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お願いします (7) But just because doctors in ancient Egypt used magic to cure what they couldn't see, it didn't mean they weren't gifted physicians in terms of science. Brain surgery was successfully performed 5,000 years ago, broken arms set, legs amputated, and the patients survived because of the skill of the surgeons. We think that because surgical instruments were made from a volcanic glass called obsidian that the surgeries were more like hackings, but the flakes were sharper than scalpels used today. One tomb carving shows what many Egyptologists believe to be a tracheotomy, which is cutting open the throat to clear the airway so the patient can breathe. At Saqqara, in the Tomb of the Physician, wall paintings of surgery are captioned with the words, "Do not let it be painful," which leads scholars to believe hat Egyptian surgeons used anesthesia. (8) Egyptian doctors used many herbs to heal. The ancient Egyptians believed that demons hated honey, in fact, that they feared it. Honey was used in many of the remedies to ward off evil spirits. We now know that honey boosts the immune system and is an antibiotic, as are onions, another frequently prescribed remedy. Garlic, used for almost everything, is about 1 percent the strength of penicillin, a good medicine to fight bacteria. Egyptian prescriptions worked. And just like our modern physicians, Egyptian doctors adjusted the dosage according to the age of the patient. "If it is a big child, he should swallow it like a draught, if he is still in swaddles, it should be rubbed by his nurse in milk and thereafter sucked on 4 days."


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(7) しかし、古代エジプトの医者が、彼らが理解できないものを治療するために魔法を使ったからといって、そのことは彼らが科学に関して才能のある医者ではないと言うことを意味しませんでした。 脳の手術は、5,000年前うまく行われましたし、骨折した腕も治療されました、また、足の切断も行われました、そして、患者は外科医の技術のおかげで、死ななくて済みました。 外科手術が、どちらかと言えばたたき切ることに近かったと我々は考えますが、外科用器具は、黒曜石と呼ばれる火山性のガラスから作られたので、その薄片は、今日使われるメスより鋭かったのでした。ある墓の彫刻は、多くのエジプト学者が、患者が呼吸できるように、気道を確保するためにのどを切り開く、気管切開がどういうものであったと信じているかを示しています。 サッカラの、医者の墓には、手術の壁画に次の様な短い説明がついています「手術を痛くしてはいけない」、それで、学者は、エジプトの外科医が麻酔を使ったと信じています。 (8) エジプトの医者は、治療のために、多くの薬草を使いました。 古代のエジプト人は、悪魔は蜂蜜が嫌いであり、実際、悪魔は、蜂蜜を恐れると信じました。蜂蜜は、悪霊を防ぐために、多くの治療で使われました。 我々は、今では、もう一つの頻繁に処方された治療法である、玉ねぎと同様に、蜂蜜が、免疫系を高めること、そして、抗生物質であるということを知っています。 ニンニクは、ほとんどあらゆることに使われましたが、細菌と闘う優れた薬であるペニシリン約1パーセントの効能があります。エジプトの処方薬は、効果がありました。 そして、我々の現代の医者とちょうど同じように、エジプトの医者は、患者の年齢によって、投薬量を調節しました。 「大きい子供の場合、一気に薬をのみ込むべきです、彼がまだ赤ん坊の巻き布の中にいるならば、薬は乳母がミルクによく溶かし、その後4日続けて吸わせるべきです。」





  • 日本語訳を!(9)

