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お願いします (1) The invaders didn't swoop across Egypt like a tidal wave. At the beginning of the Second Intermediate Peiod, they trickled in―immigrants from the east settling into the delta of northern Egypt. We call the invaders the Hyksos. Soon so many Hyksos had moved into the delta that they had their own king―and that irritated the king of Egypt. This as Egyptian soil, after all. Who did that foreign king think he was ruling in Egypt? No matter how hard the Hyksos tried to blend in, they were still foreigners. It didn't matter if they worshipped Egyptian gods, wore Egyptian clothes, or ate Egyptian food. They were still foreigners. Even their Egyptian name, heqa-khasut, smacked of somewhere else. It meant "chiefs of foreign lands." (2) True, the Hyksos brought with them the hump-backed Zebu cattle that the Egyptians liked so much. And those apples sure were tasty...not to mention the olives. And oh, the sound of the lyre and the lute! Their notes echoed through the chambers of the royal palace. Then there was the vertical loom. For weaving linen it couldn't be beat. The Hyksos' potter's wheels were better, too. But why were the Hyksos hiring scribes to copy Egyptian texts? Stealing Egyptian medical practices, no doubt. And it was totally unacceptable to build Avaris, a walled fortree, and claim it as their capital. (3) Manetho, an Egyptian priest, writes that the Hyksos' king "found a city very favorably situated on the east of the...Nile, and called it Avaris. This place he rebuilt and fortified with massive walls, planting there a garrison of as many as 240,000 heavy-armed men to guard his frontier." Nowhere did the Hyksos' foreignness offend Egyptians as much as at Avaris. Why, those Hyksos dared to live in the same place that they buried their dead. Barbarians!


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(1) 侵入者は、津波のようにエジプト全域を襲うわけではありませんでした。 第2中間期の初めに、彼らは、少しずつ侵入してきました ― 北エジプトのデルタに定住するようにたった東からの移民でした。 我々は、侵入者をヒクソスと呼びます。 間もなく、とても多くのヒクソス人が、デルタに移住してきて、彼らには、彼ら自身の王もいました ― そして、そのことは、エジプトの王をいらいらさせました。結局、ここは、エジプトの土地でした。 その外国の王は、彼がエジプトで誰を支配していると思っていたのでしょうか? ヒクソスの民がどんなに一生懸命に溶け込もうとしたとしても、彼らはまだ外国人でした。 彼らがエジプトの神に礼拝し、エジプトの衣服を身に着け、エジプトの食物を食べたとしても、それは重要ではありませんでした。彼らは、まだ異邦人だったのです。 彼らのエジプトの名前、ヘカ・カーストでさえ、どこかよその土地を思わせました。 それは、「異国の主」を意味しました。 (2) 確かに、ヒクソス人は、エジプト人が大好きな背中にコブのあるコブ牛を彼らと共に連れてきました。 そして、それらのリンゴは、確かにおいしかったです ... オリーブは、言うまでもないことでした。そして、ああ、リラ(竪琴)とリュート(ギターに似た楽器)の音! 彼らの音楽が、王宮の至る所の部屋でこだましました。 それから、垂直の織機がありました。 リネンを織るために、それに勝るものはありませんでした。 ヒクソス人の陶工ろくろも、より優れていました。 しかし、なぜ、ヒクソス人はエジプトの文書を写すために書記を雇っていたのでしょうか?間違いなく、エジプトの医術を盗むことでした。 そして、壁に囲まれた砦のアバリスを造って、それが彼らの都であると主張することは、全く受け入れがたいことでした。 (3) エジプトの神官、マネトは次の様に書いています、ヒクソスの王が「街が、ナイル川の東の非常に良い位置にあると思い、そこをアバリスと呼んだ。この地を、彼は、作り直し、巨大な壁で砦とし、彼の辺境の地を守るために240,000人もの重武装の兵士から成る駐屯軍をそこに駐留させた。」 アバリスほど、ヒクソス人の異質性がエジプト人を憤慨させる場所はありませんでした。 何故、それらのヒクソス人は、彼らが死者を葬る同じ場所にあえて住むことにしたのでしょうか。 野蛮人め!





