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お願いします (9) That night the Egyptian patrol captured two Hittite spies. When they refused to talk, they were tortured nd interrogated. "His Majesty asked, ‘Who are you?’They replied,‘We belong to the king of Hatti. He has sent us to spy on you.’Then His Majesty said to them,‘Where is he the ruler of Hatti?’... They replied,‘Behold, the Ruler of Hatti has already come... They have their weapons of war at the ready. They are more numerous than the grains of sand on the beach....ready for battle behind Old Qadesh.'" (10) Ramesses knew then that he had been tricked. The Hittite King and his entire army lay in wait just over the hill. And Ramesses' hasty advance had left his forces strung out on both sides of the river, miles apart. He was doomed. He called for his officers. Messengers were dispatched to summon the other field armies. The royal family was whisked away to safety. (11) Not yet knowing that the king and the Army of Amun were in mortal danger, the Army of Re approached the rendezous point in a vulnerable formation. Their ranks stretched for two and a half miles. And they marched right into a trap. Hittite charioteers raced out from a line of trees and charged the Army of Re. The Egyptian soldiers panicked and scattered. Fleeing the battlefield, the soldiers led the enemy directly toward Ramesses II and the Army of Amun.

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(9) その夜、エジプトの哨戒隊は、2人のヒッタイトのスパイを捕らえました。 話すことを拒否すると、彼らは拷問され、尋問を受けました。 「陛下は尋ねました、『お前たちは誰だ?』彼らは答えました、我らはヒッタイトの王のものなり。 王様が、お前たちをスパイするために我らを遣わせたのだ。』すると、陛下は彼らに言いました、『ヒッタイトの統治者はいずこにいるのか?』 ... 彼らは答えました。『見よ、ヒッタイトの統治者はすでに来ている ... 彼らは、戦争の武器の用意は整っている。 彼らは、浜辺の砂粒よりずっと多数である .... 古きクァデシュの都の背後で戦いの準備は整っている。』」 (10) その時、ラムセスは、彼がだまされたということを知りました。 ヒッタイト王と彼の全軍は、丘のすぐ向こうで待ち伏せていたのです。 そして、ラムセスの急な進軍のために、彼の軍隊は川の両側に延び切って、数マイル離れていました。 彼は絶望的でした。 彼は、部下の将校たちを呼び出しました。 使者が、他の野戦軍を呼び集めるように派遣されました。 王族は、安全な場所に連れて行かれました。 (11) まだ、王とアメンの軍が、死を免れない危険にあるということを知らずに、ラーの軍は、脆弱な陣形で集合地点に接近していました。 彼らの隊列は、2マイル半に伸び切っていました。 そして、彼らは正に罠に向かって行進していました。 ヒッタイトの二輪戦車の操縦兵は木々の影から飛び出してきて、ラーの軍を襲撃しました。エジプトの兵士たちは大混乱に陥り、散り散りになりました。 戦場を逃れて、兵士たちは、敵を直接ラムセス2世とアメンの軍の方へ導きました。

