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お願いします!続き But the sea captain's voyage proves that the people of the Indus Valley could have been the source of some of the goods the Mesopotamians bought from “Meluhha.”What about blue lapis lazuli and tin (which they mixed with copper to make bronze),which are not found along either the Indus River or the coast of the Arabian Sea? It turns out that Indus River merchants followed more than one trade route.According to the later Ramayana,an Indian poem by Valmiki,“With the end of the rainy season,nature's traffic resumed on land,air,and water.”At the end of October,after the rains were over and the rivers had gone down to tgeir normal levels,a second group of Indus merchants packedtheir goods into flat-bottomed riverboats and headed north.Their journey upriver was frustratingly slow at first,as men and oxen walking along the banks strained to pull the riverboats against the current.Some ancient clay models of flat-bottomed riverboats have a hole in the center.This hole would have been used for either a mast or a pulling pole.A pulling pole is made by setting up a long pole with a rope tied to the top so that it does not get caught on bushes and trees along the edge of the river.People walk along the river edge pulling the boat,a painfully slow and difficult process that is called“walking”a boat up the river. The boats would have been even harder to pull laden with grain,butter,oil,and dried fish.Their cargo also included lightweight luxuries such as finely woven cotton,shell bangles,carved ivory gaming pieces for board games,strands of blue-green glazed faience beads,and the exquisite long carnelian beads.Inlaid furniture and painted pottery were packed carefully into woven baskets so that they could be loaded onto pack oxen or carried by porters.


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しかし、船長の航海は、インダス渓谷の人々がメソポタミアの人々が「メルーハ」から買った品々のいくつかのもとであったかもしれないことを証明します。青いラピスラズリやスズ(スズは、彼らが青銅を作るために銅と混合しました)についてはどうでしょうか?スズは、インダス川沿いやアラビア海の海岸沿いには見つかりません。 このことから、インダス河の商人が複数の通商路をたどったことがわかります。バールミキが書いたインドの詩である後のラーマヤーナによれば、「雨季が終わるとともに、自然の交通は、陸、空、水上で再開される」。10月の末に、雨期が終わり、河がその通常の水位に下がったあと、インダス商人の第2グループが、彼らの商品を平底の川船に積み込み、北を目指しました。河をさかのぼる彼らの旅は、最初、いらいらするほど遅いものでした、と言うのは、人や雄牛が堤に沿って歩き、河の流れに逆らって川船を引こうと奮闘するからでした。平底の川船の古代の粘土細工には、真ん中に穴のあるものがあります。この穴は、マストのためか引き棒のために使われたのでしょう。引き棒は、それが川の端に沿った茂みや木に引っかからないように、てっぺんにロープが結びつけられた長い棒を立てて作られました。人々が、川の縁に沿って船を引きながら歩く、船を「歩いて」河を遡らせると呼ばれる痛々しいほど遅くて困難なプロセスでした。 船は、穀物、バター、油、干し魚を積んでいるので一層引きにくかったことでしょう。彼らの貨物にも、また、重量の軽い贅沢品、例えば、きれいに織られた木綿、貝殻のバングル、ボードゲーム(盤を使ってするゲーム)のための彫刻を施された象牙のゲーム用の駒、青緑色でつやのあるファイアンス陶器製のビーズの数珠、洗練された長い紅玉髄のビーズ、が含まれていました。象がんの家具類や彩色された陶器類が、運搬用の雄牛に積まれたり、人足によって運べるように、編まれた籠に注意深く詰められました。