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    お願いします (4) The king of the Hyksos was like a pebble in the Egyptian king's sandal. He irritated him just by being there, but war didn't break out until the insult. The Hyksos king sent a message to the ruler of Egypt, King Seqenenre. The Hyksos king complained that King Seqenenre's hippos in the royal pools "were keeping him awake at night with their grunts." Do something, he demanded. Given that Avaris was hundreds of miles from Thebes, where the king and his hippos lived, this was nothing short of a slap in the face. King Seqenenre was furious. Although it is unknown what happened next, the damage to King Seqenenre's skull indicates it didn't turn out well for the Egyptian side. During that time kings commanded the armies and led the soldiers into battle. Archaeologists have identified King Seqenenre's head, and it's not pretty. He took a battle axe to the forehead and was stabbed in the neck after he fell to the ground. This attack was the beginning of a war that would last nearly 25 years, from about 1574 to 1550 BCE, and span the reign of three Egyptian kings. (5) The Egyptians were farmers, not warriors. They were peaceful people. They were not conquerors by nature. And nowhere was that more obvious than in their army. It was unorganized. The soldiers served part-time and their weapons were not much more than farm tools adapted for battle. The few full-time soldiers were trained as palace guards, border police, or trade-ship escorts―not warriors. For the occasional battle outside of Egypt, the king hired foreign mercenaries because Egyptians didn't want to die away from home. An improper burial meant wandering the desert for eternity―not a pleasant haunting.

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(2)

    お願いします。 (4) Different towns in Egypt worshipped differnt gods. The leaders of the town would try to convince everyone that their god was the most powerful. If their god was powerful, it meant they were powerful, too. Before Upper and Lower Egypt were unified, each had its own capital with its own goddess. Upper Egypt's goddess looked like a vulture. Lower Egypt's goddess looked like a cobra. After Upper and Lower Egypt unified, the kings wore a crown with both a vulture and a cobra to symbolize the joining of the regions. (5) One of the pharaoh's most important jobs was to take care of the gods. If the gods were happy, the Egyptians figured they would be happy, too. The crops would grow, the Nile would flood to the right level, and Egypt would be at peace with its neighbors. Life would be in balance, or ma'at. The pharaohs built great temples to show respect to the gods. Inside each temple, in the innermost room, they placed a shrine. And inside the shrine, they kept a statue of the god for whom the temple had been built. Every day the priests served the statue as if it were alive. (6) One pharaoh, King Neferhotep (who ruled about 1741 to 1730 BCE), paid special attention to the temple at Abydos. King Neferhotep wanted to be sure the priests were taking care of the statue exactly as they were supposed to take care of it. After all, those priests were the king's representatives. So if they displeased the gods, then the gods were displeased with the king as well. Ma'at would be thrown all out of whack.

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    お願いします (1) Ramesses III dispatched messengers. Advance squads of soldiers scrambled for the eastern Egyptian border. They raced to desert outposts and fortresses along the Delta, carrying an urgent message from their king. Hold your position. Stand firm. Keep the Egyptian border secure until the main army can be deployed. Reinforcements are coming. But until then, stay strong. Do not let the Sea Peoples past your line of defense. (2) By the end of the 13th century BCE, the Sea Peoples had swarmed across the eastern Mediterranean, burning and plundering everything in their path. They destroyed nearly every city, palace, town, and temple they came across. They had burned whole towns to ash and leveled cities to piles of rubble. Word reached Ramesses III that the Sea Peoples were on the move again, and this time it was Egypt they intended to crush. Ramesses III tells on the walls of his mortuary temple, "They were coming forward toward Egypt, while the flame was prepared before them." (3) Normally, the highly trained soldiers of the wealthiest country in the ancient world would not have been afraid of a disorderly crew of pirates, bandits, and ragamuffins. But the Egyptians believed this motley mob had already defeated the land of the Hittites and the island of Cyprus and that they were intent on conquering the world. The Sea Peoples had lost their homelands―had it been an earthquake that left them homeless? Or a drought that left them starving? Whatever drove them out had turned them into a dangerous enemy. They were desperate people who had nothing left to lose and everything to gain if they could force their way into Egypt.

