを見ることができます。ワニが突然右にあなたの隣に人生に来た場合は、おそらく槍をお願い申し上げます。これらの壁画が現実になろうとして1日であったためと、それは宴会シーンはおいしい食べ物が山積みになってプレートを持っていることは良いことです。 (6)これは、エジプトの芸術家が発見するために導いたルールに注目されている必要があります"神聖比率を。" 自然界全体の神聖比率リピート中の割合。植物、花、木は神聖な比率で成長します。ヒマワリ、松ぼっくり、神聖な比率に応じオウムガイの殻の螺旋。地球と月の尺度、スピンすべてのこの神聖な割合に銀河。エジプト人の芸術家は現代のアーティストが今日行うのと同じ手法で、神聖な比率に応じて、人体を描いた。



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    お願いします (7) But just because doctors in ancient Egypt used magic to cure what they couldn't see, it didn't mean they weren't gifted physicians in terms of science. Brain surgery was successfully performed 5,000 years ago, broken arms set, legs amputated, and the patients survived because of the skill of the surgeons. We think that because surgical instruments were made from a volcanic glass called obsidian that the surgeries were more like hackings, but the flakes were sharper than scalpels used today. One tomb carving shows what many Egyptologists believe to be a tracheotomy, which is cutting open the throat to clear the airway so the patient can breathe. At Saqqara, in the Tomb of the Physician, wall paintings of surgery are captioned with the words, "Do not let it be painful," which leads scholars to believe hat Egyptian surgeons used anesthesia. (8) Egyptian doctors used many herbs to heal. The ancient Egyptians believed that demons hated honey, in fact, that they feared it. Honey was used in many of the remedies to ward off evil spirits. We now know that honey boosts the immune system and is an antibiotic, as are onions, another frequently prescribed remedy. Garlic, used for almost everything, is about 1 percent the strength of penicillin, a good medicine to fight bacteria. Egyptian prescriptions worked. And just like our modern physicians, Egyptian doctors adjusted the dosage according to the age of the patient. "If it is a big child, he should swallow it like a draught, if he is still in swaddles, it should be rubbed by his nurse in milk and thereafter sucked on 4 days."

  • 日本語訳を!c11-5

    お願いします!続き  Then the priests recited prayers to purify Kumar and the other boys who were sitting quietly in a row next to the fire altar.The boys dropped butter and small animal and human figurines made of wheat flour into the sacred fire.The priests sprinkled purified water over the heads of each boy,and then carefully draped the sacred cotton thread over their left shoulders,around their bodies,and under their right arms.This sacred thread was a symbol of the boys' second birth as Brahmin students.(Kshatriya and Vaishya boys could also receive the sacred thread,but they had to wait until they were older.)  After receiving the sacred thread,Kumar and his friends moved into the house of a learned priest who tutored them for several yearr.A student's life was very hard.Students collected firewood for fire sacrifices and everyday cooking,helped build fire altars,and learned to make the sacred fire.Most of the time,they memorized the Vedas,carefully pronouncing each sound exactly right to call the deities to sacrifices.  Many young boys were not as lucky as Kumar,or even as lucky as the Shudras,the peasants.The Vedic peoples did not have nice things to say about the Dasa,a group of people who spoke a different language that did not sound at all like Sanskrit.  The Dasa had probably lived in the region for hundreds of years.Their ancestors in the Indus Valley were the Harappans who had named the rivers and mountains,and had built the cities that now lay abandoned.Although at first the Rig Vedic culture seemed to sweep over the northern plains,many eaqlier traditions of the Harappans lived on and reemerged in later times.

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    お願いします (4) The king of the Hyksos was like a pebble in the Egyptian king's sandal. He irritated him just by being there, but war didn't break out until the insult. The Hyksos king sent a message to the ruler of Egypt, King Seqenenre. The Hyksos king complained that King Seqenenre's hippos in the royal pools "were keeping him awake at night with their grunts." Do something, he demanded. Given that Avaris was hundreds of miles from Thebes, where the king and his hippos lived, this was nothing short of a slap in the face. King Seqenenre was furious. Although it is unknown what happened next, the damage to King Seqenenre's skull indicates it didn't turn out well for the Egyptian side. During that time kings commanded the armies and led the soldiers into battle. Archaeologists have identified King Seqenenre's head, and it's not pretty. He took a battle axe to the forehead and was stabbed in the neck after he fell to the ground. This attack was the beginning of a war that would last nearly 25 years, from about 1574 to 1550 BCE, and span the reign of three Egyptian kings. (5) The Egyptians were farmers, not warriors. They were peaceful people. They were not conquerors by nature. And nowhere was that more obvious than in their army. It was unorganized. The soldiers served part-time and their weapons were not much more than farm tools adapted for battle. The few full-time soldiers were trained as palace guards, border police, or trade-ship escorts―not warriors. For the occasional battle outside of Egypt, the king hired foreign mercenaries because Egyptians didn't want to die away from home. An improper burial meant wandering the desert for eternity―not a pleasant haunting.

