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お願いします!続き After about a month of travel,the ship from Dholavira arrived at the delta of the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers.Here they paused until the captain could hire a local fisherman to help guide the ship through the treacherous channels of the delta before it arrived at last in the great city of Ur. Many people of the Indus Valley had made the trip before,and some of them had probably settled there to live.The captain most likely would have contacted a merchant originally from the Indus Valley to help convert Mesopotamian weights and measures and interpret for his Akkadian-speaking customers. The people of southern Mesopotamia may have paid for some of their goods with fine embroidered woolen shawls and blankets.They might also have traded in silver from Anatolia,which was widely used in Mesopotamia,and perhaps even in the more valuable gold bangles from Egypt.These simple,round bracelets were a convenient way to measure and carry gold,and could be melted down and made into other objects. On the slower return journey,the captain stopped at Dilmun,the island that today is called Bahrain,and traded Mesopotamian silver and textiles for pearls from the Persian Gulf.He also stopped at Magan,in what is now Oman,for copper and large,heavy seashells. Finally,around the beginning of June,the captain would have seen the long red flag at the top of his mast begin to flap in the southwesterly winds.That meant it was time to set sail and catch the winds before the monsoon became too strong.After filling the water pots,he and his crew headed east to the mouth of the Indus and the Gulf of Kutch.The whole trip took almost five months,but he was coming home with a ship full of valuable things that he could sell for a good profit in Dholavira and up the Indus River at Mohenjo Daro.


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およそ1ヵ月の旅の後、ドーラビラからの船は、チグリス川とユーフラテス川のデルタに到着しました。ここで、彼らは、船長がデルタの危ない水路を通過する船を誘導するのを手伝う地元の漁師を雇うことができるまで休憩しました、その後、船は、ようやく、ウルの巨大都市に到着する事が出来たのです。 インダス渓谷の多くの人々はそれ以前にも旅をしていました、それで、彼らの中にはおそらくそこに定住していた者もいたことでしょう。船長は、たぶん、メソポタミアの度量衡に換算して、彼のアッカド語を話す客のために通訳を手伝ってくれるインダス渓谷出身の商人と連絡を取っていたことでしょう。 南メソポタミアの人々は、すばらしい刺繍を施されたウールのショールや毛布で彼らの商品のいくつかの代金を支払ったかもしれません。彼らは、また、メソポタミアで広く使われてたアナトリア原産の銀で、そして、おそらくエジプト製のより価値ある金のバングルでさえ、取引したことでしょう。これらの簡素な、丸いブレスレットは、金を測って運ぶ便利な方法でしたし、溶かして、他の物に作り変えることもできました。 もっとのんびりした帰路の船旅では、船長は、今日バーレーンと呼ばれている島のディラムに寄港して、メソポタミアの銀や織物とペルシャ湾産の真珠を交換しました。彼は、また、銅や大きな、重い貝殻を求めて、現在オマーンである所のマガンにも立ち寄りました。 ようやく、6月初旬、船長はマストのてっぺんの長い赤旗が南西風の中ではためき始めるのを目にしたことでしょう。それは、モンスーンが強くなり過ぎる前に、出帆して、風を捕える時期が来たことを意味しました。水がめを満たした後、彼と彼の船員たちは、東方のインダス川河口とカッチ湾に向かいました。全部の旅にほぼ5ヵ月かかりましたが、彼は、ドーラビラで大もうけをした貴重品を満載した船と共に帰路につきインダス川をさかのぼりモヘンジョ・ダロに到着したのでした。





  • 日本語訳を!c9-3

    お願いします!続き The crew filled some of the big storage jars with fresh water for the long trip,and packed the others with dried cheese,butter,honey,and beer.They stowed large sacks of wheat and barley toward the front end of the boat,where the sacks were less likely to get wet.Next to the grain,they stacked bales of cotton cloth,bleached white or dyed red or blue.The captain would have bought the cloth from traders who had floated down the shallow rivers that led to the center of the bountry on their flat-bottomed boats. As you might have guessed from Puabi's tomb,the boat's most valuable cargo was long carnelian beads.These beads were in great demand in Mesopotamia,and the captain wrapped them in soft cotton and packed them carefully in a basket so that they would not get broken during the trip. After he tied some branches from the sacred pipal tree to the mast to ward off evil spirits,the captain would have loaded his passengers:monkeys,peacocks,and sleek reddish brown gunting dogs to sell as pets,as well as a couple of traders who wanted passage to Mesopotamia. From Dholavira the captain sailed west across the delta,or the mouth,of the Indus River.With the delta behind him,he faced one of the most dangerous parts of his trip.The coast became very rocky and the crew had to watch for submerged islands as they sailed slowly through waters filled with fish and black-and-gold sea snakes.Once he had made it through that dangerous stretch,the captain could have sailed across the Arabian Sea for a quick stop along the coast of Oman,or chosen to sail directly to Mesopotamia,north through the Persian Gulf.Oman would have been a tempting side trip.The people there were willing to trade their copper,seashells,and pearls,all of which were in high demand in Mesopotamia,for the captain's wood and cotton cloth-but the first traders to arrive in Mesopotamia could charge the highest prices for their goods.

