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お願いします!!続き Symbols scratched into pots after they were fired are called graffiti.Graffiti probably developed at the same time as potter's marks,around 4000 BCE,but the earliest examples from Harappa date to around 3300 BCE.They count as the earliest evidence for writing in the Indus Valley.By about 2800-2600 BCE,the symbols that began as graffiti had become a written language,one that was spreading rapidly throughout the region. Why did writing spread so quickly? For one thing,it was useful,especially to merchants who traveled throtghout the Indus Valley.They used square seals with animal designs and bold script across the the top to seal goods for trade.They also developed a system of tablets for keeping accounts.Archaeologists have recently found a building that was a kind of “mint” that made the tablets that merchants used to keep track of their goods. Merchants weren't the only people who were quick to see the power of the written word.Religious leaders may have used writing to record the names of deities and important religious rituals. Archaeologists have been trying to understand the Indus script for more than a hundred years-without any luck.For one thing,they've only found about 2,000 examples of it,and none of the examples has more than 23 symbols (most have only five).But they have been able to figure out a few of its features.They know that the Indus script is not directly related to any known writing system.They know that it was written from right to left (as is the script used to write Urdu,the modern language of Pakistan). But sometimes longer inscriptions are written from the right in the first line,then from left to right on the mext line,and so on,back and forth until the end.This type of writing style is called boustrophedon,a Greek word that means “as the ox turns,”because it moves down one row and up the next,the way oxen plow a field,or people mow the lawn.


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深鍋が焼かれた後に深鍋にひっかいて刻んだシンボルは、グラフィティ(落書き)と呼ばれています。紀元前4000年ごろ、グラフィティ(落書き)は陶工の印と同じころに多分発達したのでしょう、しかし、ハラッパから最も初期の例は紀元前3300年頃までさかのぼります。それらは、インダス渓谷の文字の最も初期の証拠に数えられています。紀元前2800年~2600年頃までには、落書きとして始まったシンボルは、書き言葉になりました、そして、それは、その地域一帯に急速に広がっていったものになりました。 なぜ、文字はそれほど速く広がったのでしょうか?一つには、それが役に立ったからです、特にインダス渓谷一帯を旅した商人にとって、それは役に立ちました。彼らは、交易のための商品に封印をするために動物のデザインとてっぺんを横切る太字の文字列のある四角い印鑑を使いました。彼らは、また、帳簿を付けるために、書字板のシステムも開発しました。考古学者は、商人が彼らの商品の記録を付けるために使った書字板を作った一種の「ミント」(貨幣鋳造所)であった建物を、最近、見つけました。 商人は、書き言葉の力を素早く理解した唯一の人々ではありませんでした。宗教指導者は、神と重要な宗教的な儀式の名前を記録するために、文書を使ったかもしれません。 考古学者は、100年以上の間インダス文字を理解しようとしてきました ― しかし、運には恵まれていません。一つには、彼らはそれの約2,000例を見つけたにすぎませんでした、そして、例のどれも23個以上のシンボルがありませんでした(たいていの物はわずか5個)。しかし、彼らはその特徴の2、3を見つけ出すことができました。彼らは、インダス文字が既知のどの書記体系にも直接関連がないということを知っています。彼らは、現代のパキスタンの言葉であるウルドゥー語を書くのに用いられる文字と同様、それが右から左に書かれたということを知っています。しかし、時々、長い記入が、1行目は右から書かれ、そして、次の行は、左から右に書かれ、その様にしながら、行ったり来たりして最後まで書かれているのです。このタイプの書記体系は、牛耕体と呼ばれます、「牛が向きを変える様に」と言う意味のギリシア語です、と言うのは、それが、1つの列を下に動き、次の列は上に動いて、雄牛が畑を耕したり、人々が芝生を刈ったりする様子に似ているからです。





  • 日本語訳を!!c6-3

    お願いします!!続き Archaeologists know that the Indus script probably used both symbol-pictures and letters standing for different sounds.They have made out between 400 and 450 symbols,which are too few for a language without an alphabet and too many for a language with an alphabet.The script of the Mesopotamians,for example,used more than 600 symbols,each of which stood for a syllable and sometimes also for a whole word.The Canaanites,who lived to the west of Mesopotamia,later developedan alphabet of fewer than 50 symbols,each standing for a specific consonant. A lot of the examples we have of Indus script come from inscriptions on seals.The square seals of the Indus cities were made from a soft stone called steatite,or soapstone.The original color of the stone ranges from gray or tan to white.If the steatite was going to be used for a seal,the seal maker bleached it with a chemical solution and fired it in a kiln to make it hard and white.(For 100 years,archaeologists have been trying to figure out what that solution was,but no luck yet.) Some sealr were made from faience paste that could be molded,fired,and glazed.Faience is made from ground quartz that is melted and then reground to make a glassy paste.It can be colored with copper to make a blue-green or turquoise color,and then fired at high temperatures to make a shiny glazed object.

