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お願いします!続き The way that people buried their dead changed during the Late Harappan times.At first,they changed only the way they placed the bodies,which were buried on their side and oriented northeast to southwest instead of north and south.The dead were buried with pottery and occasionally ornaments.Later,burial practices really changed.The dead body was left in the open and exposed to animals and insects until only the bones were left.Later,people collected the bones of the dead and put them into a large painted jar that was buried along with smaller pots and offerings,The pottery from the earlier burials looked like Harappan pottery-now the urns used for pot burials had very different painted designs.Changing religious ideas during a difficult time could have been the cause of these new styles.Or,a new people might have introduced them. By 1200 BCE,weapons and tools made of iron began to appear.By 600 BCE,iron was common.Although scholars used to think the South Asians learned how to make iron from people in Turkey,they now believe South Asians discovered it for themselves. And does the appearance of iron weapons mean that people were fighting wars in South Asia? Scriptures called the Rig Veda,which probably come from this time although they weren't written down until several hundred years later,describe forests being cut down as well as the rain and thunder deity Indus destroying forts and conquering his enemies: With all-outstripping chariot-wheel,O Indra,thou far-famed,hast overthrown the twice ten kings of men... Thou goest on from fight to fight intrepidly,destroying castle after castle here witg strength.


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死者の埋葬方法は、後期ハラッパの時代に変わりました。最初、彼らは遺体の置き方だけを変えました。遺体は、横臥位で埋葬され、南北ではなく北東ー南西方向に向けられました。死者は、陶器類や時折は装飾品と共に埋葬されました。後に、埋葬風習は、本当に変わりました。遺体は、野外に放置され、骨だけが残されるまで動物や昆虫にさらされました。後で、人々は遺骨を集めて、より小さな瓶や供え物と共に埋葬される大きな彩色された壺にそれらを入れました。初期の埋葬の陶器類はハラッパの陶器類に似ていました ― この頃、壺による埋葬のために用いられた骨壷はとても異なる彩色模様が施されていました。困難な時期に宗教思想を変えたことが、これらの新しい様式の原因となったのかもしれません。あるいは、新しい民族が、それらを紹介したのかもしれません。紀元前1200年までには、鉄製の武器や道具が、現れ始めました。紀元前600年までには、鉄はありふれたものとなっていました。学者は、以前は、南アジアの人々がトルコの人々から鉄の製法を学んだと考えていましたが、彼らは、今では、南アジアの人々が自力でそれを発見したと思っています。それでは、鉄の武器の出現は、人々が南アジアで戦争をしていたことを意味するのでしょうか?リグ・ベーダと呼ばれる聖典は、数百年後まで文字にされることはなかったのですが、おそらく、この頃の物の様で、それは、伐採される森林、さらに、砦を破壊し敵を征服する雨とインダスの雷神について記述しています: 優れた二輪戦車を持ってしても、おお、インドラ、名高い汝は、10人の人民の王を二度倒せリ ... 汝、勇敢に戦いに明け暮れ、その力で、城と言う城を破壊せり。





  • 日本語訳をお願いします。4

    至急こちらをお願いします。続き Does that mean that there were no women potters in later times? Probably not.In many regions of South Asia,even though men may throw pottery using the wheel,the women and young girls do most of the clay preparation and fime decoration work. Not every community lived near riverbed clay deposits,of course,so not every village had its own potter.But they may have had some other precious resource.Young people who lived near the sea,for example,became skilled divers and shell workers.Shell was used to make small tools and ornaments,especially bangles. People who lived in the Baluchistan Mountains to the west or the Aravalli hills to the east of Indus Valley learned how to work the copper in their soil.At first they collected bits of copper that were already in metal form and pounded them into beads or small pins and knives.They also developed techniques for getting copper from copper ore.Metal workers used wood charcoal to make very hot fires that could melt the metal out of the rock.To make the charcoal,people had to cut down forests.Over thousands of years,the copper-producing areas became deforested. Like shell bangles,stone beads were very common in South Asia,where they were symbols of wealth and power.The earliest bead makers drilled stone beads of soft limestone and soapstone in the highlands of Baluchistan and the deserts of Rajasthan.There were also deposits of chert,a hard stone that is easy to split into sharp-edged tonls,and jasper,a kind of quartz,suitable for making drill bits.Later bead makers shaped and drilled other types of stones,such as green serpentine from Baluchistan and blue lapis lazuli from Afghanistan.