  • 日本語訳を!c9-2

    お願いします!続き At first,no modern scholar knew where Meluhha was.Then archaeologists realized that “Meluhha”must be the Akkadian (a Mesopotamian language) word for the land we know as the Indus Valley.Harappan merchants must have brought the precious stones and beautiful dark wood to Mesopotamia.These merchants would do almost anything for a profit,including sailing to Mesopotamia on the last winds of the winter monsoon. Imagine a sea captain from Dholavira,on India's northeastern coast,making the last preparations for his annual winter voyage to Mesopotamia.The northeast winds of the retreating monsoon were picking up,and he was anxious to roll the last big pottery storage jars into the hold of his ship.Although no boats from this period have survived,we know from seals and clay models that his boat was probably made of wood and included mast,sail,and central cabin.Shallow-bottomed riverboats,which did not have masts or sails,were also made of wood or of reed waterproofed with tar-in fact,some bits of tar with the impression of reeds still survive in Oman. Our captain's crew set up a small kitchen with a cooking area in a corner of the boat protected from the wind.They hung strings of onions and garlic from the roof,and stowed small clay pots filled with ginger,salt,and spices on shelves built along the kitchen's back wall.They piled stacks of firewood and dried cow dung chips for cooking fuel on the deck,wherever they could find room in between long black beams of shisham wood(Indian rosewood) for which the Mesopotamian carpenters and shipbuilders would pay a high price.

  • 日本語訳を!c9-6

    お願いします!続き The river passage ended at the dangerous deep,narrow passages of the Kabul River,where the merchants left their boats and loaded their goods onto small,hardy mountain cattle and human porters.The trip across the plain near modern Kabul was easier,but once they got to the narrow valleys and high mountain passes of northern Afghanistan,they had to go by foot,leading the pack animals. They arrived at a small settlement of Indus people in the high valleys of Badakshan sometime in November.These Indus colonists mined lapis lazuli and panned for gold and tin in the river's sands,but they also kept herds of sheep,goat,and cattle,and farmed enough land to provide them with food for most of the year.But they liked being able to buy things from home,and they also wanted grain to trade with nomadic mountain people who brought them more precious stones and metals. Although they didn't have to find their way through schools of sea snakes and storms at sea,the merchants who traded in the high mountains faced other dangers.Early snows sometimes blocked the high mountain passes,and the monsoon and earthquakes washed the roads away all the time,forcing the merchants to blaze their own paths.So as soon as their trading was done,the merchants of“Meluhha”turned around and headed back down the mountains,eager to get home to snug houses and good friends before the cold days of winter set in.

  • 日本語訳を!c13-2

    お願いします!続き  A person who could call the deities to sacrifice was a very special person indeed.These were the Brahmin teachers.In the Vedic books called the Upanishads,they teach and talk bbout the Ultimate Supreme Being,called Brahman.Many religious people believed that the Ultimate Supreme Being pervaded all of creation.According to the Upanishads,“The finest essence here-that constitutes the self of this whole world; that is the truth; that is the self.And that's how you are....”Knowledge of Brahman made one enlightened and stopped the endless cycle of death and rebirth.But even if you were a Brahmin,there were no guarantees that you would be enlightened.  Being good was not enough to be reincarnated as a human,never mind to reach the level of Brahman.You also had to purify yourself through special lituals.People tried to wash away the sins that they committed during their life through rituals such as bathing in sacred rivers,singing hymns to the deities,giving alms to the poor and to charitable organizatioms,and taking care of old and weak animals as well as people.They gave away all their wealth,devoted themselves to meditation, and made pilgrimages to sacred places.  Many of these sacred places were found along the shores of India's Ganga River.Just as the Indus Valley civilization grew from the life-giving waters of the Indus and Saraswati Rivers,so the Brahmanical religion grew up along the banks of the Ganga River.The people of ancient South Asia thought of the river as a beautiful deity.According to the Ramayama,“[The]Ganga[river is]flowing along the valley,coming down from the Himalayas,carrying within her the essence of rare herbs and elements found on her way.She courses through many a kingdom,and every inch of the ground she touches becomes holy.”

