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日本語訳を!!c6-2

お願いします!!続き Symbols scratched into pots after they were fired are called graffiti.Graffiti probably developed at the same time as potter's marks,around 4000 BCE,but the earliest examples from Harappa date to around 3300 BCE.They count as the earliest evidence for writing in the Indus Valley.By about 2800-2600 BCE,the symbols that began as graffiti had become a written language,one that was spreading rapidly throughout the region. Why did writing spread so quickly? For one thing,it was useful,especially to merchants who traveled throtghout the Indus Valley.They used square seals with animal designs and bold script across the the top to seal goods for trade.They also developed a system of tablets for keeping accounts.Archaeologists have recently found a building that was a kind of “mint” that made the tablets that merchants used to keep track of their goods. Merchants weren't the only people who were quick to see the power of the written word.Religious leaders may have used writing to record the names of deities and important religious rituals. Archaeologists have been trying to understand the Indus script for more than a hundred years-without any luck.For one thing,they've only found about 2,000 examples of it,and none of the examples has more than 23 symbols (most have only five).But they have been able to figure out a few of its features.They know that the Indus script is not directly related to any known writing system.They know that it was written from right to left (as is the script used to write Urdu,the modern language of Pakistan). But sometimes longer inscriptions are written from the right in the first line,then from left to right on the mext line,and so on,back and forth until the end.This type of writing style is called boustrophedon,a Greek word that means “as the ox turns,”because it moves down one row and up the next,the way oxen plow a field,or people mow the lawn.

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深鍋が焼かれた後に深鍋にひっかいて刻んだシンボルは、グラフィティ(落書き)と呼ばれています。紀元前4000年ごろ、グラフィティ(落書き)は陶工の印と同じころに多分発達したのでしょう、しかし、ハラッパから最も初期の例は紀元前3300年頃までさかのぼります。それらは、インダス渓谷の文字の最も初期の証拠に数えられています。紀元前2800年~2600年頃までには、落書きとして始まったシンボルは、書き言葉になりました、そして、それは、その地域一帯に急速に広がっていったものになりました。 なぜ、文字はそれほど速く広がったのでしょうか?一つには、それが役に立ったからです、特にインダス渓谷一帯を旅した商人にとって、それは役に立ちました。彼らは、交易のための商品に封印をするために動物のデザインとてっぺんを横切る太字の文字列のある四角い印鑑を使いました。彼らは、また、帳簿を付けるために、書字板のシステムも開発しました。考古学者は、商人が彼らの商品の記録を付けるために使った書字板を作った一種の「ミント」(貨幣鋳造所)であった建物を、最近、見つけました。 商人は、書き言葉の力を素早く理解した唯一の人々ではありませんでした。宗教指導者は、神と重要な宗教的な儀式の名前を記録するために、文書を使ったかもしれません。 考古学者は、100年以上の間インダス文字を理解しようとしてきました ― しかし、運には恵まれていません。一つには、彼らはそれの約2,000例を見つけたにすぎませんでした、そして、例のどれも23個以上のシンボルがありませんでした(たいていの物はわずか5個)。しかし、彼らはその特徴の2、3を見つけ出すことができました。彼らは、インダス文字が既知のどの書記体系にも直接関連がないということを知っています。彼らは、現代のパキスタンの言葉であるウルドゥー語を書くのに用いられる文字と同様、それが右から左に書かれたということを知っています。しかし、時々、長い記入が、1行目は右から書かれ、そして、次の行は、左から右に書かれ、その様にしながら、行ったり来たりして最後まで書かれているのです。このタイプの書記体系は、牛耕体と呼ばれます、「牛が向きを変える様に」と言う意味のギリシア語です、と言うのは、それが、1つの列を下に動き、次の列は上に動いて、雄牛が畑を耕したり、人々が芝生を刈ったりする様子に似ているからです。