  • 17-1日本語訳

    お願いします。  Have you ever gone camping? People who love to camp often talk about how well they can see the stars away from city lights.They talk about noticing how early some birds wake up in the morning,and how after a few days they have figured out the best places to find lizards or wild blueberries.When you're camping,you're living close to the earth.(Some people think too close!)You have the time to see patterns that you wouldn't notice in ordinary life-like the way mint stems are square,with leaves that stick out opposite each other,and that the best time to find salamanders is after it has rained.When you go camping,you can't help noticing and wondering about the natural world.You can't help being a scientist.  The peoples of ancient India lived close to the land all the time.In a way,they were all scientists.They may not have had the tools that modern scientists do.They never learned about magnifying lenses,so they had no microscopes or telescopes.They certainly didn't have any laboratories with gleaming glassware and stainless steel sinks.But they were curious about the world in which they lived,they paid attention,and they discovered some wonderful things.  The earliest and longest lasting of their discoveries are included in the traditional Indian medicine form called Ayurveda.Ayurveda has been around in one form or another for 5,000 years.It includes all kinds of treatments,such as herbal medicine,surgery,yoga,meditation,and massage,and teaches that disease often starts first in the mind.A lot of people still use Ayurveda.For example,many Indian mothers massage their babies with oils and apply heavy black eyeliner around their children's eyes.They believe that the massages help soothe their children and prevent stomabh pains,and that the eyeliner protects their children's eyes from infections and the bright Indian sun.

  • 日本語訳を!(20)

    お願いします (1) Ramesses III dispatched messengers. Advance squads of soldiers scrambled for the eastern Egyptian border. They raced to desert outposts and fortresses along the Delta, carrying an urgent message from their king. Hold your position. Stand firm. Keep the Egyptian border secure until the main army can be deployed. Reinforcements are coming. But until then, stay strong. Do not let the Sea Peoples past your line of defense. (2) By the end of the 13th century BCE, the Sea Peoples had swarmed across the eastern Mediterranean, burning and plundering everything in their path. They destroyed nearly every city, palace, town, and temple they came across. They had burned whole towns to ash and leveled cities to piles of rubble. Word reached Ramesses III that the Sea Peoples were on the move again, and this time it was Egypt they intended to crush. Ramesses III tells on the walls of his mortuary temple, "They were coming forward toward Egypt, while the flame was prepared before them." (3) Normally, the highly trained soldiers of the wealthiest country in the ancient world would not have been afraid of a disorderly crew of pirates, bandits, and ragamuffins. But the Egyptians believed this motley mob had already defeated the land of the Hittites and the island of Cyprus and that they were intent on conquering the world. The Sea Peoples had lost their homelands―had it been an earthquake that left them homeless? Or a drought that left them starving? Whatever drove them out had turned them into a dangerous enemy. They were desperate people who had nothing left to lose and everything to gain if they could force their way into Egypt.

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    お願いします (9) That night the Egyptian patrol captured two Hittite spies. When they refused to talk, they were tortured nd interrogated. "His Majesty asked, ‘Who are you?’They replied,‘We belong to the king of Hatti. He has sent us to spy on you.’Then His Majesty said to them,‘Where is he the ruler of Hatti?’... They replied,‘Behold, the Ruler of Hatti has already come... They have their weapons of war at the ready. They are more numerous than the grains of sand on the beach....ready for battle behind Old Qadesh.'" (10) Ramesses knew then that he had been tricked. The Hittite King and his entire army lay in wait just over the hill. And Ramesses' hasty advance had left his forces strung out on both sides of the river, miles apart. He was doomed. He called for his officers. Messengers were dispatched to summon the other field armies. The royal family was whisked away to safety. (11) Not yet knowing that the king and the Army of Amun were in mortal danger, the Army of Re approached the rendezous point in a vulnerable formation. Their ranks stretched for two and a half miles. And they marched right into a trap. Hittite charioteers raced out from a line of trees and charged the Army of Re. The Egyptian soldiers panicked and scattered. Fleeing the battlefield, the soldiers led the enemy directly toward Ramesses II and the Army of Amun.