    お願いします (1) If you became sick in ancient times, Egypt was where you would want to be. It offered the best medical care. The Greek poet Homer writes in about 725 BCE in the Odyssey about Egyptian doctors, "In medical knowledge the Egyptian leaves the rest of the world behind." Egyptians began practicing medicine by applying salves to the eyes as long as 6,000 years ago, and over the millennia their skills became world renowned, so much so that rulers of other countries sent for Egyptian doctors to cure their ills. Their treatments may sound primitive to us, but no doubt 6,000 years from now our "modern medicine" will seem positively barbaric to future scientists. (2) In many ways, medicine in ancient Egypt was like medicine today. Doctors then studied for many years in medical schools called peru-ankh, or "houses of life." They studied textbooks to learn how to recognize diseases by their symptoms and hat to do to cure the patient. The Greek historian Diodorus Siculus writes, "They administer their treatments in accordance with a written law which was composed in ancient times by many famous physicians." (3) The Ebers Papyrus is one of the oldest medical documents from anywhere in the ancient world. The papyrus scroll is more than 60 feet long and is inscribed on both sides. Some of the cures don't sound too bad. For indigestion the Ebers Papyrus advises patients to "crush a hog's tooth and put it inside four sugar cakes. Eat for four days." But other cures sound pretty disgusting. For a cut, "after the scab has fallen off put on it: Scribe's excrement. Mix in fresh milk and apply as a poultice."

  • 日本語訳を!

    (4) Considering that 19 types of excrement are mentioned in the cures, from fly excrement to ostrich excrement, it's no surprise Egyptian doctors had a problem with disgruntled patients. They handled malpractice efficiently, though. Diordorus writes,  If they follow the rules of this law as they read them in the sacred book and yet are unable to save their patient, they are absolved from any charge; but if they go contrary to the law's prescriptions they must submit to a trial with death as the penalty. If you're a physician and you follow the rules, all's well. But get creative with your treatments and you won't be treating anyone, unless it's in the afterlife. (5) Just as medical doctors do today, in ancient Egypt doctors specialized. The Greek historian Herodotus writes, "The practice of medicine is so divided among them that each physician treats one disease and no more. There are plenty of physicians everywhere. Some are eye-doctors, some deal with the head, others with the teeth or the belly, and some with hidden maladies...." The Ebers Papyrus even had a section on psychiatry, directing doctors on how to diagnose and treat depression. (6) The Egyptians had a cure for the common cold that was probably as good as anything you can find in a pharmacy today. It required a dose of the milk of a mother who had given birth to a boy, while chanting the spell, "May you flow out...who causes the seven openings in the head to ache." The Egyptians understood injuries caused by an accident, or in battle. They understood parasites and worms such as tapeworms, which they called "snakes in the belly." But for germs that couldn't be seen, Egyptians believed demons were responsible. There's nothing like a good spell to rid the body of evil spirits. The Ebers Papyrus states, "Magic is effective together with medicine. Medicine is effective together with magic." And so many medical treatments were odd combinations of science and magic.

  • 日本語訳を!(10)

    お願いします (1) The invaders didn't swoop across Egypt like a tidal wave. At the beginning of the Second Intermediate Peiod, they trickled in―immigrants from the east settling into the delta of northern Egypt. We call the invaders the Hyksos. Soon so many Hyksos had moved into the delta that they had their own king―and that irritated the king of Egypt. This as Egyptian soil, after all. Who did that foreign king think he was ruling in Egypt? No matter how hard the Hyksos tried to blend in, they were still foreigners. It didn't matter if they worshipped Egyptian gods, wore Egyptian clothes, or ate Egyptian food. They were still foreigners. Even their Egyptian name, heqa-khasut, smacked of somewhere else. It meant "chiefs of foreign lands." (2) True, the Hyksos brought with them the hump-backed Zebu cattle that the Egyptians liked so much. And those apples sure were tasty...not to mention the olives. And oh, the sound of the lyre and the lute! Their notes echoed through the chambers of the royal palace. Then there was the vertical loom. For weaving linen it couldn't be beat. The Hyksos' potter's wheels were better, too. But why were the Hyksos hiring scribes to copy Egyptian texts? Stealing Egyptian medical practices, no doubt. And it was totally unacceptable to build Avaris, a walled fortree, and claim it as their capital. (3) Manetho, an Egyptian priest, writes that the Hyksos' king "found a city very favorably situated on the east of the...Nile, and called it Avaris. This place he rebuilt and fortified with massive walls, planting there a garrison of as many as 240,000 heavy-armed men to guard his frontier." Nowhere did the Hyksos' foreignness offend Egyptians as much as at Avaris. Why, those Hyksos dared to live in the same place that they buried their dead. Barbarians!