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  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (4) Ramesses II and his faithful shield bearer, Menna, led the troops, riding front and center in a golden chariot. Tall and dignified, with flaming red hair and a prominent, hooked nose, the king looked exactly as a pharaoh should, heading out to vanquish his enemies. He indeed was Ramesses the Great. (5) The march through Canaan and southern Syria along the coastal road would take a month. It is likely that Ramesses had a timetable to meet. As was the custom, the time and place of the battle had probably been agreed upon. They were to arrive at Qadesh in May. (6) The city of Qadesh lay tucked into a crook formed by a fork in the Orontes River. A moat connected the two prongs of river, creating an island city. The water barrier made Qadesh easier to defend. (7) One day's march from Qadesh, in the Wood of Labwi, Ramesses and his men halted. They needed to rest before crossing the Orontes River and facting the Hittite army. A refreshed army was a strong army. While setting up camp, Egyptian sentries found two men hiding in the trees. The men claimed to have deserted the Hittite army and professed profusely their allegiance to the great and powerful Ramesses II. When questioned, they told Ramesses that the Hittite king had stalled 120 miles north of Qadesh. "He was too frightened to proceed southwards when he heard that the Pharaoh had come northwards." (8) Believing the story completely (flattery will get you everywhere) and without making any attempt to be sure it was true, Ramesses took one division, the Army of Amun, and crossed the river. The single division advanced quickly on Qadesh. The king anticipated an easy victory. Without the Hittite army there would be little opposition. Ramesses prepared for a sunrise surprise attack. But it was Ramesses who was in for the surprise.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (16) What happened next depends on whom you believe. Ramesses claimed the Hittite king begged for a truce by saying, "O victorious king, peace is better than war, Give us breath." The Hittite king claimed it was Ramesses who buckled under. The fact that Qadesh remained under Hittite control makes the Hittite king's version of the story more believable. (17) It took 16 years, but in Year 21 of Ramesses II's reign the two nations negotiated peace. The treaty is the earliest recorded document of its type preserved in its entirety. Inscribed on two matching silver tablets are the pledges of the king of Egypt and the king of Hatti to one another. "If a foreign enemy marches against the country of Hatti and if the king of Hatti sends me this message:‘Come to my help'...the king of the Egyptian country has to send his troops and his chariots to kill this enemy...." The Hittite king made a similar vow to defend Egypt. The treaty also pledged support if the enemy were to come from within. The Hittite king swore that if Ramesses should "rise in anger against his citizens after they have committed a wrong against him...the king of the country of Hatti, my brother, has to send his troops and his chariots...." Ramesses promised to stand by the Hittite king in the same circumstances. The treaty was honored until the fall of the Hittite Empire. Even when tested, Ramesses stood by his ally, announcing to the world, "Today there is a fraternity between the Great King of Egypt and the king of Hatti."

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (14) What really happened when the Hittite army infiltrated the royal camp is muddied by Ramesses' illusions of grandeur. The camp surely was in mass confusion. Many of his soldiers undoubtedly deserted, fleeing for their lives. The Hittite army had a clear advantage. Their ambush and worked. But once they were inside the camp, things began to fall apart for the Hittites. Rather than pressing their advantage and fighting the Egyptians while they were most vulnerable, the Hittites stopped to grab all the riches they were stumbling over. While they were busy plundering, Egyptian reinforcements arrived. The Egyptian divisions joined forces. They charged the Hittites. When it dawned on the Hittites that they were no longer facing disorganized stragglers, but a determined army, they turned and fled, diving into the Orontes River and swimming to the east bank where the bulk of he Hittite army waited. (15) When the dust settled, two of the greatest armies of the ancient world stood facing one another on opposite banks of the river. It seems neither wanted to fight. They had both lost many men. The Hittites no longer could ambush an unsuspecting army. The Egyptians would come at them prepared. And the Egyptians weren't facing some small outpost that offered little resistance. Hittite soldiers were trained and organized. War would mean enormous losses for both sides. And the outcome was by no means certain.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (12) The first soldiers to reach Ramesses II's camp burst into the command tent, shouting that the Hittite army was right behind. Ramesses grabbed his battle armor and stepped out of the tent to see his camp already in chaos. The Hittites had broken through the defensive line. Ramesses realized he was isolated from his elite guards in the midst of the enemy with only his shield bearer, Menna, at his side. "When Menna saw so great a number of chariots had ringed about me, he felt faint, and fear entered his limbs. Thus he spoke to his majesty,‘We stand alone in the middle of the enemy. The infantry and the chariots have abandoned us.... Let us also leave unharmed.'" Ramesses stood firm and answered, "Steady your heart, Menna. I shall move among them just as a hawk." (13) The battle scenes carved on the walls of the Great Temple at Abu Simbel show Ramesses single-handedly taking down the Hittite army:  There was no officer with me, no charioteer, no soldier. My infantry and my chariotry had run away before the enemy and no one stood firm to fight.... I found that my heart grew stout and my breast swelled with joy. Everything which I attempted I succeeded.... I found the enemy chariots scattering before my horses. Not one of them could fight me. Their hearts quaked with fear when they saw me and their arms went limp so they could not shoot.... I made them plunge into the water like crocodiles. They fell on their faces, one on top of another. I slaughtered them at will.... Behold, I am victorious, me alone!

