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日本語訳を!!c6-2

お願いします!!続き Symbols scratched into pots after they were fired are called graffiti.Graffiti probably developed at the same time as potter's marks,around 4000 BCE,but the earliest examples from Harappa date to around 3300 BCE.They count as the earliest evidence for writing in the Indus Valley.By about 2800-2600 BCE,the symbols that began as graffiti had become a written language,one that was spreading rapidly throughout the region. Why did writing spread so quickly? For one thing,it was useful,especially to merchants who traveled throtghout the Indus Valley.They used square seals with animal designs and bold script across the the top to seal goods for trade.They also developed a system of tablets for keeping accounts.Archaeologists have recently found a building that was a kind of “mint” that made the tablets that merchants used to keep track of their goods. Merchants weren't the only people who were quick to see the power of the written word.Religious leaders may have used writing to record the names of deities and important religious rituals. Archaeologists have been trying to understand the Indus script for more than a hundred years-without any luck.For one thing,they've only found about 2,000 examples of it,and none of the examples has more than 23 symbols (most have only five).But they have been able to figure out a few of its features.They know that the Indus script is not directly related to any known writing system.They know that it was written from right to left (as is the script used to write Urdu,the modern language of Pakistan). But sometimes longer inscriptions are written from the right in the first line,then from left to right on the mext line,and so on,back and forth until the end.This type of writing style is called boustrophedon,a Greek word that means “as the ox turns,”because it moves down one row and up the next,the way oxen plow a field,or people mow the lawn.

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深鍋が焼かれた後に深鍋にひっかいて刻んだシンボルは、グラフィティ(落書き)と呼ばれています。紀元前4000年ごろ、グラフィティ(落書き)は陶工の印と同じころに多分発達したのでしょう、しかし、ハラッパから最も初期の例は紀元前3300年頃までさかのぼります。それらは、インダス渓谷の文字の最も初期の証拠に数えられています。紀元前2800年~2600年頃までには、落書きとして始まったシンボルは、書き言葉になりました、そして、それは、その地域一帯に急速に広がっていったものになりました。 なぜ、文字はそれほど速く広がったのでしょうか?一つには、それが役に立ったからです、特にインダス渓谷一帯を旅した商人にとって、それは役に立ちました。彼らは、交易のための商品に封印をするために動物のデザインとてっぺんを横切る太字の文字列のある四角い印鑑を使いました。彼らは、また、帳簿を付けるために、書字板のシステムも開発しました。考古学者は、商人が彼らの商品の記録を付けるために使った書字板を作った一種の「ミント」(貨幣鋳造所)であった建物を、最近、見つけました。 商人は、書き言葉の力を素早く理解した唯一の人々ではありませんでした。宗教指導者は、神と重要な宗教的な儀式の名前を記録するために、文書を使ったかもしれません。 考古学者は、100年以上の間インダス文字を理解しようとしてきました ― しかし、運には恵まれていません。一つには、彼らはそれの約2,000例を見つけたにすぎませんでした、そして、例のどれも23個以上のシンボルがありませんでした(たいていの物はわずか5個)。しかし、彼らはその特徴の2、3を見つけ出すことができました。彼らは、インダス文字が既知のどの書記体系にも直接関連がないということを知っています。彼らは、現代のパキスタンの言葉であるウルドゥー語を書くのに用いられる文字と同様、それが右から左に書かれたということを知っています。しかし、時々、長い記入が、1行目は右から書かれ、そして、次の行は、左から右に書かれ、その様にしながら、行ったり来たりして最後まで書かれているのです。このタイプの書記体系は、牛耕体と呼ばれます、「牛が向きを変える様に」と言う意味のギリシア語です、と言うのは、それが、1つの列を下に動き、次の列は上に動いて、雄牛が畑を耕したり、人々が芝生を刈ったりする様子に似ているからです。

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  • 日本語訳を!!c6-1

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  • 日本語訳を!c9-6

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  • 日本語訳を!c9-5

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  • 日本語訳をお願いします 2

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  • 日本語訳を!c9-2

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