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日本語訳を!c10-1

お願いします! “Like a bronze city,surpassing all other rivers and waters,pure in her course from the mountains to the sea”is how the Saraswati River is described in ancient South Asian scripture called the Rig Veda.And yet 100 years ago,historians didn't know anything about the river.That's because in about 1900 BCE,the Saraswati River was beginning to dry up.What was a farmer to do? During the Late Harappan period,from 1900 to 1,000 BCE,many people,confused and frightened by the change in the land they knew so well and desperate for food and water,packed up what was left of their shriveled farms and moved to the cities on the Indus and Ravi Rivers or new farmlands in the Ganga plain. Soon the countryside was no longer good for farmers because the rivers had dried up.Even more people poured into the cities,which were full to overflowing.Looking for safety and shelter,the new immigrants built shacks anywhere they could find a corner find a corner to call their own.When the cornerr were gone,they started building shacks in the middle of the street.The government could not keep up with the overcrowding,and garbage began to build up in the streets. At about the same time,just after 1900 BCE,merchants stopped traveling to distant places to find precious goods such as turquoise,lapis lazuli,and carnelian to bring to the city to sell.Craftsmen began making glassy faience that looked like turquoise,lapis lazuli,and red carnelian for customers who could no longer find the real thing.These lookalikes were so good that they sometimes fooled even modern archaeologists until the“stones”were examined under a microscope.In time the craftmen learned how to make true glass that could be colored the reddish brown of carnelian and the black and white of agates,the stone that marbles are made from.

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「青銅の都のごとく、他の全ての川と海を凌いで、山から海まで、その流れは清らかなり」の様に、サラスワティー川は、リグ・ベーダと呼ばれる古代の南アジアの聖典には記述されています。しかし、100年前、歴史家はその川について何も知りませんでした。それは、紀元前1900年頃に、サラスワティー川が干上がり始めていたからです。農民は、どうすることになったでしょうか?紀元前1900年から紀元前1,000年までの、ハラッパの後期の頃、多くの人々は、彼らがとてもよく知っていた土地の変化に混乱し、おびえ、食物と水を渇望して、彼らの駄目になった農場に残っている物を荷造りし、インダス川やラビ川沿いの街々、あるいは、ガンガ平原の新しい農地へと移り住みました。 間もなく、川が干上がってしまったので、田園地帯は農民には、もはや適さなくなりました。一層多くの人々が都市に押し寄せました、そして、それはあふれそうなくらいいっぱいになりました。安全と住居を求めて、新しい流入民は、彼らが自分のものだと呼べる一隅を見つけられる場所にはいたるところに小屋を建てました。土地がなくなると、彼らは通りの真ん中に小屋を建て始めました。政府は過密状態についていくことができませんでした、そして、ゴミが通りに堆積し始めました。 紀元前1900年を少し過ぎた、同じ時期に、商人は、街に持ち帰って売るために、トルコ石、ラピスラズリ、紅玉髄の様な貴重な商品を見つけるために遠くの場所へ旅することを止めました。職人は、本物をもはや見つけることができなくなった顧客のためにトルコ石、ラピスラズリ、赤い紅玉髄のように見えるガラス質のファイアンス陶器を作り始めました。これらの類似品はとても優れていたので、「石」が顕微鏡の下で調べられるまで、それらには、現代の考古学者さえ時々だまされました。やがて、職人は紅玉髄の赤褐色やおはじきが作られる石であるメノウの白黒に彩色できる本物のガラスを作る方法を学びました。

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