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日本語訳を! 8-(2)

お願いします。 (5) It was also common for governors to brag that they could support the people in their cnmmunity while the rest of Egypt starved. Ankhtyfy apparently was just as conceited as all the others because his inscription says, I gave bread to the hungry and clothing to the naked...I gave sandals to the barefooted. The whole country has become like locusts going upstream and downstream in search of food; but never did I allow anybody in need to go from this province to another one. I am the hero without equal. (6) Boasts like these led scholars to believe that the First Intermediate Period and all its chaos were brought about by famine. Was all of Egypt starving? Is that why the country fell apart? Archaeologists who study ancient climates don't think that is true. There were droughts in the Old Kingdom and the king was still able to maintain control. And there were good harvests during the First Intermediate Period and yet chaos ruled. The boasts about feeding the hungry were most likely meant to send the message to the people that they needed the governor, that without their local ruler they would suffer as the rest of the country was supposedly suffering. (7) Governors had always recruited military troops from their provinces for their king. Now instead of sending soldiers to the capital, they were using the troops for their own scrambles for power. The strong grew stronger, and the wealthy grew wealthier. The central government splintered. The king's power slipped further.


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(5) エジプトの他の地域が飢えに苦しむ頃、総督たちが彼らの地域社会の人々を養うことができたと自慢することも、よくあることでした。 アンクティフィは、すべての他の総督と同様に、明らかにうぬぼれていました、と言うのは、彼の碑文には次の様に書かれています、 余は、空腹の人々にパンを与え、裸の人々に衣類を与えたり ... 余は、裸足の人々にサンダルを与えたり。国中が、食物を捜して上流に、下流に赴くイナゴのようになりたり; しかるに、決して、余は、困窮する人々を誰も、この地方から別の地方へと行くのを許さじ。 余は、比類なき英雄なり。 (6) この様な自慢は、学者たちに、最初の中間期とすべてのその混沌が、飢饉によってもたらされたと信じさせました。エジプト全土が、飢えていたのでしょうか? それが、同国が分裂した理由でしょうか? 古代の気候を調査する考古学者は、それは真実ではないと考えています。 古王国に干ばつはありましたが、それでも、王はまだ支配を維持することができました。 そして、良い収穫が最初の中間期にはありましたが、それでも混沌が支配したのです。飢える人々に食物を与えたという自慢は、人々に、総督が必要だと言うこと、地方の統治者がいなければ、国の他の地域が、恐らく苦しんでいるような苦しみを彼らも味わうことになると言うメッセージを伝える意図が最もあったようでした。 (7) 総督たちは、常に彼らの王のために軍隊を彼らの地方で調達していました。 今では、兵士を首都に赴かせる代わりに、彼らは、彼ら自身の権力の争奪のために、軍隊を利用していました。 強い者は、より強くなりました、そして、富める者は、より豊かになりました。 中央政府は分裂しました。 王の権力は、さらに低下しました。





  • 日本語訳を! 5-(7)

    お願いします。 (18) Abydos wasn't the only sacred site. There were many others throughout Egypt. Some temples were mortuary temples for dead kings, and others were built to honor a particular god. Some, like Abydos, were both. Abydos honored Osiris, and because Osiris was the King of the Dead, it also became an important burial ground. (19) For Egyptians, the stories about the gods were comforting and provided guidance in a world that was unpredictable and governed by forces they didn't understand. Horus watched over them in this life. Osiris watched over them in death. When their world was in turmoil, they believed it was Seth fighting with Horus that created the chaos. When all was well, they were sure that Horus had won the battle. They believed that one day Horus would defeat Seth in a smashing final combat. Then Osiris would be able to return to the world of the living and all sorrow would end. Until then, it was a god-eat-god world.

