• ベストアンサー
  • すぐに回答を!

日本語訳を! 6-(1)

お願いします。 (1) In monster movies the Mummy lurches forward, dragging his leg. Ancient Egyptians wouldn't have been scared by this stumbling bag of rags. In fact, they would probably have pointed and laughed, because every Egyptian knew mummies don't lurch. They don't drag their legs. They walk with the grace of an athlete, because in the Field of Reeds, which is where the dead lived, that limp would magically disappear. Deaf in one ear? No problem. Festering wound? No problem. Perfect health is yours in the Field of Reeds. (2) The Egyptians imagined that the Field of Reeds looked like home―only better. A gentle river meandered through fertile fields while munching cows looked on. The cows were fat and happy. They didn't even need to swish their tails, because there were no annoying flies in the Field of Reeds. The fields were always bursting with ripe foods ready to pick. No one was ever sick or hungry, and best of all, no one had to work. (3) The trick was getting in. The Egyptians believed that everyone had three spirits―the Ba, the Ka, and the Akh. Each spirit played a different role when the body died. In its natural state, the Ba―the person's personality―looked like a bird with a miniature version of the dead person's head. After death the Ba lived in the tomb, but was free to come and go as it pleased. The Ba often went to the land of the living where it changed into anything it fancied.


  • 回答数1
  • 閲覧数118
  • ありがとう数1


  • ベストアンサー
  • 回答No.1
  • sayshe
  • ベストアンサー率77% (4555/5903)

(1) 怪物映画の中では、ミイラは、脚を引きずりながら、よろよろと進んできます。 古代のエジプト人は、このつまずきながら進むぼろ袋の様なミイラを怖がらなかったでしょう。 実際、彼らは、おそらく、指をさして笑ったことでしょう、なぜならば、エジプト人は、みんな、ミイラが、よろめきながら歩いたりしない事を知っていたからです。 ミイラは、足を引きずったりしません。 ミイラは、運動選手の様に優美に歩くのです、なぜならば、死者が暮らす所である、葦の草原では、その様な不自由な脚は、魔法の様に、消えてなくなるからでした。 片方の耳が聞こえない? 大丈夫です。 傷が悪化した? 大丈夫です。 申し分のない健康が、葦の草原では、あなたのものになるのです。 (2) エジプト人は、葦の草原は、我が家の様で ― もっと良いだけだと、想像しました。 穏やかな川が、肥沃な畑を蛇行して流れ、草を食む牛たちが、眺めていました。 牛は太って、幸せにしていました。牛たちには、尻尾を振りまわす必要さえありませんでした、と言うのは、葦の草原には、腹立たしいハエがいなかったからです。 その草原には、いつでも摘み取ることのできる熟した食べ物が、常に、あふれていました。誰も、決して、病気になったり、飢えたりすることはありませんでした、そして、何よりも、誰も、働く必要がありませんでした。 (3) トリックが、入って来ました。 エジプト人は、誰もが、バア、カア、アク ― と言う、3つの霊魂を持つと、信じていました。 肉体が、滅びると、それぞれの霊魂が、異なる役割を演じました。 その自然状態では、人の個性である ― バア ―は、死者の頭を小さくした鳥のように見えました。死後、バアは、墓の中で暮らしましたが、好きな時に、自由に、行き来できました。 バアは、それが好むどんなものにでも姿を変えて、生者の土地に、しばしば、行きました。





  • 日本語訳を! 6-(5)

    お願いします。 (10) If all went in the hall of judgment, the spirits moved on to the final test―and this is where Anubis came in. Anubis had the body of a human and the head of a jackal. One of his official titles was "Lord of the Mummy Wrappings." It was Anubis who administered the final test. On one side of a balance scale, he would place the dead person's heart and, on the other, a feather that symbolized truth and justice. The god Thoth, who was the scribe of the gods, stood by with his pen ready to write down the test results. Would the heart weigh heavy with sin? Or would it balance with truthfulness and justice? If it balanced, the deceased was given a plot of land in the Field of Reeds. But if the balance tipped, the deceased met a very different fate. Near the scales a fierce monster called "The Eater of the Dead" waited―and he was hungry. Anubis fed the Eater of the Dead the hearts of those who failed the final test. Without a heart, the dead person was doomed. Egyptians believed that the three spirits needed their whole body to live in the Field of Reeds. If they were missing any essential part, they would spend eternity as evil spirits haunting the living. Naturally, the living did everything they could to preserve the body.