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(1)

    番号で分けているのでお願いします。 (1) The ancient Egyptians had a god for everything. That palm tree set back from the Nile sprouting on the rise behind your cousin's house? It had a god. The make-up your father applied from his palette in the morning? It had a god, too. More than 2,000 names of gods have been found written in limestone, on papyrus, and scratched on mud-brick walls. Some gods were powerful and worshipped by many, and some were wispy spirits known to just a few. There were gods whose spirits lived inside real things, such as the Nile, the sun , the sky, and the earth. And there were gods for protection against dangers, such as the bites of crocodiles, scorpions, and snakes. There were gods who stood for learning―the art of music and medicine; and there were gods who stood for the learned―the scribes and the architects. You name it, the Egyptians had a god for it. (2) There were good gods and bad gods, and fierce gods to protect you from the bad gods. There were gods for the living and gods for the dead. Some gods were human, some were animal, and some were a little of both. The bulls of one breed were so sacred that they lived like kings, and when they died the Egyptians mummified them, just like they would a pharaoh. They covered the bulls in jewels and placed them in coffins carved out of solid blocks of granite each weighing 80 tons. These sacred bulls even had their own cemeteries. At a burial site at Saqqara archaeologists have found 24 bulls, each in an elaborately carved coffin. (3) The most important god in Egypt was the sun god. The Egyptians pictured the sun god pushing the sun across the sky just as the scarab beetles pushed tiny dirt balls across the ground. Every morning the Egyptians were grateful when the sun was born again like the tiny scarab eggs hatching in the dirt ball. And every evening when the sun set, they worried that an evil snake would swallow the sun as it passed through the Underworld.

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    お願いします (9) Originally the job of vizier was given to the sons of the king, but by the New Kingdom any official could rise to the position. It was possible for an ambitious commoner to become vizier, and it was possible for a vizier to become king. In times of turmoil, when weak kings ruled, it was the vizier particularly talented vizier might serve more than one kingship. This had the advantage of making the royal changeover a smooth one. (10) One of the vizier's primary jobs was to uphold justice. Ancient justice doesn't sound like justice at all to us. It sounds brutal. Because tomb images paint a picture of life the way Egyptians hoped it would be in the afterlife, popular impressions of ancient Egypt are rose colored. No one likes to commemorate their failures, especially on beetles and certainly not on their tomb walls. Not only that, Egyptians believed anything written came true. Believing that, one would surely be very careful what they wrote. Egyptian life was not the idyllic paradise so many would like to believe. It had a dark side. (11) In Amenhotep's time, the top 5 percent of the population controlled the wealth of Egypt. At the head of it all, of course, was the king. Ranked below him were the vizier and several hundred families who ran the country as priests and overseers. Just below these elite families was a growing upper-middle class of educated people. And below them was the bulk of the population―people who were tied to the land, illiterate and unskilled. As the middle class grew, it became more and more worried about protecting its wealth. Punishments for robbery became more severe.

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    お願いします (14) What really happened when the Hittite army infiltrated the royal camp is muddied by Ramesses' illusions of grandeur. The camp surely was in mass confusion. Many of his soldiers undoubtedly deserted, fleeing for their lives. The Hittite army had a clear advantage. Their ambush and worked. But once they were inside the camp, things began to fall apart for the Hittites. Rather than pressing their advantage and fighting the Egyptians while they were most vulnerable, the Hittites stopped to grab all the riches they were stumbling over. While they were busy plundering, Egyptian reinforcements arrived. The Egyptian divisions joined forces. They charged the Hittites. When it dawned on the Hittites that they were no longer facing disorganized stragglers, but a determined army, they turned and fled, diving into the Orontes River and swimming to the east bank where the bulk of he Hittite army waited. (15) When the dust settled, two of the greatest armies of the ancient world stood facing one another on opposite banks of the river. It seems neither wanted to fight. They had both lost many men. The Hittites no longer could ambush an unsuspecting army. The Egyptians would come at them prepared. And the Egyptians weren't facing some small outpost that offered little resistance. Hittite soldiers were trained and organized. War would mean enormous losses for both sides. And the outcome was by no means certain.

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    お願いします (7) But just because doctors in ancient Egypt used magic to cure what they couldn't see, it didn't mean they weren't gifted physicians in terms of science. Brain surgery was successfully performed 5,000 years ago, broken arms set, legs amputated, and the patients survived because of the skill of the surgeons. We think that because surgical instruments were made from a volcanic glass called obsidian that the surgeries were more like hackings, but the flakes were sharper than scalpels used today. One tomb carving shows what many Egyptologists believe to be a tracheotomy, which is cutting open the throat to clear the airway so the patient can breathe. At Saqqara, in the Tomb of the Physician, wall paintings of surgery are captioned with the words, "Do not let it be painful," which leads scholars to believe hat Egyptian surgeons used anesthesia. (8) Egyptian doctors used many herbs to heal. The ancient Egyptians believed that demons hated honey, in fact, that they feared it. Honey was used in many of the remedies to ward off evil spirits. We now know that honey boosts the immune system and is an antibiotic, as are onions, another frequently prescribed remedy. Garlic, used for almost everything, is about 1 percent the strength of penicillin, a good medicine to fight bacteria. Egyptian prescriptions worked. And just like our modern physicians, Egyptian doctors adjusted the dosage according to the age of the patient. "If it is a big child, he should swallow it like a draught, if he is still in swaddles, it should be rubbed by his nurse in milk and thereafter sucked on 4 days."