  • 日本語訳を! 3-(7)

    お願いします。  Today when archaeologists dig up the bodies of pyramid builders it is clear that many survived serious injuries thanks to Imhotep and his long list of cures. But many did not. And, during the Old Kingdom, life everlasting was not for the common man. He could only hope to play his part in the cycle of life and death by building a tribute to his king and in doing so add to the grandeur of Egypt.

  • 日本語訳を! 7-(5)

    お願いします。 (14) When you arrive at the barracks, the smell of fresh baking bread makes your mouth water. Bakers pull loaves out of ovens large enough for you to stand in. You take some bread for yourself and then some fore your grandfather's Ka. You wander to the west side of the pyramid looking for his tomb. Your mother told you that his tomb is a miniature version of King Khufu's mer, except grandfather's is made from mud brick instead of stone. You pass the tomb of a husband and wife who worked on the Great Pyramid. You are one of the fdw who can read bits and pieces of hieroglyphs. What you read makes you quicken your pace past the tomb. It is cursed. "O all people who enter this tomb who will make evil against this tomb and destroy it; may the crocodile be against them on water, and snakes be against them on land; may the hippopotamus be against them on water, the scorpion against them on land." Even though you would never rob a tomb, the curse gives you the creeps, and you watch the ground ahead for snakes and scorpions. (15) Maybe you had better head back. The Overseer of All the King's Works will have assigned your job and you are anxious to see what you will be doing. Most of the farmers have to do all the heavy lifting, but maybe you will be lucky since you can read a little. Maybe you will be assigned a more skilled job. You hope that you can work on one of the boats in one of the boat pits. Wouldn't it be faaulous to be a boat builder for the afterlife? To help build the boat that King Khufu will use to navigate the stars?

  • 17-3日本語訳

    お願いします。  Because Ayurvedic doctors passed down their traditions orally for thousands of years before anyone wrote them down,no one knows about the doctors and nurses who helped develop them.We do know a little more about South Asia's greatest scientist,a man named Aryabhata,who was born in 476 CE.As a young boy,Aryabhate loved watching the stars.Even without a telescope,Aryabhate saw a lot.He saw that the moon was light on the side that faced the sun and dark on the side that faced away.He was the first person to come up with an accurate measurement for π,a number that is is used to calculate the length of curves.He realized that the earth and the other planets circled the sun,instead of the sun and the planets circling the earth.He also saw that the rising and the setting of the sun,the moon,and the starts was the result of the earth turning:“Just as a man in a boat moving forward sees the stationary objects(on either side of the river)as moving backward,just so are the stationary stars seen by the people at Lanka(i.e.,on the equator)as moving exactly towards the west.”  Because of what he saw and understood,he made a very accurate calendar-a great help to South Asians.All kinds of activities,from farming to religion to warfare,depended on knowing exactly what time of the year it was,or in other words,where the earth was in its yearly path around the sun.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (9) Originally the job of vizier was given to the sons of the king, but by the New Kingdom any official could rise to the position. It was possible for an ambitious commoner to become vizier, and it was possible for a vizier to become king. In times of turmoil, when weak kings ruled, it was the vizier particularly talented vizier might serve more than one kingship. This had the advantage of making the royal changeover a smooth one. (10) One of the vizier's primary jobs was to uphold justice. Ancient justice doesn't sound like justice at all to us. It sounds brutal. Because tomb images paint a picture of life the way Egyptians hoped it would be in the afterlife, popular impressions of ancient Egypt are rose colored. No one likes to commemorate their failures, especially on beetles and certainly not on their tomb walls. Not only that, Egyptians believed anything written came true. Believing that, one would surely be very careful what they wrote. Egyptian life was not the idyllic paradise so many would like to believe. It had a dark side. (11) In Amenhotep's time, the top 5 percent of the population controlled the wealth of Egypt. At the head of it all, of course, was the king. Ranked below him were the vizier and several hundred families who ran the country as priests and overseers. Just below these elite families was a growing upper-middle class of educated people. And below them was the bulk of the population―people who were tied to the land, illiterate and unskilled. As the middle class grew, it became more and more worried about protecting its wealth. Punishments for robbery became more severe.

