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お願いします (14) Crassus was furious. He armed the men again. Then he divided 500 of the soldiers into 50 groups of 10. In each group, the men drew straws, and one man was chosen. Plutarch says that Crassus ordered the death of these fifty men, that they be executed“with a variety of appalling and terrible methods, performed before the eyes of the whole army, gathered to watch.”Crassus finally led Rome to victory, but only after a long, fierce struggle. Most of the rebels were killed. According to Plutarch, Spartacus refused to give up and fought savagely, even after the last of his men had deserted him. In the end, he died a soldier's death―with his sword in his hand. (15) The Romans crucified 6,000 rebels and left hanging on wooden crosses all along the Appian Way―a road that led to Rome. Their rotting bodies served as a horrible warning to rebellious slaves. (16) Although Rome was cruel to its slaves, not all of them suffered as terribly as the gladiators and mine workers did. Many captured people were skilled craftsmen who were allowed to continue their work as potters, artists, or metal workers. Those who worked in the homes of wealthy aristocrats were also treated fairly well―compared to less fortunate slaves. Household slaves were usually well fed and clothed. And their jobs were much safer and more pleasant. They worked as nannies, cooks, and seamstresses. Welleducated Greek slaves could become household secretaries or tutors for their masters' children. (17) Although slaves might become friendly with the master and his family, they still had to take orders. And if they committed crimes, they could be tortured, burned alive, crucified, or sent to fight wild beasts in the arena while the audience watched and cheered. The upper classes never suffered these violent punishments. Aristocratic criminals were killed with the sword―a quicker, less agonizing way to die.


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(14) クラッススは激怒しました。彼は、再び部下を武装させました。それから、彼は、兵士500人を10人からなる50のグループに分けました。各々のグループ内で、部下たちは、くじを引きました、そして、1人の男が、選ばれました。プルタークは、次の様に語ります、クラッススは、これらの50人の男に死ぬことを命じた、そして、彼らは「見物に集められた全軍の目の前で行われた様々なぞっとするような恐ろしい方法で」処刑された。クラッススは、ローマを勝利にようやく導きました、しかし、長い、激しい闘いの後にすぎませんでした。大部分の反乱者が、死にました。プルタークによると、彼の部下の最後に残った者たちが、彼を見捨てた後でさえ、スパルタクスは、降参することを拒否して、勇猛に戦いました。結局、彼は、手に剣を持ったまま ― つわものらしい死を遂げました。 (15) ローマ人は、6,000人の反乱者を磔にし、ローマに通じる道である ― アッピア街道に沿って、木の十字架に吊るして放置しました。彼らの腐りかけた死体は、反抗的な奴隷への恐ろしい見せしめとして用いられました。 (16) ローマは、その奴隷に残酷でしたが、彼ら全員が、闘士や鉱山労働者が、苦しんだほど、ものすごく苦しむというわけではありませんでした。多くの捕らえられた人々は、陶芸家、美術家、金属加工者として彼らの仕事を続けることを許された熟練した職人でした。裕福な貴族の家庭で働いた人々も、また、それほど幸運でない奴隷と比較して、かなり良い扱いを受けました。家庭用の奴隷は、通常、十分に食料や衣服を与えられました。そして、彼らの仕事は、ずっとより安全で、より楽しいものでした。彼らは、乳母、料理人、お針子として働きました。教養があるギリシアの奴隷は、家庭秘書や彼らの主人の子供たちのための家庭教師になることができました。 (17) 奴隷が、主人やその家族と親しくなる場合はありましたが、彼らは、やはり、命令を受けなければなりませんでした。そして、犯罪を犯せば、拷問されたり、火あぶりにされたり、磔にされたり、観衆が見物して喝采する中、アリーナで野獣と闘わせられに行かせられる可能性がありました。上流階級は、こうしたひどい罰を受けることは決してありませんでした。貴族の犯罪者は、剣で殺されました ― より迅速で、あまりつらくない殺され方でした。