  • 日本語訳を!c10-5

    お願いします!続き Between about 1500 and 600 BCE,Indo-Aryan speakers gained power and conquered areas in the Ganga River valley beyond the lands that the Harappans once controlled.Cave paintings from Central India show them overwhelming the local pepole with their horses,chariots,and iron weapons.The language and traditions of people from other regions replaced the old ways of the Harappans,until the Harappans and everything they made-the shining cities,the bustling trade networks,even their language-was lost or buried,forgotten for thousands of years.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    Joffre set 14 August as the date when the First and Second armies were to invade Lorraine between Toul and Épinal, south of the German fortified area of Metz-Thionville. The First Army was to attack in the south with four corps, towards Sarrebourg 60 kilometres (37 mi) east of Nancy and Donon 25 kilometres (16 mi) south of Sarrebourg. Passes in the Vosges to the south of Donon were to be captured before the main advance began. The Second Army was to attack towards Morhange 45 kilometres (28 mi) north-east of Nancy, with two corps north of the First Army and three advancing successively behind the left flank of the corps to the south, to counter a German attack from Metz. The French offensive was complicated by the two armies diverging as they advanced, on difficult terrain particularly in the south, the combined fronts eventually being 150 kilometres (93 mi) wide. The advances of the First and Second armies were to attract German forces towards the south, while a French manoeuvre took place in Belgium and Luxembourg, to pierce a weak point in the German deployment and then destroy the main German armies.

  • 日本語訳を!c10-4

    お願いします!続き After the discovery of some unburied skeletons on the highest,and therefore latest,street levels at Mohenjo Daro,some scholars assumed that the forts that Indra was destroying were the walled cities of the Indus Valley.But the Late Harappan cities were never destroyed by warfare,and there is no evidence of large groups of people coming from outside South Asia.Historians believe that the mysterious skeletons were people who died from contagious diseases.They were left unburied in abandoned parts of the city so they would not infect the grave diggers. So what happened around 1900 BCE? For many years,historians believed that invaders called Aryans poured into the Indus Valley and,with the help of the horse and bronze or iron weapons,destroyed the Late Harappan civilization. But archaeologists can't find evidence of major warfare,and the body types of the people living in the Indus Valley did not change during this time period.More likely,the disappearing Saraswati River stqained the Late Harappan way of life past the breaking point.Satellite photos of the dried riverbed and excavations along its banks show that the river was huge at one time,almost five miles across.As old ways of living and trade broke down,the people of the Indus Valley began to look around for other ways to stay alive.People from the countryside and highlands who spoke the Indo-Aryan language,people who had known amd traded with the Harappans for many years,became more powerful over time until they could challenge the Harappans' power.

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    In the early morning, Reserve Infantry Regiment 153 and two companies of Infantry Regiment 52, entered the wood from the north and wheeled to attack the 3rd South African Battalion from behind, capturing six officers and 185 men from the Transvaal Battalion; the rest were killed. By mid morning, Black Watch, Seaforth and Cameron Highlanders in Longueval tried to charge into the wood but were repulsed by German small-arms fire from the north-west corner of the wood. The brigade was short of water, without food and unable to evacuate wounded; many isolated groups surrendered, after they ran out of ammunition. In the afternoon, the 53rd Brigade advanced from the base of the salient to reach Thackeray at the South African headquarters but were unable to reach the forward elements of the South African brigade. This situation prevailed through the night of 19–20 July.

  • 日本語訳を!!c7-1

    お願いします!! Archaeologist can't read the records the people of the Indus Vally left because they haven't decoded the script. So they have to use other clues-like trash. What's left of people's ruined basements,garbage,and sewers tell us a lot about what it was like to live in the Indus Valley 4,000 years ago. Sometimes ancient cities are buried through tragic events such as an earthquake or a volcanic eruption.But usually cities get buried bit by bit,while people are still living there.Old buildings fall down and are covered with dust and garbage.Because it's easier,people build on top of the old buildings rather than clear them out and start from the ground again.As this happens,the streets are repaved and get higher and higher over time. The cities of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa,located in what is now Pakistan,had enough room for 40,000 to 80,000 people.That's about as many eople as can fit into the huge Olympic stadium in Athens.But no one is sure if that many people actually lived there full-time.How many of those buildings were empty during the farming season,when people may have gone home to their family farms to help with planting and harvesting? How many of the buildings sheltered merchants or pilgrims who were just passing through?Or people who had come to celebrate religious festivals? The streets of Indus towns and cities in India and Pakistan are strangely similar.Each has streets that run north and south and east and west.Why?No one knows,although religious beliefs might have had something to do with it.For example,Christian cathedrals face the rising sun in the east and Muslims pray facing their sacred city,Mecca.

