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お願いします (14) Crassus was furious. He armed the men again. Then he divided 500 of the soldiers into 50 groups of 10. In each group, the men drew straws, and one man was chosen. Plutarch says that Crassus ordered the death of these fifty men, that they be executed“with a variety of appalling and terrible methods, performed before the eyes of the whole army, gathered to watch.”Crassus finally led Rome to victory, but only after a long, fierce struggle. Most of the rebels were killed. According to Plutarch, Spartacus refused to give up and fought savagely, even after the last of his men had deserted him. In the end, he died a soldier's death―with his sword in his hand. (15) The Romans crucified 6,000 rebels and left hanging on wooden crosses all along the Appian Way―a road that led to Rome. Their rotting bodies served as a horrible warning to rebellious slaves. (16) Although Rome was cruel to its slaves, not all of them suffered as terribly as the gladiators and mine workers did. Many captured people were skilled craftsmen who were allowed to continue their work as potters, artists, or metal workers. Those who worked in the homes of wealthy aristocrats were also treated fairly well―compared to less fortunate slaves. Household slaves were usually well fed and clothed. And their jobs were much safer and more pleasant. They worked as nannies, cooks, and seamstresses. Welleducated Greek slaves could become household secretaries or tutors for their masters' children. (17) Although slaves might become friendly with the master and his family, they still had to take orders. And if they committed crimes, they could be tortured, burned alive, crucified, or sent to fight wild beasts in the arena while the audience watched and cheered. The upper classes never suffered these violent punishments. Aristocratic criminals were killed with the sword―a quicker, less agonizing way to die.


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(14) クラッススは激怒しました。彼は、再び部下を武装させました。それから、彼は、兵士500人を10人からなる50のグループに分けました。各々のグループ内で、部下たちは、くじを引きました、そして、1人の男が、選ばれました。プルタークは、次の様に語ります、クラッススは、これらの50人の男に死ぬことを命じた、そして、彼らは「見物に集められた全軍の目の前で行われた様々なぞっとするような恐ろしい方法で」処刑された。クラッススは、ローマを勝利にようやく導きました、しかし、長い、激しい闘いの後にすぎませんでした。大部分の反乱者が、死にました。プルタークによると、彼の部下の最後に残った者たちが、彼を見捨てた後でさえ、スパルタクスは、降参することを拒否して、勇猛に戦いました。結局、彼は、手に剣を持ったまま ― つわものらしい死を遂げました。 (15) ローマ人は、6,000人の反乱者を磔にし、ローマに通じる道である ― アッピア街道に沿って、木の十字架に吊るして放置しました。彼らの腐りかけた死体は、反抗的な奴隷への恐ろしい見せしめとして用いられました。 (16) ローマは、その奴隷に残酷でしたが、彼ら全員が、闘士や鉱山労働者が、苦しんだほど、ものすごく苦しむというわけではありませんでした。多くの捕らえられた人々は、陶芸家、美術家、金属加工者として彼らの仕事を続けることを許された熟練した職人でした。裕福な貴族の家庭で働いた人々も、また、それほど幸運でない奴隷と比較して、かなり良い扱いを受けました。家庭用の奴隷は、通常、十分に食料や衣服を与えられました。そして、彼らの仕事は、ずっとより安全で、より楽しいものでした。彼らは、乳母、料理人、お針子として働きました。教養があるギリシアの奴隷は、家庭秘書や彼らの主人の子供たちのための家庭教師になることができました。 (17) 奴隷が、主人やその家族と親しくなる場合はありましたが、彼らは、やはり、命令を受けなければなりませんでした。そして、犯罪を犯せば、拷問されたり、火あぶりにされたり、磔にされたり、観衆が見物して喝采する中、アリーナで野獣と闘わせられに行かせられる可能性がありました。上流階級は、こうしたひどい罰を受けることは決してありませんでした。貴族の犯罪者は、剣で殺されました ― より迅速で、あまりつらくない殺され方でした。