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    お願いします (9) But Spartacus didn't intend to live―or die―as a slave. He secretly organized 200 gladiators in the school and together they planned a daring escape. At the last moment, the managers of the school discovered the plot and captured more than half of the men. But, according to Plutarch, Spartacus and about 70 men escaped with knives and skewers that they stole from the school's kitchen. (10) As the rebels slipped through the darkened streets of Capua, they got a lucky break: they happened upon cart full of weapons, intended for use in the gladiatorial games. The men helped themselves and left the city, armed with swords and daggers.Their first hiding place was in the top of Mt. Vesuvius, an inactive volcano. (11) When the news broke about the slaves' escape, Rome sent 3,000 foot soldiers to surround the slaves and starve them out. Spartacus and his men were outnumbered, but not outwitted. While the Romans guarded the road, the rebels cut some thick vines they found growing near the mouth of the volcano. They twisted the vines into ropes, which they used to climb down the mountain. Surprising their enemies, they seized the Roman camp, and the defeated Romans fled. (12) As word of this astonishing victory spread, thousands of farm slaves left their masters and joined Spartacus. The rebel band grew to nearly 70,000 men who roamed the countryside and broke into slaves' barracks. The rebels freed thousands of men and armed them for battle against Rome and their former masters. (13) The Senate thought it would be easy to defeat Spartacus, but Spartacus's men defeated the Roman forces again and again. Then the senators appointed Crassus, one of Rome's top generals, as commander in chief. Crassus sent a lieutenant named Mummius against the ex-slaves. The rebels crushed Mummius so completely that he lost his soldiers, his tents, and equipment―even his horse. The soldiers who survived the battle saved their own lives by handing over their weapons to the enemy.

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    お願いします (18) Slaves were sometimes able to gain their freedom legally. Freedmen, as these lucky ones were called, were usually educated people or household workers. Freed slaves, both men and women, could legally marry―though a former slave could not marry a senator. They were even allowed to own property. Although freedmen could live anywhere they liked, many stayed with their former masters to work for pay. They still needed to make a living. (19) Even though slaves had few possessions of their own, Roman mastes often gave gifts of money to hard workers. A slave could keep this gift, called a peculium, as his private property. Valuable slaves who were careful with their savings might eventually tuck away enough to buy their freedom. This system motivated slaves to work hard. It helped the masters too because, by the time a slave had saved enough money, he or she was probably growing old, and the master could use the money to auy another, younger, slave. (20) Many freedmen worked almost as hard as the slaves did. Most remained desperately poor. But at least as freedmen, they were servants who were paid for their work. And they could not be taken from their families and sold as Spartacus was.

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    お願いします (5) In the early years of the Roman Republic, most slaves were native Italians. These were people who fell into slavery because they had money troubles and couldn't pay their debts. Later, as Rome gradually conquered the Mediterranean world, the number of slaves grew, especially during and right after the wars between Rome and Carthage. By the first century BCE, when Spartacus lived, Rome had millions of foreign slaves. (6) Most of the slaves who were brought into Italy served their masters as farm laborers. Their owners thought of them as things, not human beings. Cato, writing in the second century BCE, advised his son that a“master should sell any old oxen, cattle or sheep that are not good enough,...an old cart or old tools, an old slave or a sick slave.”For Cato, a slave was no different from a farm animal or a plow―something to be used, then thrown out when it became old or broken down. (7) Many slaves rebelled against this brutal treatment. The first huge, terrifying began in Sicily in 135 BCE when 200,000 slaves took up arms against their owners. And Spartacus led the last slave revolt in 73 BCE. (8) Plutarch describes Spartacus as having“great courage and great physical strength. He was very intelligent...more than one would expect of a slave.” Because he was so strong, Spartacus was bought by a school that trained gladiators in Capua, south of Rome. The gladiators faced possible injury―sometimes death―every time they entered the arena to fight. But to the Roman audiences, these battles were“games.” And if a gladiator was injured, his suffering was just part of the entertainment.