  • 日本語訳を!c9-1

    お願いします! Have you ever learned a new word,a word you are sure you have never seen before? But after you learn it,this brand-new word suddenly pops up everywhere-in English and history books,on TV,on the radio,and on billboards,until you feel as though it is following you around? The discovery of the Indus Valley civilizations in the 1920s worked a little bit like that,too.Archaeologists looking at sites that dated around 2000 BCE everywhere from Mesopotamia to Oman to Central Asia began noticing little clues left here and there by members of the previously unknown Indus Valley civilization. In Mesopotamia,for example,archaeologists dug up the tomb of Queen Puabi of Ur.Unlike the practical Harappans,who buried their dead with a few meaningful ornaments and some pottery but kept most of their things for the living to use,Mesopotamian burials were extravagant.In the case of Queen Puabi,for example,more than 20 servants,including armed guards and musicians,went with her into her grave.Her clothing and jewelry and those of her attendants were decorated with copper,carnelian,and lapis lazuli beads and shell inlay-even though Mesopotamia did not have copper miner or sources for the precious stones and shell.She was also buried with a sled and other wooden furniture-even though Mesopotamia did not have large trees for lumber.So where on earth did the copper,beads,wood,and shell inlay come from? This inscription on a tablet was the first clue.According to the records the Mesopotamians kept,these goods came from a land called Meluhha.The reat Mesopotamian king Sargon boasted that traders from all over came to his city,calked Agade: The ships from Meluhha, the ships from Magan, The ships from Dilmun He made tie-up alongside The quay of Agade.

  • 日本語訳を!c9-2

    お願いします!続き At first,no modern scholar knew where Meluhha was.Then archaeologists realized that “Meluhha”must be the Akkadian (a Mesopotamian language) word for the land we know as the Indus Valley.Harappan merchants must have brought the precious stones and beautiful dark wood to Mesopotamia.These merchants would do almost anything for a profit,including sailing to Mesopotamia on the last winds of the winter monsoon. Imagine a sea captain from Dholavira,on India's northeastern coast,making the last preparations for his annual winter voyage to Mesopotamia.The northeast winds of the retreating monsoon were picking up,and he was anxious to roll the last big pottery storage jars into the hold of his ship.Although no boats from this period have survived,we know from seals and clay models that his boat was probably made of wood and included mast,sail,and central cabin.Shallow-bottomed riverboats,which did not have masts or sails,were also made of wood or of reed waterproofed with tar-in fact,some bits of tar with the impression of reeds still survive in Oman. Our captain's crew set up a small kitchen with a cooking area in a corner of the boat protected from the wind.They hung strings of onions and garlic from the roof,and stowed small clay pots filled with ginger,salt,and spices on shelves built along the kitchen's back wall.They piled stacks of firewood and dried cow dung chips for cooking fuel on the deck,wherever they could find room in between long black beams of shisham wood(Indian rosewood) for which the Mesopotamian carpenters and shipbuilders would pay a high price.

  • 日本語訳を!!c6-3

    お願いします!!続き Archaeologists know that the Indus script probably used both symbol-pictures and letters standing for different sounds.They have made out between 400 and 450 symbols,which are too few for a language without an alphabet and too many for a language with an alphabet.The script of the Mesopotamians,for example,used more than 600 symbols,each of which stood for a syllable and sometimes also for a whole word.The Canaanites,who lived to the west of Mesopotamia,later developedan alphabet of fewer than 50 symbols,each standing for a specific consonant. A lot of the examples we have of Indus script come from inscriptions on seals.The square seals of the Indus cities were made from a soft stone called steatite,or soapstone.The original color of the stone ranges from gray or tan to white.If the steatite was going to be used for a seal,the seal maker bleached it with a chemical solution and fired it in a kiln to make it hard and white.(For 100 years,archaeologists have been trying to figure out what that solution was,but no luck yet.) Some sealr were made from faience paste that could be molded,fired,and glazed.Faience is made from ground quartz that is melted and then reground to make a glassy paste.It can be colored with copper to make a blue-green or turquoise color,and then fired at high temperatures to make a shiny glazed object.