  • 日本語訳を!c9-3

    お願いします!続き The crew filled some of the big storage jars with fresh water for the long trip,and packed the others with dried cheese,butter,honey,and beer.They stowed large sacks of wheat and barley toward the front end of the boat,where the sacks were less likely to get wet.Next to the grain,they stacked bales of cotton cloth,bleached white or dyed red or blue.The captain would have bought the cloth from traders who had floated down the shallow rivers that led to the center of the bountry on their flat-bottomed boats. As you might have guessed from Puabi's tomb,the boat's most valuable cargo was long carnelian beads.These beads were in great demand in Mesopotamia,and the captain wrapped them in soft cotton and packed them carefully in a basket so that they would not get broken during the trip. After he tied some branches from the sacred pipal tree to the mast to ward off evil spirits,the captain would have loaded his passengers:monkeys,peacocks,and sleek reddish brown gunting dogs to sell as pets,as well as a couple of traders who wanted passage to Mesopotamia. From Dholavira the captain sailed west across the delta,or the mouth,of the Indus River.With the delta behind him,he faced one of the most dangerous parts of his trip.The coast became very rocky and the crew had to watch for submerged islands as they sailed slowly through waters filled with fish and black-and-gold sea snakes.Once he had made it through that dangerous stretch,the captain could have sailed across the Arabian Sea for a quick stop along the coast of Oman,or chosen to sail directly to Mesopotamia,north through the Persian Gulf.Oman would have been a tempting side trip.The people there were willing to trade their copper,seashells,and pearls,all of which were in high demand in Mesopotamia,for the captain's wood and cotton cloth-but the first traders to arrive in Mesopotamia could charge the highest prices for their goods.

  • 日本語訳を!!c8-1

    お願いします!! During the holidays,big cities like New York and London are even more crowded than usual.Why do people go to all the trouble and expense to travel to a big city? Because the theaters and museums and major-league sports.And even more activities than usual are going om during the holidays,like Thanksgiving and New Year's Day parades and holiday concerts and performances. The weeks after the spring and fall harvests were probably a holiday for the people of the Indus Valley civilization.Farmers,fishermen,and herders gathered their goods and their families and made the long trip to the nearest city to sell their goods and thank the deities for the bounty of the harvest.Imagine the son of a farmer who is 12 or 13-old enough to bear the two-day walk to Harappa one autumn in about 2100 BCE.We'll call this boy Sarang.Sarang would have begun the journey by helping to load the family's oxcart with the barley,wheat,and cotton that they had raised that year on their farm.He may have helped to harness the oxen that pulled the heavy load.He was probably wildly excited-and probably driven crazy by the oxen's slow pace through the wooded countryside and by the loud creaking of the cart. If they lived too far away to make the journey in single day,Sarang and his family would have set up camp with other travelers they had met along the way to help protect their goods from the bandits who hid in the forest.Eventually they would have emerged from the forest to see the walled city of Harappa in the distance,rising pale and beautiful above the plain.

  • 日本語訳を!!c6-3

    お願いします!!続き Archaeologists know that the Indus script probably used both symbol-pictures and letters standing for different sounds.They have made out between 400 and 450 symbols,which are too few for a language without an alphabet and too many for a language with an alphabet.The script of the Mesopotamians,for example,used more than 600 symbols,each of which stood for a syllable and sometimes also for a whole word.The Canaanites,who lived to the west of Mesopotamia,later developedan alphabet of fewer than 50 symbols,each standing for a specific consonant. A lot of the examples we have of Indus script come from inscriptions on seals.The square seals of the Indus cities were made from a soft stone called steatite,or soapstone.The original color of the stone ranges from gray or tan to white.If the steatite was going to be used for a seal,the seal maker bleached it with a chemical solution and fired it in a kiln to make it hard and white.(For 100 years,archaeologists have been trying to figure out what that solution was,but no luck yet.) Some sealr were made from faience paste that could be molded,fired,and glazed.Faience is made from ground quartz that is melted and then reground to make a glassy paste.It can be colored with copper to make a blue-green or turquoise color,and then fired at high temperatures to make a shiny glazed object.

  • 日本語訳を!c9-4

    お願いします!続き After about a month of travel,the ship from Dholavira arrived at the delta of the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers.Here they paused until the captain could hire a local fisherman to help guide the ship through the treacherous channels of the delta before it arrived at last in the great city of Ur. Many people of the Indus Valley had made the trip before,and some of them had probably settled there to live.The captain most likely would have contacted a merchant originally from the Indus Valley to help convert Mesopotamian weights and measures and interpret for his Akkadian-speaking customers. The people of southern Mesopotamia may have paid for some of their goods with fine embroidered woolen shawls and blankets.They might also have traded in silver from Anatolia,which was widely used in Mesopotamia,and perhaps even in the more valuable gold bangles from Egypt.These simple,round bracelets were a convenient way to measure and carry gold,and could be melted down and made into other objects. On the slower return journey,the captain stopped at Dilmun,the island that today is called Bahrain,and traded Mesopotamian silver and textiles for pearls from the Persian Gulf.He also stopped at Magan,in what is now Oman,for copper and large,heavy seashells. Finally,around the beginning of June,the captain would have seen the long red flag at the top of his mast begin to flap in the southwesterly winds.That meant it was time to set sail and catch the winds before the monsoon became too strong.After filling the water pots,he and his crew headed east to the mouth of the Indus and the Gulf of Kutch.The whole trip took almost five months,but he was coming home with a ship full of valuable things that he could sell for a good profit in Dholavira and up the Indus River at Mohenjo Daro.