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  • 日本語訳を!!c6-1

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  • 日本語訳を!!c6-3

    お願いします!!続き Archaeologists know that the Indus script probably used both symbol-pictures and letters standing for different sounds.They have made out between 400 and 450 symbols,which are too few for a language without an alphabet and too many for a language with an alphabet.The script of the Mesopotamians,for example,used more than 600 symbols,each of which stood for a syllable and sometimes also for a whole word.The Canaanites,who lived to the west of Mesopotamia,later developedan alphabet of fewer than 50 symbols,each standing for a specific consonant. A lot of the examples we have of Indus script come from inscriptions on seals.The square seals of the Indus cities were made from a soft stone called steatite,or soapstone.The original color of the stone ranges from gray or tan to white.If the steatite was going to be used for a seal,the seal maker bleached it with a chemical solution and fired it in a kiln to make it hard and white.(For 100 years,archaeologists have been trying to figure out what that solution was,but no luck yet.) Some sealr were made from faience paste that could be molded,fired,and glazed.Faience is made from ground quartz that is melted and then reground to make a glassy paste.It can be colored with copper to make a blue-green or turquoise color,and then fired at high temperatures to make a shiny glazed object.

  • 日本語訳を!!c7-4

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  • 日本語訳を!c9-6

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  • 日本語訳を!c9-5

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  • 日本語訳をお願いします 2

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  • 日本語訳を!!c8-3

    お願いします!!続き Other shops specialized in the ceramic art of faience,their shelves stocked with beads and bangles as welk as small bottles for perfume and medicines.Still others offered white soapstone beads and pendants,delicately fashioned inlay,and intricately carved and inscribed seals with geometric designs.At this same shop,merchants could have ordered inscribed reals with special animal designs that stood for their clan or religious beliefs. Seals show a person who talks to tigers from a thorny tree.Other seals and figurines show mother deities;a bearded,horned deity;or the ritual killing of a water buffalo.Many of these scenes include a holy man sitting on his heels and meditating in the shade of the pipal,or sacred fig,tree.Archaeologists believe that communities of holy men practiced the discipline of yoga in sacred groves outside the city walls.Sarang's family may well have gone to visit these holy men to bring them offerings as part of the harvest festival. Sarang's family certainly would have stopped in the potter's quarter to buy pots and small clay figurines for worship at the harvest festival.If Sarang had glanced into the courtyard behind any potter's shop,he might well have seen children at work.Artisans' shops were attached to their children would have helped with simple tasks,such as sweeping or fetching materials.Archaeologists have found that some of the flat clay disks that were used to cover pots have child-sized hand-and footprints pressed into them.Bead maker's children,with their small hands and good eyesight,probably also helped string tiny beads. Besides pots,potters made small figurines that were used as offerings to the deities.Even today,many Hindus use small clay or paper figures as part of their prayers and offerings to the deities.Could some of the deities they worship have come from Harappan times?No one knows.

  • 日本語訳を!!c6-4

    お願いします!!続き Seals were important symbols of power. Once an ancient South Asian“sealed”a box or a door with a piece of clay he had stamped with his seal,no one could open it without the sealer's permission.People who did not own anything of great value had no need for seals,so scholars suspect that they were used only by wealthy traders,landowners,or religious leaders.Because seals were so valuable,working like a signature that could be used to approve payments and trade,the city government probably controlled seal making. Once a seal was made,probably only one person used it.But sometimes a father might pass a seal down to his son,or a mother to her daughter.After a seal had been used for a while,its edges would get worn and rounded.It would no longer make very clear impressions.Since people wouldn't want anyone else using their seal,they were very careful about getting rid of their worn-out seals.Archaeologists at Harappa have uncovered heavily worn seals buried in the floor of a house.Lots of broken seals and tablets have also been discovered in the litter filling the streets or in trash pits.The ansient Indus people either buried their old seals or broke them into small pieces before they threw them away,the same way people today cut up their old credit cards. But the ancient South Asians have nothing to fear from the archaeologists who found them-at least until someone figures out how to read the script the seals are written in! Until someone finally gets to the bottom of that script,we'll never know the whole story of Harappa and her sister cities.No matter how carefully we look at the puzzle pieces,some of them are still missing.Even so,archaeologists have a lot of fun trying to put them together.