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします "Then his majesty commanded the entire army to march upon the road which threatened to be narrow. He went forth at the head of his army himself, showing the way by his own footsteps; horse behind horse, his majesty being at the head of his army." Thutmose III led his troops through the dangerous pass. (15) The rebel forces never expected the Egyptian army to choose the dangerous direct road. They had divided the bulk of their army between the other two roads, leaving the central pass virtually unprotected. When the Egyptians attacked, the enemy retreated to the city gates of Megiddo, "they fled headlohm to Megiddo with faces of fear. They abandoned their horses and chariots of gold and silver...." Slow runners found the gates already slammed shut and had to be pulled over the walls by their friends inside, using ropes made from clothes tied together. Thutmose III's daring dash worked. (16) Because the Egyptians stopped to collect the loot abandoned by the fleeing soldiers, victory was not theirs that day. They were forced to wait outsidd the city walls for what, according to the records, was a seven-month siege. But the day's events sent a message to the ancient world. The throme of Egypt was in capable hands with the warrior king Thutmose III in control. Egypt would flourish under him. Its territory would be greatly expanded. Ma'at would be maintained. For Egypt ht would be a golden age.

  • 日本語訳を!(18)

    お願いします (1) North of the Nile Delta, across the Mediterranean Sea, the land of the Hittites juts out like the snout of a barking dog. From an area where a whisker might sprout, the people of an initially insignficant nation called Hatti, began to spread throughout the Near East. By the late second millenmium BCE, they had grown into a great power. Asian princes wrote time and again to Akhenaten, warning him that he had better stop the Hittites now, before it was too kate. The Hittites were chipping away at Egypt's control in Syria. But Akhenate ignored the letters and he ignored the Hittites. And the Hittites grew stronger. (2) In the 13th century BCE, during the early part of Egypt's 19th Dynasty, when Ramesses II was king, he Hittites could no longer be ignored. They controlled the city-state of Qadesh, and whoever controlled Qadesh controlled the trade route from the coast. It was a strategic position and Ramesses II knew it. "Now the vile enemy from Hatti had gathered together all the foreign lands as far as the end of the sea.... They covered the mountains and filled the valleys and were like locusts in thier numbers." In the spring of his regnal Year 5, Ramesses II led his army eastward on a mission to beat back the Hittites. (3) The Egyptians army was a fearsome force. Twenty thousand infantrymen and charioteers advanced toward Qadesh. Four divisions of highly trained soldiers, each unit named after a protective god―Amun, Re, Ptah, and Seth―marched east. Ox-drawn carts and donkeys loaded with food and weapons followed, kicking up dust as they went. Members of the royal family, priests, advisers, and diplomats accompanied the soldiers to meet an enemy that Ramesses II claimed outnumbered them two to one.