  • 日本語訳を!c9-6

    お願いします!続き The river passage ended at the dangerous deep,narrow passages of the Kabul River,where the merchants left their boats and loaded their goods onto small,hardy mountain cattle and human porters.The trip across the plain near modern Kabul was easier,but once they got to the narrow valleys and high mountain passes of northern Afghanistan,they had to go by foot,leading the pack animals. They arrived at a small settlement of Indus people in the high valleys of Badakshan sometime in November.These Indus colonists mined lapis lazuli and panned for gold and tin in the river's sands,but they also kept herds of sheep,goat,and cattle,and farmed enough land to provide them with food for most of the year.But they liked being able to buy things from home,and they also wanted grain to trade with nomadic mountain people who brought them more precious stones and metals. Although they didn't have to find their way through schools of sea snakes and storms at sea,the merchants who traded in the high mountains faced other dangers.Early snows sometimes blocked the high mountain passes,and the monsoon and earthquakes washed the roads away all the time,forcing the merchants to blaze their own paths.So as soon as their trading was done,the merchants of“Meluhha”turned around and headed back down the mountains,eager to get home to snug houses and good friends before the cold days of winter set in.

  • 日本語訳を! 5-(4)

    お願いします。 (11) Osiris and Isis were two of the original nine gods. They were the children of the goddess of the sky and the god of the earth. Osiris became king of Egypt. He married the great love of his life, his sister Isis. His brother, Seth, was jealous. Seth wanted everything that Osiris had. He wanted to be king. He wanted his power. He wanted Isis. Seth pushed sibling rivalry into the evil zone. He plotted to destroy Osiris. Plutarch writes, "Seth secretly measured the body of Osiris and had made to the corresponding size a beautiful chest which was exquisitely decorated. He brought the chest to a banquet, and when the guests showed pleasure and admiration at the sight of it, Seth promised playfully that whoever would lie down in it and show that he fitted it, should have the chest as a gift." Then, in true Cinderella-and-the-glass-slipper fashion, everyone tried the coffinlike chest on for size. Some were so fat they couldn't squeeze into the box. Others were so small they slid right out. But, finally, when Osiris tried the coffin, the fit was just right. Plutarch writes that Seth "ran and slammed the lid on, and after securing it with bolts from the outside and with molten lead poured on, they took it to the river and let it go to the sea... "Osiris drowned. Death came to Egypt for the first time. (12) Seth enjoyed everything that once belonged to Osiris. But whereas Osiris was kind, Seth was cruel. There was no ma'at in Egypt with Seth in charge. There was war and hunger and lawlessness. Only Isis was unafraid of Seth. She found Osiris's body and turned herself into a bird and sang to him. In a fury, Seth cut Osiris into pieces and scattered him all over Egypt. Isis and her sister searched "in a papyrus boat, sailing through the marshes" for all his parts. They collectedthe pieces of Osiris, and with the help of Anubis, god of the dead, they sewed him back together.

  • 日本語訳を! 3-(4)

    お願いします。  The richer the country, the more powerful its leader―and Egypt was becoming very rich indeed. The king became as distance and as "imperishable" as the stars―a god-king on earth, and in death truly divine. He was responsible for the stability, the order, the balance―ma'at. The simple tombs lined with brick and topped with a flat rectangular stone that had buried royalty in the past were no longer grand enough. What would the people think?  King Djoser wanted something that showed Egypt and the world just how powerful he was―showed this world and the next. He was fortunate enough to have a true genius for an architect―an architect capable of envisioning (and building) a tomb worthy of a god-king's passageway to the afterlife: a stairway to heaven. The architect's name was Imhotep and he built the first pyramid.  King Djoser must have traveled from the capital city of Memphis to the burial grounds at Saqqara now and again to inspect Imhotep's progress. King Djoser and Imhotep would have entered through a narrow passage positioned to capture the sun's first rays at daybreak. There were many false entrances along the nearly 20-foot-high wall surrounding the burial grounds, but only one way inside. They would have passed under the stone roof at the entrance carved to look like split logs and then through two giant doors permanently flung open. What did King Djoser think the first time he inspected the work site? How did he feel when he walked between the two parallel lines of stone columns carved to look like reeds bound in bunches? At the far end, the columns were placed closer and closer together to give the illusion of an even longer passageway. It must have seemed to him to stretch forever. This was no brick-lined hole in the ground. The burial complex was as big as 24 soccer fields.