  • 日本語訳を!!c6-1

    お願いします!! What do you think is the world's most important invention? The wheel? The light bulb? If you asked most historians,they wouldn't hesitate:reading and writing,all the way.Just as pottery allowed ancient people to store food and goods in a place safe from water or insects,writing let people store knowledge.For the first time,the things people knew could be kept safe for their children,and not lost through their poor memories,sicknesses,or deaths.What's more,writing meant people could pass on information to others in different places or times.As long as people can read,they can know.The ability to read and write was-and is-power. Like a child who draws pictures before he or she writes words,ancient people first used symbols instead of letters.The first evidence for writing comes from pottery shards.Many ancient pots have marks on them that potters probably made before the clay was baked hard.That way each potter could tell which pots were hers,even when she shared a kiln with her neighbors.That's probably the first kind of writing you learned,too-your name,so you could mark every paper and drawing you made as yours.People started using these simple markings as early as 4500 BCE in the Indus Valley and continued using them long after the invention of writing. Potter's marks are scratched into the clay before firing,but many finished pieces of pottery have symbols that were scratched into them after they were fired,probably by their new owners.No one knows for sure what these symbols stand for.Archaeologists think that they might have been labdls that identified the contents of the pot,the name of the owner,or perhaps the name of tne person to whom it was being sent. If,for example,a wealthy man sent a pot of honey to a temple as an offering,he might have wanted to identify either himself or the temple where he was sending the gift.

  • 日本語訳を!c9-6

    お願いします!続き The river passage ended at the dangerous deep,narrow passages of the Kabul River,where the merchants left their boats and loaded their goods onto small,hardy mountain cattle and human porters.The trip across the plain near modern Kabul was easier,but once they got to the narrow valleys and high mountain passes of northern Afghanistan,they had to go by foot,leading the pack animals. They arrived at a small settlement of Indus people in the high valleys of Badakshan sometime in November.These Indus colonists mined lapis lazuli and panned for gold and tin in the river's sands,but they also kept herds of sheep,goat,and cattle,and farmed enough land to provide them with food for most of the year.But they liked being able to buy things from home,and they also wanted grain to trade with nomadic mountain people who brought them more precious stones and metals. Although they didn't have to find their way through schools of sea snakes and storms at sea,the merchants who traded in the high mountains faced other dangers.Early snows sometimes blocked the high mountain passes,and the monsoon and earthquakes washed the roads away all the time,forcing the merchants to blaze their own paths.So as soon as their trading was done,the merchants of“Meluhha”turned around and headed back down the mountains,eager to get home to snug houses and good friends before the cold days of winter set in.

  • 日本語訳を!c9-5

    お願いします!続き But the sea captain's voyage proves that the people of the Indus Valley could have been the source of some of the goods the Mesopotamians bought from “Meluhha.”What about blue lapis lazuli and tin (which they mixed with copper to make bronze),which are not found along either the Indus River or the coast of the Arabian Sea? It turns out that Indus River merchants followed more than one trade route.According to the later Ramayana,an Indian poem by Valmiki,“With the end of the rainy season,nature's traffic resumed on land,air,and water.”At the end of October,after the rains were over and the rivers had gone down to tgeir normal levels,a second group of Indus merchants packedtheir goods into flat-bottomed riverboats and headed north.Their journey upriver was frustratingly slow at first,as men and oxen walking along the banks strained to pull the riverboats against the current.Some ancient clay models of flat-bottomed riverboats have a hole in the center.This hole would have been used for either a mast or a pulling pole.A pulling pole is made by setting up a long pole with a rope tied to the top so that it does not get caught on bushes and trees along the edge of the river.People walk along the river edge pulling the boat,a painfully slow and difficult process that is called“walking”a boat up the river. The boats would have been even harder to pull laden with grain,butter,oil,and dried fish.Their cargo also included lightweight luxuries such as finely woven cotton,shell bangles,carved ivory gaming pieces for board games,strands of blue-green glazed faience beads,and the exquisite long carnelian beads.Inlaid furniture and painted pottery were packed carefully into woven baskets so that they could be loaded onto pack oxen or carried by porters.