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    お願いします (13) The Romans were completely outnumbered, and the men with Horatius panicked. They threw their weapons on the ground and started running. Horatius begged them to stay and fight. He said it would be foolish to run away, leaving the enemy free to cross the bridge and march into Rome. Shouting over the noise of battle, he asked them at least to destroy the bridge, if they were too afraid to fight. He would meet the enemy alone on the other side. (14) Horatius's courage astonished Romans and Etruscans alike, but only two Roman soldiers were brave enough to cross the bridge and fight beside him. The three men fought on the riverbank while the rest of the Romans hacked away at the bridge with their swords. When only a small strip of bridge was left, Horatius insisted that his two companions return across it to safety. (15) Livy tells the story of how Horatius stood alone, facing the enemy: “Looking round with eyes dark with menace upon the Etruscan chiefs, he challenged tham to single combat, calling tham the slaves of a tyrant king....” At first the Etruscans held back, but then, shamed by Horatius's courage, they began to hurl their javelins at him. Horatius caught their weapons on his shield. “As stubborn as ever, he stood on the bridge, his feet planted wide apart. The Etruscans were about to charge him when two sounds split the air: the crash of the broken bridge and the cheer of the Romans when they saw the bridge fall.” (16) This stopped the Etruscans in their tracks. Then Horatius prayed to the god of the river. “‘Holy Father Tiber...receive these arms and your soldier into your kindly waters.’ With that, he jumped into the river with all his armor on and safely swam across to his friends: an act of daring more famous than believable in later times.” The Roman people placed a statue in the public square to honor Horatius. As a reward for his amazing courage, they gave him as much land as he could plow in a day.

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    お願いします (7) Though no one can say for certain how many kings ruled Rome, archaeologists can prove that kings did rule Rome during this period. A 6th-century cup found in the Roman Forum at the Regia (the king's house) offers proof. On it is written the word rex, Latin for king. A black stone called the Lapis Niger gives more evidence. Also inscribed with the word rex, this stone probably marked the grave of an early king buried in the Forum. Ancient ruins show that the Regia burned down around 500 BCE. Perhaps Brutus and his followers set fire to it in their anger against Tarquin the Proud and his family. (8) Once the kings were banished, the senators took control of the goverment. They agreed to share the leadership with the Assembly so that no one could ever again take over and rule as a tyrant. Rome became a republic―a state in which highest power belongs to the citizens. Its Popular Assembly was made up of the citizens who were entitled to vote:landowning men. (Slaves and women could not vote.) (9) Each year the Assembly elected two senators to the high office of consul. In the early years of the Republic, these men handled nearly everything. They served as judges, priests, military commanders, and city councilors. But as Rome's population grew, the workload grew too. The city needed more officials, whom they called magistrates. The consuls were still the most powerful magistrates, but the Assembly also elected other officials for the less important jobs.

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    お願いします (7) Tiberius was elected a tribune of the people in 133 BCE. This office was first established to protect the plebeians, but later tribunes used it to advance their own careers. And as soon as Tiberius took office, he set to work for the rights of the plebes. The aristocrats in the Senate claimed that he was interested only in his own glory, but Tiberius denied it. He said that a trip through northern Italy had showed him how desperate the peasants really were. “The men who fight and die for Italy have only air and light. Without house or home, they wander with their wives and children in the open air.... They fight and die for the luxury and riches of others.” Tiberius insisted that Rome should give the land it gained through war to the poor. Conquered territory became state land. Technically, it belonged to Rome, but if wealthy citizens paid a small tax, they were allowed to farm it as their own. In this way most of the conquered territory passed into the hands of those who needed it least─the rich. Some aristocrats, including many senators, got tens of thousands of acres in this way. They used slave labor to work the land and made huge profits. (8) Tiberius made up his mind to change this law. He proposed that no one─no matter who his ancestors were─should be allowed to keep more than 300 acres of state land. The rest should be given to the poor. Once the homeless had land, he reasoned, they would be able to support themselves. They would no longer roam the cities in angry, hungry mobs. And, as landowners, they would be eligible to serve in the army. This would help the people, help the army, and help Rome─a “win” for everyone. But most of the senators stood against Tiberius, and it's easy to see why. His proposed law would rob them of the huge profits that they had enjoyed for so long.