  • 日本語訳を! 6-(2)

    お願いします。 (4) The Ka, on the other hand, was stuck in the tomb. It had to stay with the body. In order to survive, the Ka needed to eat and drink. Friends and family of the dead person would bring offerings to the tomb for the Ka. They even brought clothing for it. The Ka needed the corpse, or the spirit would perish―and if it perished, good-bye Field of Reeds. In an emergency situation, the Ka could use a statue that looked like the deceased as a fallback body. Or it could even occupy a picture of the deceased on the tomb wall. Pharaohs paid artisans to recreate their images everywhere. A forgotten pharaoh was doomed. No sense taking chances. (5) The Akh was the spirit that represented immortality. It could shine with the stars at night and the sun in the day, or live forever in the Field of Reeds. The three spirits' main responsibility was to make sure that the dead person lived forever. Their job was to gain entrance to the Field of Reeds. And here's where it got tricky, because entering the Field of Reeds was as challenging as any video game. (6) When a person died, his or her spirit took off toward the setting sun and entered the dangerous Underworld. After a long journey the spirits arrived at a labyrinth of gates and doors. The gatekeepers and the magical doors would quiz the spirits. "I will not let xou through me," says the jamb of the door, "unless you tell me my name." "I will not open for you," says the bolt of the door, "unless you tell me my name." (7) There were many names to memorize in order to open the doors, names such as "She Who Licks Her Calves" and "He Who Cuts Up An Opponent" and "Toe of His Mother." Call one tormentor by the wrong name and you were condemned to haunt your own grave and wander the desert moaning through eternity.

  • 日本語訳を! 6-(6)

    お願いします。 (11) In the beginning nature preserved the bodies. The Egyptians buried their dead in the sand, on their sides, with their knees curled into their chest, facing the setting sun in the direction their spirits were headed. The hot, dry desert sucked the body fluids away. The skin hardened into a leathery shell, keeping everything in place. Ironically, concern for the corpse was what created problems. To keep sand from getting into the dead person's eyes and mouth, the Egyptians began to put a basket over the body's head. Then, a basket on the head didn't seem good enough. Trays were woven for above and below the corpse to keep sand off the whole body. Soon, brick-lined pits were being built for the dead. The problem was that without the sand to wick away the moisture, the bodies were rotting. That would never do. Without the entire body, the spirits could not lounge in the Field of Reeds. Haunting was happening. And so the Egyptians experimented and gradually developed the process of mummification during the Old Kingdom period. (12) Because everyond wanted their loved ones preserved, the funeral trade was a good one. The embalmers, who prepared the dead for burial, guarded their money-making secrets, passing their skills down from father to son. What we know about making a mummy comes from the Greek historians Herodotus, who wrote during the 5th century BCE, and Diodorus Siculus, who wrote during the 1st century BCE. The Greeks were fascinated by Egypt, as they were with many foreign cultures, and wrote about both the country and its history. Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus describe three mummy options: one for the very rich, one for the not so rich, and one for the poor. From their writings, we have the following recipe for a mummy (in this case, a top-of-the-line mummy):

  • 日本語訳を! 6-(3)