  • 日本語訳を! 8-(1)

    お願いします。 (1) The First Intermediate Period began with blood. With each passing year of Pepi II's reign, which began in 2278 BCE, the aging king's power slipped a little more. The governors of the outlying provinces who all had once lived in the capital city with Pepi II moved out o the rural lands they governed. Until then, whatever each province produced, such as grain, had gone to the capital to be handed out by the great and powerful King Pepi II. Now goods remained in the province to be distributed by the governor. Poweq shifted. It shifted, bit by bit, from the capital to the provinces―from the king to the governors. (2) The governors, accustomed to palace life, began to build their own luxurious houses. They financed their rich lifestyle by keeping more and more of the local goods. Soon they needed artists to decorate their homes and their tombs. Rural Egypt changed. Wealth and culture shifted, bit by bit, from the capital to the provinces―from the control of the king to the control of the governors. (3) A papyrus known as the Admonitions of Ipuwer tells how wealth moved from royalty to ragamuffin: "poor men have become owners of wealth, and he who could not make sandals for himself is now a possessor of riches...noblemen are in distress while the poor man is full of joy...the land turns around as does a potter's wheel." (4) One typical governor, Ankhtyfy, ruled two provinces. Inscribed on the pillars of his tomb are the details of his life. He begins his autobiography by bragging, "I was the beginning and the end of mankind, since nobody like myself existed before, nor will he exist...I surpassed the feats of the ancestors, and coming generations will not be able to equal me...." This man did not suffer from low self-esteem.

  • 日本語訳を! 8-(4)

    お願いします。 (10) But the writings that actually come from the First Intermediate Period aren't quite so negative. Some stories are about problemr, but problems that could be overcome. Problems wrestled with. Problems solved. Not everything was bleak for everyone. With the decline of the king's power, people suddenly began to think for themselves. If the king could not control Egypt, was he really a god? Perhaps, if the king was not perfect and he could enter the afterlife, others could, too. (11) Directions to the next world, which previously had been available only to the king, were now being written on the inside and outside of coffins. Maps of the underworld were drawn, too, so that the dead could find their way. Just to be on the safe side, artists drew eyes on the outside of the coffin so that dead inside could read what was written outside. The Coffin Texts became available to the upper levels of society who could afford a burial. (12) Without the rigid formulas of the old ways, new ways were possible. The paintings and stories in Ankhtyfy's tomb are examples of this new freedom. They are unlike anything from the Old Kingdom. The artists painted in bold new styles. The painted scenes of everyday activities such as spinning and weaving, with craftspeople using new inventions. Artistry and technology bloomed when the artisans were no longer told how things must be done. (13) Scholars do not agree on exactly when the First Intermediate Period ended and the Middle Kingdom began. The list of kings is confusing, and dates overlap. But one thing is certain: when the Middle Kingdom was in full swing, centralized power was back.

  • 日本語訳を!(10)

    お願いします (1) The invaders didn't swoop across Egypt like a tidal wave. At the beginning of the Second Intermediate Peiod, they trickled in―immigrants from the east settling into the delta of northern Egypt. We call the invaders the Hyksos. Soon so many Hyksos had moved into the delta that they had their own king―and that irritated the king of Egypt. This as Egyptian soil, after all. Who did that foreign king think he was ruling in Egypt? No matter how hard the Hyksos tried to blend in, they were still foreigners. It didn't matter if they worshipped Egyptian gods, wore Egyptian clothes, or ate Egyptian food. They were still foreigners. Even their Egyptian name, heqa-khasut, smacked of somewhere else. It meant "chiefs of foreign lands." (2) True, the Hyksos brought with them the hump-backed Zebu cattle that the Egyptians liked so much. And those apples sure were tasty...not to mention the olives. And oh, the sound of the lyre and the lute! Their notes echoed through the chambers of the royal palace. Then there was the vertical loom. For weaving linen it couldn't be beat. The Hyksos' potter's wheels were better, too. But why were the Hyksos hiring scribes to copy Egyptian texts? Stealing Egyptian medical practices, no doubt. And it was totally unacceptable to build Avaris, a walled fortree, and claim it as their capital. (3) Manetho, an Egyptian priest, writes that the Hyksos' king "found a city very favorably situated on the east of the...Nile, and called it Avaris. This place he rebuilt and fortified with massive walls, planting there a garrison of as many as 240,000 heavy-armed men to guard his frontier." Nowhere did the Hyksos' foreignness offend Egyptians as much as at Avaris. Why, those Hyksos dared to live in the same place that they buried their dead. Barbarians!