  • 日本語訳を! 6-(1)

    お願いします。 (1) In monster movies the Mummy lurches forward, dragging his leg. Ancient Egyptians wouldn't have been scared by this stumbling bag of rags. In fact, they would probably have pointed and laughed, because every Egyptian knew mummies don't lurch. They don't drag their legs. They walk with the grace of an athlete, because in the Field of Reeds, which is where the dead lived, that limp would magically disappear. Deaf in one ear? No problem. Festering wound? No problem. Perfect health is yours in the Field of Reeds. (2) The Egyptians imagined that the Field of Reeds looked like home―only better. A gentle river meandered through fertile fields while munching cows looked on. The cows were fat and happy. They didn't even need to swish their tails, because there were no annoying flies in the Field of Reeds. The fields were always bursting with ripe foods ready to pick. No one was ever sick or hungry, and best of all, no one had to work. (3) The trick was getting in. The Egyptians believed that everyone had three spirits―the Ba, the Ka, and the Akh. Each spirit played a different role when the body died. In its natural state, the Ba―the person's personality―looked like a bird with a miniature version of the dead person's head. After death the Ba lived in the tomb, but was free to come and go as it pleased. The Ba often went to the land of the living where it changed into anything it fancied.

  • 英文と日本語訳があります。日本語訳は正しいですか?

    Interestingly, although the media often uses the figure "one million" to describe the number of young recluses in Japan, the truth is that no one really knows how many there are. In fact, the likelihood is that there are a lot fewer than this number. Because the behavior of recluses is so extreme, the media are attracted to them. Their strange stories make for interesting news articles and documentaries. In the end, the problem of young recluses may be much smaller than most believe it to be. 和訳 興味深いことに、メディアは日本の若者の引きこもりの数を表すのに「百万」という数字をしばしば使うけれども、 真実は、誰も本当にはどれくらいの数がいるのかわかっていない。 実際のところ、可能性としてはこの数(百万)よりずっと少ないかもしれない。 引きこもりの行動はとても極端なので、メディアは彼らに引き付けられる。 彼らの奇妙な話は新しい記事やドキュメンタリーを生み出す。 結局、若者の引きこもりの問題は、たいていの人々が思っているよりもずっと小さなものかもしれない。

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (14) It is no wonder Herodotus thought that Egyptians were obsessed with their appearance. Tomb walls show their dedication to grooming. A nobleman who lived nearly 4,500 years ago is shown getting a pedicure. At Deir el-Bahri there is scene after scene of royal cosmetic rituals. The number and quality of cosmetic containers ane palettes found in tombs is more evidence of the importance Egyptians placed on good grooming. One fabulous makeup jar was carved so delicately that the alabaster is nearly transparent. This 6th dynasty (about 2345-2180 BCE) cosmetic container is in the shape of a female monkey cradling her baby in such a way that it looks as if it is in her womb. (15) The Ebers Papyrus also has practical advice on how to manage body odor. "To expel stinking of the body of man or woman: ostrich-egg, shell of tortoise and gallnut from tamaris are roasted and the body is rubbed with the mixture." For those looking for a simpler deodorant, the trend was to roll incense into a ball and mash it into your armpits. From body oils to body paint, Egyptians had a bounty of beauty hints―honey for anti-wrinkle cream, mint for fresh breath, beeswax for hair gel. (16) If ancient Egyptians had an advice columnist, it would likely be "Dear Bes." Bes was the mischievous god of the family. Picture a god that is part dwarf, part lion―stocky, with a big head, bugged-out eyes, sticking his tongue out at you. That's Bes. Bes rarely walked. He skipped, hopped, or danced―and nome too gracefully―while playing his tambourine. Everyone loved Bes.  Dear Bes,  "I am a free woman of Egypt. I have raised eight children, and have provided them with everything suitable to their station in life. But now I have grown old and behold, my children don't look after me anymore." What should I do?         Sincerely,         Geezer from Giza