  • 日本語訳をお願いします 2

    お願いします!! 続き Carved stone seals were common in the ancient world.Merchants and government officials stamped them into soft clay instead of writing a signature.The seals were usually decorated with pictures of animals and sometimes a few signs or symbols.Cunningham's seal had an animal and some lines that could have been letters.Except that the creature on his seal was not the usual bull or tiger,but something that looked like a one-horned bull-a unicorn.And if the lines were the letters or symbols of a language,it was not a script anyone had ever seen before. Alexander Cunningham spent the rest of his life thinking that his dig at Harappa in the Punjab had been a failure.He never realized that the seal he had found was a key to an unknown civilization,a civilization that no one ever suspected had existed.Before the seal was found at Harappa,archaeologists had believed that the oldest cities in India and Pakistan dated from about 700 BCE.They were wrong.The crumbling bricks that the engineers had used to raise the railroad out of the mud were 5,000 years old.They were what was left of an ancient civilization as large and well organized as those of Egypt and Mesopotamia.Historians call it the Indus civilization. The Indus civilization peaked with 1,500 settlements and serveral large cities,some with populations of up to 80,000 people.Its artisans were among the most skilled in the world,and its people traded with Mesopotamia and Central Asia.But in some ways,it was an easy civilization to overlook.Its people didn't build great pyramids or fancy tombs,as the Egyptians did.They didn't fight great battles and leave a great written legacy,like the Mesopotamians.

  • 日本語訳を!c9-4

    お願いします!続き After about a month of travel,the ship from Dholavira arrived at the delta of the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers.Here they paused until the captain could hire a local fisherman to help guide the ship through the treacherous channels of the delta before it arrived at last in the great city of Ur. Many people of the Indus Valley had made the trip before,and some of them had probably settled there to live.The captain most likely would have contacted a merchant originally from the Indus Valley to help convert Mesopotamian weights and measures and interpret for his Akkadian-speaking customers. The people of southern Mesopotamia may have paid for some of their goods with fine embroidered woolen shawls and blankets.They might also have traded in silver from Anatolia,which was widely used in Mesopotamia,and perhaps even in the more valuable gold bangles from Egypt.These simple,round bracelets were a convenient way to measure and carry gold,and could be melted down and made into other objects. On the slower return journey,the captain stopped at Dilmun,the island that today is called Bahrain,and traded Mesopotamian silver and textiles for pearls from the Persian Gulf.He also stopped at Magan,in what is now Oman,for copper and large,heavy seashells. Finally,around the beginning of June,the captain would have seen the long red flag at the top of his mast begin to flap in the southwesterly winds.That meant it was time to set sail and catch the winds before the monsoon became too strong.After filling the water pots,he and his crew headed east to the mouth of the Indus and the Gulf of Kutch.The whole trip took almost five months,but he was coming home with a ship full of valuable things that he could sell for a good profit in Dholavira and up the Indus River at Mohenjo Daro.

  • 日本語訳を!!c6-4

    お願いします!!続き Seals were important symbols of power. Once an ancient South Asian“sealed”a box or a door with a piece of clay he had stamped with his seal,no one could open it without the sealer's permission.People who did not own anything of great value had no need for seals,so scholars suspect that they were used only by wealthy traders,landowners,or religious leaders.Because seals were so valuable,working like a signature that could be used to approve payments and trade,the city government probably controlled seal making. Once a seal was made,probably only one person used it.But sometimes a father might pass a seal down to his son,or a mother to her daughter.After a seal had been used for a while,its edges would get worn and rounded.It would no longer make very clear impressions.Since people wouldn't want anyone else using their seal,they were very careful about getting rid of their worn-out seals.Archaeologists at Harappa have uncovered heavily worn seals buried in the floor of a house.Lots of broken seals and tablets have also been discovered in the litter filling the streets or in trash pits.The ansient Indus people either buried their old seals or broke them into small pieces before they threw them away,the same way people today cut up their old credit cards. But the ancient South Asians have nothing to fear from the archaeologists who found them-at least until someone figures out how to read the script the seals are written in! Until someone finally gets to the bottom of that script,we'll never know the whole story of Harappa and her sister cities.No matter how carefully we look at the puzzle pieces,some of them are still missing.Even so,archaeologists have a lot of fun trying to put them together.