  • 日本語訳を!c13-2

    お願いします!続き  A person who could call the deities to sacrifice was a very special person indeed.These were the Brahmin teachers.In the Vedic books called the Upanishads,they teach and talk bbout the Ultimate Supreme Being,called Brahman.Many religious people believed that the Ultimate Supreme Being pervaded all of creation.According to the Upanishads,“The finest essence here-that constitutes the self of this whole world; that is the truth; that is the self.And that's how you are....”Knowledge of Brahman made one enlightened and stopped the endless cycle of death and rebirth.But even if you were a Brahmin,there were no guarantees that you would be enlightened.  Being good was not enough to be reincarnated as a human,never mind to reach the level of Brahman.You also had to purify yourself through special lituals.People tried to wash away the sins that they committed during their life through rituals such as bathing in sacred rivers,singing hymns to the deities,giving alms to the poor and to charitable organizatioms,and taking care of old and weak animals as well as people.They gave away all their wealth,devoted themselves to meditation, and made pilgrimages to sacred places.  Many of these sacred places were found along the shores of India's Ganga River.Just as the Indus Valley civilization grew from the life-giving waters of the Indus and Saraswati Rivers,so the Brahmanical religion grew up along the banks of the Ganga River.The people of ancient South Asia thought of the river as a beautiful deity.According to the Ramayama,“[The]Ganga[river is]flowing along the valley,coming down from the Himalayas,carrying within her the essence of rare herbs and elements found on her way.She courses through many a kingdom,and every inch of the ground she touches becomes holy.”

  • 日本語訳を!!c6-1

    お願いします!! What do you think is the world's most important invention? The wheel? The light bulb? If you asked most historians,they wouldn't hesitate:reading and writing,all the way.Just as pottery allowed ancient people to store food and goods in a place safe from water or insects,writing let people store knowledge.For the first time,the things people knew could be kept safe for their children,and not lost through their poor memories,sicknesses,or deaths.What's more,writing meant people could pass on information to others in different places or times.As long as people can read,they can know.The ability to read and write was-and is-power. Like a child who draws pictures before he or she writes words,ancient people first used symbols instead of letters.The first evidence for writing comes from pottery shards.Many ancient pots have marks on them that potters probably made before the clay was baked hard.That way each potter could tell which pots were hers,even when she shared a kiln with her neighbors.That's probably the first kind of writing you learned,too-your name,so you could mark every paper and drawing you made as yours.People started using these simple markings as early as 4500 BCE in the Indus Valley and continued using them long after the invention of writing. Potter's marks are scratched into the clay before firing,but many finished pieces of pottery have symbols that were scratched into them after they were fired,probably by their new owners.No one knows for sure what these symbols stand for.Archaeologists think that they might have been labdls that identified the contents of the pot,the name of the owner,or perhaps the name of tne person to whom it was being sent. If,for example,a wealthy man sent a pot of honey to a temple as an offering,he might have wanted to identify either himself or the temple where he was sending the gift.

  • 17-6日本語訳

    お願いします。  Metal,especially iron,was very valuable in ancient times.Rulers used it for weapons,weights,coin manufacturing,and monuments.Iron usually starts as iron ore,a mixture of rock and metal.The iron is smelted by crushing the ore and heating it to a very high temperature.Only charcoal burned hot enough to smelt iron.India's jungles have both iron ore and lots of trees to make charcoal.  Once a blacksmith smelted the iron,he hammered it into sheets or bars that could later be shaped into swords,weights,or seals.When heating iron with charcoal,carbon fuses with the iron and makes an even harder metal called steel.Because steel is so hard,it could be used to stamp other,softer metals like gold and silver.The Mauryan government soon established mints where steel stamps called punches stamped royal symbols on pieces of silver,turning them into coins.  So many of the problems that the people of South Asia tried to solve-how to have healthy,happy life,where we are in the universe,how to keep track of time and money-are the same problems that we try to solve today.And,despite our huge technological advantages,many of their answers continue to be help us thousands of years later.Just think what the doctors who developed Ayurveda and brilliants scientists like Aryabhate might have discovered if they'd had computers!

  • 日本語訳をお願いいたします。

    The French captured Moy on the west bank of the Oise, along with Urvillers and Grugies, a village opposite Dallon on the east bank of the Somme. North of the farm of La Folie, the Germans were pushed back and three 155-millimetre (6.1 in) howitzers and several Luftstreitkräfte lorries were captured. Beyond Dallon French patrols entered the south-western suburb of St. Quentin. The main attack by GAN was planned as two successive operations, an attack by XIII Corps to capture Rocourt and Moulin de Tous Vents south-west of the city, to guard the flank of the principal attack by XIII Corps and XXXV Corps on Harly and Alaincourt, intended to capture the high ground east and south-east of St. Quentin. Success would enable the French to menace the flank of the German forces to the south, along the Oise to La Fère and the rear of the German positions south of the St. Gobain massif due to be attacked from the south by the Sixth Army of the GAR. The French were inhibited from firing on St. Quentin, which allowed the Germans unhampered observation from the cathedral and from factory chimneys and to site artillery in the suburbs, free from counter-battery fire. French attacks could only take place at night or during twilight and snow, rain, low clouds and fog made aircraft observation for the artillery impossible.