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    お願いします (9) But Spartacus didn't intend to live―or die―as a slave. He secretly organized 200 gladiators in the school and together they planned a daring escape. At the last moment, the managers of the school discovered the plot and captured more than half of the men. But, according to Plutarch, Spartacus and about 70 men escaped with knives and skewers that they stole from the school's kitchen. (10) As the rebels slipped through the darkened streets of Capua, they got a lucky break: they happened upon cart full of weapons, intended for use in the gladiatorial games. The men helped themselves and left the city, armed with swords and daggers.Their first hiding place was in the top of Mt. Vesuvius, an inactive volcano. (11) When the news broke about the slaves' escape, Rome sent 3,000 foot soldiers to surround the slaves and starve them out. Spartacus and his men were outnumbered, but not outwitted. While the Romans guarded the road, the rebels cut some thick vines they found growing near the mouth of the volcano. They twisted the vines into ropes, which they used to climb down the mountain. Surprising their enemies, they seized the Roman camp, and the defeated Romans fled. (12) As word of this astonishing victory spread, thousands of farm slaves left their masters and joined Spartacus. The rebel band grew to nearly 70,000 men who roamed the countryside and broke into slaves' barracks. The rebels freed thousands of men and armed them for battle against Rome and their former masters. (13) The Senate thought it would be easy to defeat Spartacus, but Spartacus's men defeated the Roman forces again and again. Then the senators appointed Crassus, one of Rome's top generals, as commander in chief. Crassus sent a lieutenant named Mummius against the ex-slaves. The rebels crushed Mummius so completely that he lost his soldiers, his tents, and equipment―even his horse. The soldiers who survived the battle saved their own lives by handing over their weapons to the enemy.

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    お願いします (18) Slaves were sometimes able to gain their freedom legally. Freedmen, as these lucky ones were called, were usually educated people or household workers. Freed slaves, both men and women, could legally marry―though a former slave could not marry a senator. They were even allowed to own property. Although freedmen could live anywhere they liked, many stayed with their former masters to work for pay. They still needed to make a living. (19) Even though slaves had few possessions of their own, Roman mastes often gave gifts of money to hard workers. A slave could keep this gift, called a peculium, as his private property. Valuable slaves who were careful with their savings might eventually tuck away enough to buy their freedom. This system motivated slaves to work hard. It helped the masters too because, by the time a slave had saved enough money, he or she was probably growing old, and the master could use the money to auy another, younger, slave. (20) Many freedmen worked almost as hard as the slaves did. Most remained desperately poor. But at least as freedmen, they were servants who were paid for their work. And they could not be taken from their families and sold as Spartacus was.

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    お願いします (13) The Romans were completely outnumbered, and the men with Horatius panicked. They threw their weapons on the ground and started running. Horatius begged them to stay and fight. He said it would be foolish to run away, leaving the enemy free to cross the bridge and march into Rome. Shouting over the noise of battle, he asked them at least to destroy the bridge, if they were too afraid to fight. He would meet the enemy alone on the other side. (14) Horatius's courage astonished Romans and Etruscans alike, but only two Roman soldiers were brave enough to cross the bridge and fight beside him. The three men fought on the riverbank while the rest of the Romans hacked away at the bridge with their swords. When only a small strip of bridge was left, Horatius insisted that his two companions return across it to safety. (15) Livy tells the story of how Horatius stood alone, facing the enemy: “Looking round with eyes dark with menace upon the Etruscan chiefs, he challenged tham to single combat, calling tham the slaves of a tyrant king....” At first the Etruscans held back, but then, shamed by Horatius's courage, they began to hurl their javelins at him. Horatius caught their weapons on his shield. “As stubborn as ever, he stood on the bridge, his feet planted wide apart. The Etruscans were about to charge him when two sounds split the air: the crash of the broken bridge and the cheer of the Romans when they saw the bridge fall.” (16) This stopped the Etruscans in their tracks. Then Horatius prayed to the god of the river. “‘Holy Father Tiber...receive these arms and your soldier into your kindly waters.’ With that, he jumped into the river with all his armor on and safely swam across to his friends: an act of daring more famous than believable in later times.” The Roman people placed a statue in the public square to honor Horatius. As a reward for his amazing courage, they gave him as much land as he could plow in a day.

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    お願いします (5) In the early years of the Roman Republic, most slaves were native Italians. These were people who fell into slavery because they had money troubles and couldn't pay their debts. Later, as Rome gradually conquered the Mediterranean world, the number of slaves grew, especially during and right after the wars between Rome and Carthage. By the first century BCE, when Spartacus lived, Rome had millions of foreign slaves. (6) Most of the slaves who were brought into Italy served their masters as farm laborers. Their owners thought of them as things, not human beings. Cato, writing in the second century BCE, advised his son that a“master should sell any old oxen, cattle or sheep that are not good enough,...an old cart or old tools, an old slave or a sick slave.”For Cato, a slave was no different from a farm animal or a plow―something to be used, then thrown out when it became old or broken down. (7) Many slaves rebelled against this brutal treatment. The first huge, terrifying began in Sicily in 135 BCE when 200,000 slaves took up arms against their owners. And Spartacus led the last slave revolt in 73 BCE. (8) Plutarch describes Spartacus as having“great courage and great physical strength. He was very intelligent...more than one would expect of a slave.” Because he was so strong, Spartacus was bought by a school that trained gladiators in Capua, south of Rome. The gladiators faced possible injury―sometimes death―every time they entered the arena to fight. But to the Roman audiences, these battles were“games.” And if a gladiator was injured, his suffering was just part of the entertainment.