  • 日本語訳を! 3-(1)

    お願いします。  The king who followed Narmer was named Aha. Aha means "the fighter." That should give you a clue as to what life was like in Egypt after the "unification." Either no one had bothered to get the word out to the Egyptians that they were now unified, or not everyone bought into the deal, because for next several hundred years, from about 3100 to 2670 BCE, the kings of Egypt spent most of their time squelching turf wars that flared up like forest fires. Every town with muscle and a headsman with attitude challenged the king. Each province struggled to hang on to its power. It took several hundred years and a king with a name that meant "divine body" to truly unify Egypt. A king named Djoser.  Egypt's list of kings is a long one. What makes the list run even longer is that most of the kings had several names. Take this one king, for example:  Hor Ka-nakht tut-mesut, Nebti Nefer-hepu Segereh-tawy, Sehetep-netjeru Nebu, Hor Neb Wetjes-khau Sehetep-netjeru, Nesut Bit Nebkheperure, Sa re Tutankhamun Heqaiunushema. In English, this name means:  The Horus Strong Bull, Fitting from Created Forms, He of the Two Ladies, Dynamic of Laws, Who Propitiates all the Gods, the Golden Horus Who Displays the Regalia, Who Propitiates the Gods, King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Lord of Manifestations is Re, Son of Re, Living Image of Amun, Ruler of Upper Egyptian Iunu. Fortunately for us, we know him as King Tut.  You can imagine how unwieldy the list became with more than 170 kings. Most of their names would have been lost if it weren't for an Egyptian priest and historian named Manetho, who lived in the third century BCE. He sorted out the entire disaster by collecting the records from various temples and putting them in order. To organize the list into something manageable, Manetho grouped the kings into thirty ruling families that we call dynasties.

  • 日本語訳を! 8-(2)

    お願いします。 (5) It was also common for governors to brag that they could support the people in their cnmmunity while the rest of Egypt starved. Ankhtyfy apparently was just as conceited as all the others because his inscription says, I gave bread to the hungry and clothing to the naked...I gave sandals to the barefooted. The whole country has become like locusts going upstream and downstream in search of food; but never did I allow anybody in need to go from this province to another one. I am the hero without equal. (6) Boasts like these led scholars to believe that the First Intermediate Period and all its chaos were brought about by famine. Was all of Egypt starving? Is that why the country fell apart? Archaeologists who study ancient climates don't think that is true. There were droughts in the Old Kingdom and the king was still able to maintain control. And there were good harvests during the First Intermediate Period and yet chaos ruled. The boasts about feeding the hungry were most likely meant to send the message to the people that they needed the governor, that without their local ruler they would suffer as the rest of the country was supposedly suffering. (7) Governors had always recruited military troops from their provinces for their king. Now instead of sending soldiers to the capital, they were using the troops for their own scrambles for power. The strong grew stronger, and the wealthy grew wealthier. The central government splintered. The king's power slipped further.

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(7)

    お願いします。 (18) Abydos wasn't the only sacred site. There were many others throughout Egypt. Some temples were mortuary temples for dead kings, and others were built to honor a particular god. Some, like Abydos, were both. Abydos honored Osiris, and because Osiris was the King of the Dead, it also became an important burial ground. (19) For Egyptians, the stories about the gods were comforting and provided guidance in a world that was unpredictable and governed by forces they didn't understand. Horus watched over them in this life. Osiris watched over them in death. When their world was in turmoil, they believed it was Seth fighting with Horus that created the chaos. When all was well, they were sure that Horus had won the battle. They believed that one day Horus would defeat Seth in a smashing final combat. Then Osiris would be able to return to the world of the living and all sorrow would end. Until then, it was a god-eat-god world.