  • 日本語訳を!!c6-2

    お願いします!!続き Symbols scratched into pots after they were fired are called graffiti.Graffiti probably developed at the same time as potter's marks,around 4000 BCE,but the earliest examples from Harappa date to around 3300 BCE.They count as the earliest evidence for writing in the Indus Valley.By about 2800-2600 BCE,the symbols that began as graffiti had become a written language,one that was spreading rapidly throughout the region. Why did writing spread so quickly? For one thing,it was useful,especially to merchants who traveled throtghout the Indus Valley.They used square seals with animal designs and bold script across the the top to seal goods for trade.They also developed a system of tablets for keeping accounts.Archaeologists have recently found a building that was a kind of “mint” that made the tablets that merchants used to keep track of their goods. Merchants weren't the only people who were quick to see the power of the written word.Religious leaders may have used writing to record the names of deities and important religious rituals. Archaeologists have been trying to understand the Indus script for more than a hundred years-without any luck.For one thing,they've only found about 2,000 examples of it,and none of the examples has more than 23 symbols (most have only five).But they have been able to figure out a few of its features.They know that the Indus script is not directly related to any known writing system.They know that it was written from right to left (as is the script used to write Urdu,the modern language of Pakistan). But sometimes longer inscriptions are written from the right in the first line,then from left to right on the mext line,and so on,back and forth until the end.This type of writing style is called boustrophedon,a Greek word that means “as the ox turns,”because it moves down one row and up the next,the way oxen plow a field,or people mow the lawn.

  • 日本語訳を!

    お願いします (8) Much of what we know about the war with the Hyksos comes from the tomb of an Egyptian officer. Ahmose, son of Ibana, inscribed on the columns and walls of his tomb details of the many battles he fought with the Hyksos. "I was taken to the ship Northern, because I was brave. I followed the king on foot when he rode about on his chariot. When the town of Avaris was besieged, I fought bravely on foot in his majesty's presence." Ahmose was rewarded for his valor, he "was appointed to the ship Rising in Memphis. Then there was fighting on the water...I made a seizure and carried off a hand." To keep track of the number of enemy soldiers killed, it was the custom to cut off a hand and present it to the king. (9) For his victories―and the hands that went with them―Ahmose, son of Ibana, was awarded seven times the medal of honor called the Golden Fly. The Golden Fly was a gilded pin shaped like a horsefly. Although the horsefly may seem like an odd shape for a war medal,the Egyptians chose it because the horsefly was the tormentor of beasts. This medal of honor was presented only to the bravest soldiers. (10) A Roman historian writing in the first century CE, Josephus, tells us how it turned out in the end for the Hyksos.  They enclosed Avaris with a high strong wall in order to safeguard all their possessions and spoils. The Egyptian king attempted by siege to force them to surrender, blockading the fortress with an army of 480,000 men. Finally, giving up the siege in despair, he concluded a treaty by which they should all depart from Egypt. (11) Archaeologists working at Avaris don't see evidence of a mass slaughter. They believe the Hyksos were expelled and took their possessions with them. One way or the other the message was the same: Hands off Egypt.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (13) By 50 BCE, the Triumvirate had ended. Crassus had been killed in battle, and Pompey had become very jealous of Caesar's military success and his great popularity. Pompey had married Caesar's daughter, Julia, but when she died in childbirth, the bond between the two men was broken. Before Caesar returned from Gaul, Pompey sided wit the Senate to declare his former father-in-law an enemy of the State. The Senate demanded that Caesar give up his army and return to Rome. Knowing that he would be arrested if he obeyed, he refused. But now his life and career were at stake. Did he dare go back to Italy at all? (14) In January of 49 BCE, Caesar's forces were camped just north of the Rubicon, the river that marked the boundary between Gaul and Ital. As soon as Caesar heard the Senate's ruling, he slipped away from the camp with a few trusted men. It was night, and everyone else was feasting. No one noticed that he was missing. When he reached the banks of the Rubicon, he paused, thinking about his next step. After a moment, he declared, “The die is cast” and crossed the river. This was his way of saying that his mind was made up and wouldn't be changed. Now he was ready to meet his former ally, the great general Pompey, in battle. (15) Caesar was never one to stand around, waiting for someone else to do something. Decisive as always, he began his march right away. He set out in the dead of winter with a single legion of soldiers. He knew that by marching on Rome he would start a civil war. What he didn't know─and couldn't have known─was that this war would last for nearly two decades and destroy the Republic.