  • 18-4日本語訳

    お願いします。 He told his people that he wanted them to live in a way that would lead to an“increase of their inner worthiness.”Ashoka also promoted the teachings of the Buddha and sent missionaries,including his son and his daughter,to lands as dar away as Sri Lanka so that his people would not make the same mistakes he had.As he said,“All men are my children.As for my own children,I desire that they may be provided with all the welfare and happiness of this world and of the next,so do I desire for all men as well.”  As part of his reforms,Ashoka banned the sacrifice of animals.This confused and angered many of his people,especially the Brahmins who made their living by performing animal sacrifices.The Brahmins were powerful enemies,break away from the Mauryan Empire after Ashoka's death.The last Mauryan ruler was assassinated in 185 BCE by one of his generals-who was,not so coincidentalky,a Brahmin.Although other kings would follow,no ruler would be strong enough to unite the many different people of the subcontinent into a single political state for 1,600 years.

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    お願いします (1) Ising of war and of that man who first came in exile from the shores of Troy to the coast of Italy. He was battered on land and sea by divine violence,... He had to suffer much in war until he built a city.... From him came the Latin people,...and the high walls of Rome. (2) With his homeland in enemy hands and his city in flames, Prince Aeneas, son of the goddess Venus, led a small group of Trojans to sea. After many months of being tossed about by fierce winds and storms, the travelers finally anchored their ships near the mouth of the Tiber River in Italy. Yet no sooner had they landed than the men began to plan another voyage. (3) This appalled the Trojan women. As the Greek historian Dionysius records the story, a noblewoman named Roma secretly took the women aside and suggested that they take matters into their own hands. “Tired of wandering,”the others listened eagerly. “Roma stirred up the... Trojan women”and suggested a simple plan. They all agreed, and “together, they set fire to the ships.” (4) At first the men were furious, but pretty soon they realized that the women had done the right thing. They had landed in a perfect spot. With mild weather and beautiful countryside―a cluster of hills just 15 miles from the sea―why should they leave? The men were so pleased that they named the place after Roma, the rebellious wife.

  • 16-2日本語訳

    お願いします。  What if he offered to help Sikander? If they were on the same side,there would be no battle.Taxila would be safe.What's more,Sikander might even help King Ambhi against his enemy King Porus.  So,when Sikander-whom you might know by his Gredk name,Alexander the Great-and his army marched up to the gates of Taxila,King Ambhi was there to welcome them.Just to make sure that Alexander understood that he,King Ambhi,was a friend,he threw Alexander's army a huge party hat lasted for a whole month.Arrian,a diplomat traveling with Alexander,wrote that when Alexander“arrived at Taxila,a great and flourishing city...Taxiles the governor of the city,and the Indians who belonged to it received him in a friendly manner,and he therefore added as much of the adjacent country to their territory as they requested.”The present that he offered Alexander as a symbol of his good will was just as impressive:5,000 soldiers and 56 war elephants.  These elephants and local troops would be important to provide backup for Alexander's elite corps of around 5,000 armored cavalry(men on horseback),14,500 archers,5,300 regular cavalry,and around 15,000 foot soldiers.Although his troops were brave,experienced,and skillful,Alexander knew that defeating Porus would be difficult. Porus had a large army of his own-3,000 cavalry and mnre than 1,000 chariots,50,000 font soldiers and archers,and 200 war elephants.His soldiers were also supposed to be the tallest and most powerful warriors in Asia,with an average height of more than six feet.They looked even taller because they wore their long hair coiled on their heads and wrapped in turbans so thick that even the sharpest sword could not cut through them.They were dressed in white cotton and white leather shoes,and wore earrings set with precious stones,golden armbands,and bracelets even into battle.