  • 日本語訳を!!c7-2

    お願いします!!続き Althongh they were made by hand and not machine,the fired bricks used used for building in the cities came in just one size and shape:a rectangle about 11 inches long and 5 1/2 inches wide(28 cm by 14 cm).These fired bricks were so strong that some of them have been recycled and are being reused in modern buildings.Bricks weren't the only things that were the same size-walls and doorways throughout the Indus Valkey are about the same size and design.Even wells were lined with the same styles of wedge-shaped bricks.And every city had a drainage system for carrying away rainwater and sewage from toilets and bathing areas. Who decided to make one-size-fits-all bricks?Who said that street had to run north/south and east/west?Today' cities are full of differences-the size,style,orientation,and building materials of any ten buildings are almost never the same.So why were the ancient Indus cities so similar? Maybe because one person-or one small group of people-was making all the decisions.Maybe a strong gouernment or strong religious leaders told everyone what to do.But there is no sign of large palaces or temples-the buildings of powerful governments and religious leaders.Perhaps the people of the Indus Vally had religious or historical beliefs that taught them that they should build everything in the same way.No one knows for sure. The cities of the Indus Valley were very well organized.They were divided into walled neighborhoods,with each neighborhood specializing in one kind of work.Potters lived in one area,and coppersmiths lived in another.People probably lived with their extended families-children,parents,cousins,aunts and uncles,and grandparents-all doing the same kind of work.

  • 日本語訳を!c9-2

    お願いします!続き At first,no modern scholar knew where Meluhha was.Then archaeologists realized that “Meluhha”must be the Akkadian (a Mesopotamian language) word for the land we know as the Indus Valley.Harappan merchants must have brought the precious stones and beautiful dark wood to Mesopotamia.These merchants would do almost anything for a profit,including sailing to Mesopotamia on the last winds of the winter monsoon. Imagine a sea captain from Dholavira,on India's northeastern coast,making the last preparations for his annual winter voyage to Mesopotamia.The northeast winds of the retreating monsoon were picking up,and he was anxious to roll the last big pottery storage jars into the hold of his ship.Although no boats from this period have survived,we know from seals and clay models that his boat was probably made of wood and included mast,sail,and central cabin.Shallow-bottomed riverboats,which did not have masts or sails,were also made of wood or of reed waterproofed with tar-in fact,some bits of tar with the impression of reeds still survive in Oman. Our captain's crew set up a small kitchen with a cooking area in a corner of the boat protected from the wind.They hung strings of onions and garlic from the roof,and stowed small clay pots filled with ginger,salt,and spices on shelves built along the kitchen's back wall.They piled stacks of firewood and dried cow dung chips for cooking fuel on the deck,wherever they could find room in between long black beams of shisham wood(Indian rosewood) for which the Mesopotamian carpenters and shipbuilders would pay a high price.

  • 日本語訳を!!c7-4

    お願いします!!続き As you wandered through the city,you would have seen one building that stood out from all the othes,the so-called Great Hall.Not only was it bigger than all of the other buildings,but it was also built of wood on a brick foundation.(Because the local trees were small,the builders probably bought the wood in the highlands,then floated it down the river to the city during the monroon.) Archaeologists don't know what the building was used for.At first,they guessedthat it was used to store grain,but there's no evidence of that.Today,they believe that Harappa's Great Hall,as well as a similar large building in Mohenjo Daro,was probably a government or public meeting place. Although the great cities of the Indus were very similar,they were not identical.If you were a pilgrim from Harappa arriving in Mohenjo Daro for a religious festival,you might have felt that the people in Mohenjo Daro were a little bit more formal than your friend at home.For one thing,Mohenjo Daro didn't have just a Great Hall,but many other large buildings as well.Each section of the city had several large complexes.Some of these buildings may have been religious buildings or mansions for wealthy merchants.One building had a circle of bricks in its courtyard,which might have been the site of a sacred tree.A double staircase led to an upper courtyard surrounded by several rooms.When archaeologists excavated it,they found that the house was littered with lots of seals and fragments of a stone sculpture depicting a seated man wearing a cloak over his left shoulder who might have been a political or religious leader of some kind.