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (7) Tiberius was elected a tribune of the people in 133 BCE. This office was first established to protect the plebeians, but later tribunes used it to advance their own careers. And as soon as Tiberius took office, he set to work for the rights of the plebes. The aristocrats in the Senate claimed that he was interested only in his own glory, but Tiberius denied it. He said that a trip through northern Italy had showed him how desperate the peasants really were. “The men who fight and die for Italy have only air and light. Without house or home, they wander with their wives and children in the open air.... They fight and die for the luxury and riches of others.” Tiberius insisted that Rome should give the land it gained through war to the poor. Conquered territory became state land. Technically, it belonged to Rome, but if wealthy citizens paid a small tax, they were allowed to farm it as their own. In this way most of the conquered territory passed into the hands of those who needed it least─the rich. Some aristocrats, including many senators, got tens of thousands of acres in this way. They used slave labor to work the land and made huge profits. (8) Tiberius made up his mind to change this law. He proposed that no one─no matter who his ancestors were─should be allowed to keep more than 300 acres of state land. The rest should be given to the poor. Once the homeless had land, he reasoned, they would be able to support themselves. They would no longer roam the cities in angry, hungry mobs. And, as landowners, they would be eligible to serve in the army. This would help the people, help the army, and help Rome─a “win” for everyone. But most of the senators stood against Tiberius, and it's easy to see why. His proposed law would rob them of the huge profits that they had enjoyed for so long.

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(4)

    お願いします。 (11) Osiris and Isis were two of the original nine gods. They were the children of the goddess of the sky and the god of the earth. Osiris became king of Egypt. He married the great love of his life, his sister Isis. His brother, Seth, was jealous. Seth wanted everything that Osiris had. He wanted to be king. He wanted his power. He wanted Isis. Seth pushed sibling rivalry into the evil zone. He plotted to destroy Osiris. Plutarch writes, "Seth secretly measured the body of Osiris and had made to the corresponding size a beautiful chest which was exquisitely decorated. He brought the chest to a banquet, and when the guests showed pleasure and admiration at the sight of it, Seth promised playfully that whoever would lie down in it and show that he fitted it, should have the chest as a gift." Then, in true Cinderella-and-the-glass-slipper fashion, everyone tried the coffinlike chest on for size. Some were so fat they couldn't squeeze into the box. Others were so small they slid right out. But, finally, when Osiris tried the coffin, the fit was just right. Plutarch writes that Seth "ran and slammed the lid on, and after securing it with bolts from the outside and with molten lead poured on, they took it to the river and let it go to the sea... "Osiris drowned. Death came to Egypt for the first time. (12) Seth enjoyed everything that once belonged to Osiris. But whereas Osiris was kind, Seth was cruel. There was no ma'at in Egypt with Seth in charge. There was war and hunger and lawlessness. Only Isis was unafraid of Seth. She found Osiris's body and turned herself into a bird and sang to him. In a fury, Seth cut Osiris into pieces and scattered him all over Egypt. Isis and her sister searched "in a papyrus boat, sailing through the marshes" for all his parts. They collectedthe pieces of Osiris, and with the help of Anubis, god of the dead, they sewed him back together.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (14) What really happened when the Hittite army infiltrated the royal camp is muddied by Ramesses' illusions of grandeur. The camp surely was in mass confusion. Many of his soldiers undoubtedly deserted, fleeing for their lives. The Hittite army had a clear advantage. Their ambush and worked. But once they were inside the camp, things began to fall apart for the Hittites. Rather than pressing their advantage and fighting the Egyptians while they were most vulnerable, the Hittites stopped to grab all the riches they were stumbling over. While they were busy plundering, Egyptian reinforcements arrived. The Egyptian divisions joined forces. They charged the Hittites. When it dawned on the Hittites that they were no longer facing disorganized stragglers, but a determined army, they turned and fled, diving into the Orontes River and swimming to the east bank where the bulk of he Hittite army waited. (15) When the dust settled, two of the greatest armies of the ancient world stood facing one another on opposite banks of the river. It seems neither wanted to fight. They had both lost many men. The Hittites no longer could ambush an unsuspecting army. The Egyptians would come at them prepared. And the Egyptians weren't facing some small outpost that offered little resistance. Hittite soldiers were trained and organized. War would mean enormous losses for both sides. And the outcome was by no means certain.