    お願いします。 (8) With so much to lose, the Egyptians came up with a cheat sheet. During the Old Kingdom, only pharaohs could get into the Field of Reeds. Not wanting to risk forgetting a name or a spell, the kings had the answers to all the questions, along with all the magic spells, buried with them. We call the book of spells from the Old Kingdom the Pyramid Texts. During the Middle Kingdom, when the Field of Reeds was open to everyone, the spell were conveniently written on the sides of the coffins. We call those the Coffin Texts. In the New Kingdom the spells were written on scrolls and buried with the body. The words written during the New Kingdom are now known as the Book of the Dead. The Egyptians thought of every possible unpleasantness and wrote spells to protect against it. They even had a spell that prevented them from having to stand on their head and eat feces―or step in some. "What I detest is feces, and I will not eat it... and I will not touch it with my toes." Obviously the ancients weren't taking chances on anything less than a perfect afterlife.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (14) What really happened when the Hittite army infiltrated the royal camp is muddied by Ramesses' illusions of grandeur. The camp surely was in mass confusion. Many of his soldiers undoubtedly deserted, fleeing for their lives. The Hittite army had a clear advantage. Their ambush and worked. But once they were inside the camp, things began to fall apart for the Hittites. Rather than pressing their advantage and fighting the Egyptians while they were most vulnerable, the Hittites stopped to grab all the riches they were stumbling over. While they were busy plundering, Egyptian reinforcements arrived. The Egyptian divisions joined forces. They charged the Hittites. When it dawned on the Hittites that they were no longer facing disorganized stragglers, but a determined army, they turned and fled, diving into the Orontes River and swimming to the east bank where the bulk of he Hittite army waited. (15) When the dust settled, two of the greatest armies of the ancient world stood facing one another on opposite banks of the river. It seems neither wanted to fight. They had both lost many men. The Hittites no longer could ambush an unsuspecting army. The Egyptians would come at them prepared. And the Egyptians weren't facing some small outpost that offered little resistance. Hittite soldiers were trained and organized. War would mean enormous losses for both sides. And the outcome was by no means certain.

  • 日本語訳を! 4-(1)

    お願いします。  Humans are fascinated by firsts. Who was the first to step on the moon, the first to cross the sea―the first to write? Until recently, scientists thought the earliest writers were the Sumerians in Mesopotamia (which today is Iraq). But 300 pieces of pots no bigger than postage stamps are suggesting that writing began just as early in Egypt.  Scientists have been digging for decades in Abydos, an ancient royal cemetery west of the Nile, 300 miles south of Cairo. The ancient Egyptians buried their first kings in Abydos because they believed the mouth to the canyon there was the entrance to the next world. In a tomb that could be King Scorpion's, scientists are finding hundreds of pieces of pottery with some of the earliest writings in the world.  What words inspired some ancient Egyptian to invent writing? Were the words poetic? Were they wise? Did they reveal the true meaning of life? Did they point the way to the nearest watering hole? Nothing quite so meaningful―the inscriptions on the clay jars and vases are records of oil and linen deliveries. There was no money 5,300 years ago. Taxes were paid in goods. Sometimes they were paid with oil and linen. These very early written words were tax records. There is a saying that nothing in life is certain―except death and taxes. Maybe it's fitting that some of the earliest writings are tax records found in a cemetery.  We take writing for granted. In those first school years we carefully learn to draw the letters. We recite the sound each letter makes. But suppose no one had writtin before us, no teacher to show us what a letter looks like, no sound to go with it. How would you begin to write? The Egyptians began with pictures.

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(2)

    お願いします。 (4) Different towns in Egypt worshipped differnt gods. The leaders of the town would try to convince everyone that their god was the most powerful. If their god was powerful, it meant they were powerful, too. Before Upper and Lower Egypt were unified, each had its own capital with its own goddess. Upper Egypt's goddess looked like a vulture. Lower Egypt's goddess looked like a cobra. After Upper and Lower Egypt unified, the kings wore a crown with both a vulture and a cobra to symbolize the joining of the regions. (5) One of the pharaoh's most important jobs was to take care of the gods. If the gods were happy, the Egyptians figured they would be happy, too. The crops would grow, the Nile would flood to the right level, and Egypt would be at peace with its neighbors. Life would be in balance, or ma'at. The pharaohs built great temples to show respect to the gods. Inside each temple, in the innermost room, they placed a shrine. And inside the shrine, they kept a statue of the god for whom the temple had been built. Every day the priests served the statue as if it were alive. (6) One pharaoh, King Neferhotep (who ruled about 1741 to 1730 BCE), paid special attention to the temple at Abydos. King Neferhotep wanted to be sure the priests were taking care of the statue exactly as they were supposed to take care of it. After all, those priests were the king's representatives. So if they displeased the gods, then the gods were displeased with the king as well. Ma'at would be thrown all out of whack.