  • 日本語訳をお願いします 6

    お願いします!!続き People put their garbage in large clay pots stuck into the floor in rooms along the edge of the street.Some of these large jars set into the ground may have served as toilets that laborers cleaned out every so often.Most houses also had bathing areas and drains that emptied into pots or larger drains in the street. The system worked really well,as long as the merchants kept coming and paying the taxes that built the walls and drains and paid the laborers who maintained them.But by about 1900 BCE,after 700 comfortable years, things began to change.For reasons scholars still don't fully understand,fewer traders were willing to risk the dangers of traveling through desert and forest.We know there were fewer traders because archaeologists have found fewer valuable items from distant places.Because fewer traders were paying taxes,the cities could no longer afford to keep up their walls and inspectors.Changes in the course of the Indus River and its tributaries,combined with increased flooding may well have added to Harappa's problems.There may have been other reasons as well.Reasons that can only be found with further excavations.And someday,perhaps we will be able to read the Indus script.

  • 日本語訳を!!c6-2

    お願いします!!続き Symbols scratched into pots after they were fired are called graffiti.Graffiti probably developed at the same time as potter's marks,around 4000 BCE,but the earliest examples from Harappa date to around 3300 BCE.They count as the earliest evidence for writing in the Indus Valley.By about 2800-2600 BCE,the symbols that began as graffiti had become a written language,one that was spreading rapidly throughout the region. Why did writing spread so quickly? For one thing,it was useful,especially to merchants who traveled throtghout the Indus Valley.They used square seals with animal designs and bold script across the the top to seal goods for trade.They also developed a system of tablets for keeping accounts.Archaeologists have recently found a building that was a kind of “mint” that made the tablets that merchants used to keep track of their goods. Merchants weren't the only people who were quick to see the power of the written word.Religious leaders may have used writing to record the names of deities and important religious rituals. Archaeologists have been trying to understand the Indus script for more than a hundred years-without any luck.For one thing,they've only found about 2,000 examples of it,and none of the examples has more than 23 symbols (most have only five).But they have been able to figure out a few of its features.They know that the Indus script is not directly related to any known writing system.They know that it was written from right to left (as is the script used to write Urdu,the modern language of Pakistan). But sometimes longer inscriptions are written from the right in the first line,then from left to right on the mext line,and so on,back and forth until the end.This type of writing style is called boustrophedon,a Greek word that means “as the ox turns,”because it moves down one row and up the next,the way oxen plow a field,or people mow the lawn.

  • 日本語訳を!!c8-4

    お願いします!!続き Harappan cities were orderly,well-organized places-were they possibly controlled by kings? One clue led some early scholars to think that they might have been.The most famous stone sculpture of the Indus valley is called the Priest King.It's one of only nine stone sculptures,mostly of men,that have been found at Mohenjo Daro.All were broken and defaced,which probably means that the people they represented had lost favor.The lower half of the Priest King is missing,but most stone sculptures with a preserved,lower portion are seated with one knee bent to the ground and the other raised.People sitting in this position are seen on many of the Indus seals worshipping a deity in a tree or a figure seated in a cross-legged yoga position.This suggests that the sculpture does not represent a priest-king,as its name suggests,but instead an important clan or community leader. We know a lot about the objects Sarang and his family would have seen in the town,but many questions remain.What was the harvest festival like? Would Sarang and his family have seen dancing and heard singing? Were there plays about the deities? Or were the celebrations solemn,with fasting and prayer? We can only guess.But it's probably safe to say that Sarang would have thought that his trip to the city was one of the most exciting times of the year.