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    お願いします (1) Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus were two Roman brothers who fought and died for the same cause. They even died the same way, murdered in violent stredt brawls. But the two Gracchi were very different in age and personality. Plutarch, the Greek writer who brought so many Romans to life through his biographies, describes them:“Tiberius, in his looks...and gestures...was gentle and composed. But Gaius was fiery and passionate.” When Tiberius gave a speech, he spoke quietly and never moved from one spot. But Gaius was like an actor. When he spoke to the people, he“would walk about, pacing on the platform. And in the heat of his orations, he would throw his cloak from his shoulders.” (2) The Gracchi brothers were noblemen whose family was well known in Rome. Their father had served two terms as a consul, the highest office in Rome. Their mother, Cornelia, was the daughter of the general Scipio Africanus, who had defeated Rome's great enemy, the Carthaginian general Hannibal. (A King of Egypt once proposed marriage to Cornelia, but she turned him down.) As children of such distinguished parents, the Gracchi brothers had not only social rank but also plenty of money. Still, they devoted themselves to improving the lives of the poor. (3) Tiberius and Gaius entered politics in difficult times. The Roman Republic was in trouble. Like a teenager who grows tall “overnight,” Rome had grown dramatically during the Punic Wars, from 264 to 146 BCE. And although 118 years is a long time for a person, it's a very short time for a city or empire. Rome entered the war years as a small city-state. It ended them as the ruler of the Mediterranean, controlling all of Italy, with conquered lands stretching from Africa and Spain to Greece. The once-poor farming community had mushroomed into a giant whose military conquests poured masses of gold, grain, and slaves into Italy.

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    お願いします (4) Rome was suddenly rich and powerful. But it was also suddenly full of problems. Thousands of unemployed men hung around on the streets of the city, hoping to find work. Many had lost their jobs to foreign slaves, who didn't have to be paid for their labor. Others in the street crowds were poor farmers whose land had been bought by wealthy aristocrats. These men could no longer farm. They couldn't join the army, either─only men who owned land could become soldiers. So what could they do? How could they feed themselves and their families? (5) Rome's elected officials didn't do much to improve the situation. More and more, they concentrated on what would be best for them instead of thinking about the common good. Instead of asking how they could help Rome and its people, they looked for ways to gain money and importance for themselves. Many fought their way to the top through bribery and corruption. Writing in the first century BCE, Sallust─a historian and a senator─describes his country's crisis: “Our country had grown great through hard work and the practice of justice... but then greed destroyed honor, integrity, and all other noble qualities; and intheir place came... cruelty, neglect of the gods, and a belief that everything has a price.” (6) The army became unruly. Rebellious mobs roamed the city. Yet the Senate ignored these problems and tried to govern the sprawling empire as if it were still a small city-state.Rome's leaders seemed to be asking for trouble, and they got it. Trouble's name was Tiberius Gracchus, the older of the two Gracchi brothers.

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    お願いします (14) Rome borrowed the Olympian gods from Greece, Where they were thought to live on Mount Olympus. Eventually, the Romans had gods for almost everything. They prayed to Juno for help with the birth of a baby, to Mars for help in battle, to Jupiter before planting their crops, and to Ceres for a good yield of grain. (15) Roman religion, government, and family were all closely connected. Each reflected the other. Jupiter ruled over the gods as father and king─just as kinds and consuls ruled the Roman state and fathers ruled their families.

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    お願いします (26) In the end, he was killed at the height of the powers by men he thought were his friends. It was particularly sad that Brutus was among the assassins. According to Suetonius, Caesar, as he wasdying, turned to Brutus and said, “You too, my son?” (27) Brutus didn't feel guilty about betraying Caesar. He was proud of it. His ancestor was the Brutus who had expelled the last King, Tarquin the Proud, from Rome. Brutus issued a coin to celebrate the Ides of March as Caesar's assassination day. The coin shows the deadly daggers that had killed Caesar and the “cap of liberty” traditionally worn by slaves after they were freed. Brutus bragged that he had saved Rome from slavery. (28) But the murder of Julius Caesar did Rome no good. The city faced another 13 years of civil unrest and war. Assassination did help Caesar's reputation, though. In his will, Caesar left a gift of money to every Roman citizen. More that ever, he was the common man's hero, so admired that later rules of Rome adopted the name Caesar. (29) Brutus and his friends thought they were serving Rome and saving the Republic by killing a man who had become too powerful, a man they feared might make himself king. They were shortsighted. The Republic was already dying...almost dead. Rome would soon be dominated by a single ruler. That man would be Caesar's great-nephew and heir, Augustus Caesar.