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    お願いします (7) Tiberius was elected a tribune of the people in 133 BCE. This office was first established to protect the plebeians, but later tribunes used it to advance their own careers. And as soon as Tiberius took office, he set to work for the rights of the plebes. The aristocrats in the Senate claimed that he was interested only in his own glory, but Tiberius denied it. He said that a trip through northern Italy had showed him how desperate the peasants really were. “The men who fight and die for Italy have only air and light. Without house or home, they wander with their wives and children in the open air.... They fight and die for the luxury and riches of others.” Tiberius insisted that Rome should give the land it gained through war to the poor. Conquered territory became state land. Technically, it belonged to Rome, but if wealthy citizens paid a small tax, they were allowed to farm it as their own. In this way most of the conquered territory passed into the hands of those who needed it least─the rich. Some aristocrats, including many senators, got tens of thousands of acres in this way. They used slave labor to work the land and made huge profits. (8) Tiberius made up his mind to change this law. He proposed that no one─no matter who his ancestors were─should be allowed to keep more than 300 acres of state land. The rest should be given to the poor. Once the homeless had land, he reasoned, they would be able to support themselves. They would no longer roam the cities in angry, hungry mobs. And, as landowners, they would be eligible to serve in the army. This would help the people, help the army, and help Rome─a “win” for everyone. But most of the senators stood against Tiberius, and it's easy to see why. His proposed law would rob them of the huge profits that they had enjoyed for so long.

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    お願いします。 (11) Osiris and Isis were two of the original nine gods. They were the children of the goddess of the sky and the god of the earth. Osiris became king of Egypt. He married the great love of his life, his sister Isis. His brother, Seth, was jealous. Seth wanted everything that Osiris had. He wanted to be king. He wanted his power. He wanted Isis. Seth pushed sibling rivalry into the evil zone. He plotted to destroy Osiris. Plutarch writes, "Seth secretly measured the body of Osiris and had made to the corresponding size a beautiful chest which was exquisitely decorated. He brought the chest to a banquet, and when the guests showed pleasure and admiration at the sight of it, Seth promised playfully that whoever would lie down in it and show that he fitted it, should have the chest as a gift." Then, in true Cinderella-and-the-glass-slipper fashion, everyone tried the coffinlike chest on for size. Some were so fat they couldn't squeeze into the box. Others were so small they slid right out. But, finally, when Osiris tried the coffin, the fit was just right. Plutarch writes that Seth "ran and slammed the lid on, and after securing it with bolts from the outside and with molten lead poured on, they took it to the river and let it go to the sea... "Osiris drowned. Death came to Egypt for the first time. (12) Seth enjoyed everything that once belonged to Osiris. But whereas Osiris was kind, Seth was cruel. There was no ma'at in Egypt with Seth in charge. There was war and hunger and lawlessness. Only Isis was unafraid of Seth. She found Osiris's body and turned herself into a bird and sang to him. In a fury, Seth cut Osiris into pieces and scattered him all over Egypt. Isis and her sister searched "in a papyrus boat, sailing through the marshes" for all his parts. They collectedthe pieces of Osiris, and with the help of Anubis, god of the dead, they sewed him back together.

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    お願いします (1) Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus were two Roman brothers who fought and died for the same cause. They even died the same way, murdered in violent stredt brawls. But the two Gracchi were very different in age and personality. Plutarch, the Greek writer who brought so many Romans to life through his biographies, describes them:“Tiberius, in his looks...and gestures...was gentle and composed. But Gaius was fiery and passionate.” When Tiberius gave a speech, he spoke quietly and never moved from one spot. But Gaius was like an actor. When he spoke to the people, he“would walk about, pacing on the platform. And in the heat of his orations, he would throw his cloak from his shoulders.” (2) The Gracchi brothers were noblemen whose family was well known in Rome. Their father had served two terms as a consul, the highest office in Rome. Their mother, Cornelia, was the daughter of the general Scipio Africanus, who had defeated Rome's great enemy, the Carthaginian general Hannibal. (A King of Egypt once proposed marriage to Cornelia, but she turned him down.) As children of such distinguished parents, the Gracchi brothers had not only social rank but also plenty of money. Still, they devoted themselves to improving the lives of the poor. (3) Tiberius and Gaius entered politics in difficult times. The Roman Republic was in trouble. Like a teenager who grows tall “overnight,” Rome had grown dramatically during the Punic Wars, from 264 to 146 BCE. And although 118 years is a long time for a person, it's a very short time for a city or empire. Rome entered the war years as a small city-state. It ended them as the ruler of the Mediterranean, controlling all of Italy, with conquered lands stretching from Africa and Spain to Greece. The once-poor farming community had mushroomed into a giant whose military conquests poured masses of gold, grain, and slaves into Italy.