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(1)

    番号で分けているのでお願いします。 (1) The ancient Egyptians had a god for everything. That palm tree set back from the Nile sprouting on the rise behind your cousin's house? It had a god. The make-up your father applied from his palette in the morning? It had a god, too. More than 2,000 names of gods have been found written in limestone, on papyrus, and scratched on mud-brick walls. Some gods were powerful and worshipped by many, and some were wispy spirits known to just a few. There were gods whose spirits lived inside real things, such as the Nile, the sun , the sky, and the earth. And there were gods for protection against dangers, such as the bites of crocodiles, scorpions, and snakes. There were gods who stood for learning―the art of music and medicine; and there were gods who stood for the learned―the scribes and the architects. You name it, the Egyptians had a god for it. (2) There were good gods and bad gods, and fierce gods to protect you from the bad gods. There were gods for the living and gods for the dead. Some gods were human, some were animal, and some were a little of both. The bulls of one breed were so sacred that they lived like kings, and when they died the Egyptians mummified them, just like they would a pharaoh. They covered the bulls in jewels and placed them in coffins carved out of solid blocks of granite each weighing 80 tons. These sacred bulls even had their own cemeteries. At a burial site at Saqqara archaeologists have found 24 bulls, each in an elaborately carved coffin. (3) The most important god in Egypt was the sun god. The Egyptians pictured the sun god pushing the sun across the sky just as the scarab beetles pushed tiny dirt balls across the ground. Every morning the Egyptians were grateful when the sun was born again like the tiny scarab eggs hatching in the dirt ball. And every evening when the sun set, they worried that an evil snake would swallow the sun as it passed through the Underworld.

  • 日本語訳を! 3-(3)

    お願いします。  There are challenges to living in a country that is mostly desert. By the time the Old Kingdom rolled around, about 2700 BCE, Egyptians were up to meeting those challenges―the most obvious would concern water. Although the derert continually tried to push in on the farmland along the edge of the Nile, the Egyptians had learned how to push back. They coaxed the waters of the Nile inland, filling the buckets of their shadufs and emptying them into channels they had dug through their gardens. Not only were they irrigating their farmlands, they were expanding them. Farmers grew more food than the people could possibly eat. The king's granaries filled. The government organized and financed massive irrigation projects. When you grow more food than you can possibly eat you are left with something to trade with other nations―grain. What Egyptians didn't have they could now get through trade.  A challenge less obvious to those nnt used to surviving in a desert environment is the lack of wood. There are no tall trees in a desert. Actually, there are no trees at all, with the exception of what grew right along the edge of the Nile and in the occasional oasis. Egyptians needed wood―a lot of wood―especially for boats and coffins. They had their eye on the cedar that grew to the northeast, in the land that we now call Lebanon. It was ideal for both boats and coffins because cedar resists rot, and a rotting boat or a rotting coffin can be a problem. And so it began―we've got grain, we need wood, you've got wood, you need grain, let's trade. It was not much different, in principle, from trading baseball cards.

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(7)

    お願いします。 (18) Abydos wasn't the only sacred site. There were many others throughout Egypt. Some temples were mortuary temples for dead kings, and others were built to honor a particular god. Some, like Abydos, were both. Abydos honored Osiris, and because Osiris was the King of the Dead, it also became an important burial ground. (19) For Egyptians, the stories about the gods were comforting and provided guidance in a world that was unpredictable and governed by forces they didn't understand. Horus watched over them in this life. Osiris watched over them in death. When their world was in turmoil, they believed it was Seth fighting with Horus that created the chaos. When all was well, they were sure that Horus had won the battle. They believed that one day Horus would defeat Seth in a smashing final combat. Then Osiris would be able to return to the world of the living and all sorrow would end. Until then, it was a god-eat-god world.