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    お願いします (9) The Egyptian seamen used their oars to maneuver the warships even closer. They tossed grappling hooks into the Sea Peoples' vessels. When the hooks took hold the Egyptians heaved on the lines and capsized the Sea Peoples' boats. As they tumbled into the water they were "butchered and their corpses hacked up." Others were grabbed, chained, and taken prisoner before they could swim to shore. (10) In the victory scene at the mortuary temple, we see a pile of severed hands presented to Ramesses III. Prisoners taken alive were branded and assigned to labor forces. The vizier counted everything―hands, spoils, prisoners―for an official report. Ma'at had conquered chaos. The battle against the Sea Peoples had been won. "Their hearts and their souls are finished for all eternity. Their weapons are scattered in the sea."

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    お願いします (7) But now the battle moved to the Mediterranean. Egypt was not known for having much of a navy. Its navy was essentially the army with a little training at sea. Egyptians hated the sea―or the "Great Green" as they called it. Now they must fight the Sea Peoples on the Great Green. (8) From the text inscribed at Ramesses III's mortuary temple, we know that the Sea Peoples "penetrated the channels of the Nile Mouths" and that Ramesses III attacked "like a whirlwind against them." Although the Egyptian seamen were not as skilled as the Sea Peoples, their boats had oars―not just sails like the Sea Peoples' vessels. On open waters the Egyptian navy wouldn't have had a chance, but in the confined river mouths they could maneuver using oars. The Egyptian warships herded the Sea Peoples' boats closer and closer to land, where Ramesses III had lined the shore with archers. When the enemy ships were forced within firing range, the Egyptian archers let go volley after volley of arrows. The air filled with the hiss of their flight and the thwack of their landing. Egyptian marine archers joined the land archers firing from the boat decks in unison. Arrows fell like rain on the Sea Peoples who, armed with only swords and spears, cowered helplessly.

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(7)

    お願いします。 (18) Abydos wasn't the only sacred site. There were many others throughout Egypt. Some temples were mortuary temples for dead kings, and others were built to honor a particular god. Some, like Abydos, were both. Abydos honored Osiris, and because Osiris was the King of the Dead, it also became an important burial ground. (19) For Egyptians, the stories about the gods were comforting and provided guidance in a world that was unpredictable and governed by forces they didn't understand. Horus watched over them in this life. Osiris watched over them in death. When their world was in turmoil, they believed it was Seth fighting with Horus that created the chaos. When all was well, they were sure that Horus had won the battle. They believed that one day Horus would defeat Seth in a smashing final combat. Then Osiris would be able to return to the world of the living and all sorrow would end. Until then, it was a god-eat-god world.

  • 日本語訳を!c14-3

    お願いします!  Both men and women who admired Mahavira and his teachings left their families and became monks and nuns.In fact,when Mahavira died,more than twice as many nuns as monks followed his teachings.Even today,women play an important role in Jain traditions.As mothers,they teach children how to behave and how to live a good life by not killing,stealing,or lying.Jain nuns meditate and go on journeys called pilgrimages to sacred places,take care of sacred scriptures,and teach others about the way to achieve Enlightenment.  All Jains vow not to kill any living thing.This means that Jains cannot be farmers,because they would have to kill insects that destroy plants and they would kill worms when plowing the fields.Jains do not raise animals because they would have to kill the lice,vermin,and germs that livestock often suffer from.They can't be lumberjacks,because that line of work would mean that by cutting down trees they would be killing insects and hurting animals that live in the trees.  Most Jains who were not monks and nuns were traders,bankers,or craftspeople who made things such as jewelry and cloth.The rich Jain merchants became patrons of the arts and paid for the construction of magnificent temples and monasteries.Many of the teachings of famous monks and nuns were written on palm leaves or painted onto birch-bark manuscripts and collected in great libraries.