  • 16-2日本語訳

    お願いします。  What if he offered to help Sikander? If they were on the same side,there would be no battle.Taxila would be safe.What's more,Sikander might even help King Ambhi against his enemy King Porus.  So,when Sikander-whom you might know by his Gredk name,Alexander the Great-and his army marched up to the gates of Taxila,King Ambhi was there to welcome them.Just to make sure that Alexander understood that he,King Ambhi,was a friend,he threw Alexander's army a huge party hat lasted for a whole month.Arrian,a diplomat traveling with Alexander,wrote that when Alexander“arrived at Taxila,a great and flourishing city...Taxiles the governor of the city,and the Indians who belonged to it received him in a friendly manner,and he therefore added as much of the adjacent country to their territory as they requested.”The present that he offered Alexander as a symbol of his good will was just as impressive:5,000 soldiers and 56 war elephants.  These elephants and local troops would be important to provide backup for Alexander's elite corps of around 5,000 armored cavalry(men on horseback),14,500 archers,5,300 regular cavalry,and around 15,000 foot soldiers.Although his troops were brave,experienced,and skillful,Alexander knew that defeating Porus would be difficult. Porus had a large army of his own-3,000 cavalry and mnre than 1,000 chariots,50,000 font soldiers and archers,and 200 war elephants.His soldiers were also supposed to be the tallest and most powerful warriors in Asia,with an average height of more than six feet.They looked even taller because they wore their long hair coiled on their heads and wrapped in turbans so thick that even the sharpest sword could not cut through them.They were dressed in white cotton and white leather shoes,and wore earrings set with precious stones,golden armbands,and bracelets even into battle.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (4) The king of the Hyksos was like a pebble in the Egyptian king's sandal. He irritated him just by being there, but war didn't break out until the insult. The Hyksos king sent a message to the ruler of Egypt, King Seqenenre. The Hyksos king complained that King Seqenenre's hippos in the royal pools "were keeping him awake at night with their grunts." Do something, he demanded. Given that Avaris was hundreds of miles from Thebes, where the king and his hippos lived, this was nothing short of a slap in the face. King Seqenenre was furious. Although it is unknown what happened next, the damage to King Seqenenre's skull indicates it didn't turn out well for the Egyptian side. During that time kings commanded the armies and led the soldiers into battle. Archaeologists have identified King Seqenenre's head, and it's not pretty. He took a battle axe to the forehead and was stabbed in the neck after he fell to the ground. This attack was the beginning of a war that would last nearly 25 years, from about 1574 to 1550 BCE, and span the reign of three Egyptian kings. (5) The Egyptians were farmers, not warriors. They were peaceful people. They were not conquerors by nature. And nowhere was that more obvious than in their army. It was unorganized. The soldiers served part-time and their weapons were not much more than farm tools adapted for battle. The few full-time soldiers were trained as palace guards, border police, or trade-ship escorts―not warriors. For the occasional battle outside of Egypt, the king hired foreign mercenaries because Egyptians didn't want to die away from home. An improper burial meant wandering the desert for eternity―not a pleasant haunting.

  • 日本語訳を!(20)

    お願いします (1) Ramesses III dispatched messengers. Advance squads of soldiers scrambled for the eastern Egyptian border. They raced to desert outposts and fortresses along the Delta, carrying an urgent message from their king. Hold your position. Stand firm. Keep the Egyptian border secure until the main army can be deployed. Reinforcements are coming. But until then, stay strong. Do not let the Sea Peoples past your line of defense. (2) By the end of the 13th century BCE, the Sea Peoples had swarmed across the eastern Mediterranean, burning and plundering everything in their path. They destroyed nearly every city, palace, town, and temple they came across. They had burned whole towns to ash and leveled cities to piles of rubble. Word reached Ramesses III that the Sea Peoples were on the move again, and this time it was Egypt they intended to crush. Ramesses III tells on the walls of his mortuary temple, "They were coming forward toward Egypt, while the flame was prepared before them." (3) Normally, the highly trained soldiers of the wealthiest country in the ancient world would not have been afraid of a disorderly crew of pirates, bandits, and ragamuffins. But the Egyptians believed this motley mob had already defeated the land of the Hittites and the island of Cyprus and that they were intent on conquering the world. The Sea Peoples had lost their homelands―had it been an earthquake that left them homeless? Or a drought that left them starving? Whatever drove them out had turned them into a dangerous enemy. They were desperate people who had nothing left to lose and everything to gain if they could force their way into Egypt.

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    お願いします (26) In the end, he was killed at the height of the powers by men he thought were his friends. It was particularly sad that Brutus was among the assassins. According to Suetonius, Caesar, as he wasdying, turned to Brutus and said, “You too, my son?” (27) Brutus didn't feel guilty about betraying Caesar. He was proud of it. His ancestor was the Brutus who had expelled the last King, Tarquin the Proud, from Rome. Brutus issued a coin to celebrate the Ides of March as Caesar's assassination day. The coin shows the deadly daggers that had killed Caesar and the “cap of liberty” traditionally worn by slaves after they were freed. Brutus bragged that he had saved Rome from slavery. (28) But the murder of Julius Caesar did Rome no good. The city faced another 13 years of civil unrest and war. Assassination did help Caesar's reputation, though. In his will, Caesar left a gift of money to every Roman citizen. More that ever, he was the common man's hero, so admired that later rules of Rome adopted the name Caesar. (29) Brutus and his friends thought they were serving Rome and saving the Republic by killing a man who had become too powerful, a man they feared might make himself king. They were shortsighted. The Republic was already dying...almost dead. Rome would soon be dominated by a single ruler. That man would be Caesar's great-nephew and heir, Augustus Caesar.