  • 日本語訳を!c9-3

    お願いします!続き The crew filled some of the big storage jars with fresh water for the long trip,and packed the others with dried cheese,butter,honey,and beer.They stowed large sacks of wheat and barley toward the front end of the boat,where the sacks were less likely to get wet.Next to the grain,they stacked bales of cotton cloth,bleached white or dyed red or blue.The captain would have bought the cloth from traders who had floated down the shallow rivers that led to the center of the bountry on their flat-bottomed boats. As you might have guessed from Puabi's tomb,the boat's most valuable cargo was long carnelian beads.These beads were in great demand in Mesopotamia,and the captain wrapped them in soft cotton and packed them carefully in a basket so that they would not get broken during the trip. After he tied some branches from the sacred pipal tree to the mast to ward off evil spirits,the captain would have loaded his passengers:monkeys,peacocks,and sleek reddish brown gunting dogs to sell as pets,as well as a couple of traders who wanted passage to Mesopotamia. From Dholavira the captain sailed west across the delta,or the mouth,of the Indus River.With the delta behind him,he faced one of the most dangerous parts of his trip.The coast became very rocky and the crew had to watch for submerged islands as they sailed slowly through waters filled with fish and black-and-gold sea snakes.Once he had made it through that dangerous stretch,the captain could have sailed across the Arabian Sea for a quick stop along the coast of Oman,or chosen to sail directly to Mesopotamia,north through the Persian Gulf.Oman would have been a tempting side trip.The people there were willing to trade their copper,seashells,and pearls,all of which were in high demand in Mesopotamia,for the captain's wood and cotton cloth-but the first traders to arrive in Mesopotamia could charge the highest prices for their goods.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (5) Menenius told the rebels that one time the various parts of this body became angry at the stomach and ganged up against it. They claimed that it was unfair that they should have all the worry, trouble, and work of providing for the belly, while the belly had...nothing to do but enjoy the good things they gave it. So they plotted that the hands should carry no more food to the mouth and that the...teeth would refuse to chew. (6) The body parts meant to punish the belly, but they all grew weak from lack of food. “They finally figured out that the belly had an important job after all. It received nourishment, but it also gave nourishment. It was no idle task to provide the body parts with what they all needed to survive and thrive.” Using this fanciful story, Menenius convinced the workers that their rebellion would be a disaster for everyone, rich and poor alike. Rome needed all of its people. (7) Thanks to Menenius, the workers agreed to go home. But they refused to go back to the status quo. One of the plebs' chief complaints was that the law favored the patricians. And since the courts were in the hands of the rich, a poor person had no protection against an unjust judge. A judge could protect his friends or rule according to his own best interests─whatever was best for him. After the plebs made their stand at the Sacred Mount, the senate voted to give them an assembly of their own and representatives to protect them against injustice. These officials, “tribunes of the plebs,” spoke up for the people and even had the right to veto decrees of the Senate.

  • 日本語訳を! 6-(6)

    お願いします。 (11) In the beginning nature preserved the bodies. The Egyptians buried their dead in the sand, on their sides, with their knees curled into their chest, facing the setting sun in the direction their spirits were headed. The hot, dry desert sucked the body fluids away. The skin hardened into a leathery shell, keeping everything in place. Ironically, concern for the corpse was what created problems. To keep sand from getting into the dead person's eyes and mouth, the Egyptians began to put a basket over the body's head. Then, a basket on the head didn't seem good enough. Trays were woven for above and below the corpse to keep sand off the whole body. Soon, brick-lined pits were being built for the dead. The problem was that without the sand to wick away the moisture, the bodies were rotting. That would never do. Without the entire body, the spirits could not lounge in the Field of Reeds. Haunting was happening. And so the Egyptians experimented and gradually developed the process of mummification during the Old Kingdom period. (12) Because everyond wanted their loved ones preserved, the funeral trade was a good one. The embalmers, who prepared the dead for burial, guarded their money-making secrets, passing their skills down from father to son. What we know about making a mummy comes from the Greek historians Herodotus, who wrote during the 5th century BCE, and Diodorus Siculus, who wrote during the 1st century BCE. The Greeks were fascinated by Egypt, as they were with many foreign cultures, and wrote about both the country and its history. Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus describe three mummy options: one for the very rich, one for the not so rich, and one for the poor. From their writings, we have the following recipe for a mummy (in this case, a top-of-the-line mummy):