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お願いします!続き The river passage ended at the dangerous deep,narrow passages of the Kabul River,where the merchants left their boats and loaded their goods onto small,hardy mountain cattle and human porters.The trip across the plain near modern Kabul was easier,but once they got to the narrow valleys and high mountain passes of northern Afghanistan,they had to go by foot,leading the pack animals. They arrived at a small settlement of Indus people in the high valleys of Badakshan sometime in November.These Indus colonists mined lapis lazuli and panned for gold and tin in the river's sands,but they also kept herds of sheep,goat,and cattle,and farmed enough land to provide them with food for most of the year.But they liked being able to buy things from home,and they also wanted grain to trade with nomadic mountain people who brought them more precious stones and metals. Although they didn't have to find their way through schools of sea snakes and storms at sea,the merchants who traded in the high mountains faced other dangers.Early snows sometimes blocked the high mountain passes,and the monsoon and earthquakes washed the roads away all the time,forcing the merchants to blaze their own paths.So as soon as their trading was done,the merchants of“Meluhha”turned around and headed back down the mountains,eager to get home to snug houses and good friends before the cold days of winter set in.


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  • 回答No.2
  • sayshe
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川の旅はカブール川の危険な深い、狭い水路で終わりました、ここで、商人は彼らの船を下りて、小さいが、丈夫な山牛と人間の運搬人に彼らの商品を積みました。現代のカブールに近い平野を横切る旅はより簡単でした、しかし、ひとたび、北アフガニスタンの狭い谷と高山の山道に着くと、彼らは、駄獣(荷物の運搬に用いられる動物)を引きながら、徒歩で行かなければなりませんでした。 彼らは、11月頃、バダクシュタンの標高の高い谷にあるインダスの人々の小さな集落に到着しました。これらのインダスからの入植者はラピスラズリを採掘して、川の砂の中にある金とスズを求めて選鉱鍋で砂を洗いました、しかし、彼らは、また、羊、ヤギ、牛の群も飼っていましたし、ほぼ1年分の食物を自分たちに供給するのに十分な土地を耕作してもいました。しかし、彼らは故郷のものを買うことができるのを好みました、それに、彼らは、また、彼らにより多くの宝石や金属を持って来る遊牧民の山岳民族と取引するために穀物を欲しがりました。 海路でウミヘビの群れや嵐を越えて旅をする必要はありませんでしたが、高山で交易をする商人は他の危険に直面しました。早めの雪が高い山道をふさぐこともありましたし、モンスーンの雨や地震が常に道を洗い流しました、それで、商人は彼ら自身の行く手を切り開かざるをえませんでした。そう言うわけで、彼らの交易が済むとすぐに、「メルーハ」の商人は向きを変えて、山を下って帰りました、冬の寒い日々が始まる前に、心地よい家や親友の元にたどり着きたいと思っていたのでした。




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  • wy1
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日本語訳を!c9-6 ってどのような意味でしょうか?翻訳依頼でしたら、専門の翻訳会社にでも依頼すべき長さでしょうね。 あるいは、ご自分の訳文を載せて、分からない箇所を質問すべきでしょうね。



  • 日本語訳を!!c6-2

    お願いします!!続き Symbols scratched into pots after they were fired are called graffiti.Graffiti probably developed at the same time as potter's marks,around 4000 BCE,but the earliest examples from Harappa date to around 3300 BCE.They count as the earliest evidence for writing in the Indus Valley.By about 2800-2600 BCE,the symbols that began as graffiti had become a written language,one that was spreading rapidly throughout the region. Why did writing spread so quickly? For one thing,it was useful,especially to merchants who traveled throtghout the Indus Valley.They used square seals with animal designs and bold script across the the top to seal goods for trade.They also developed a system of tablets for keeping accounts.Archaeologists have recently found a building that was a kind of “mint” that made the tablets that merchants used to keep track of their goods. Merchants weren't the only people who were quick to see the power of the written word.Religious leaders may have used writing to record the names of deities and important religious rituals. Archaeologists have been trying to understand the Indus script for more than a hundred years-without any luck.For one thing,they've only found about 2,000 examples of it,and none of the examples has more than 23 symbols (most have only five).But they have been able to figure out a few of its features.They know that the Indus script is not directly related to any known writing system.They know that it was written from right to left (as is the script used to write Urdu,the modern language of Pakistan). But sometimes longer inscriptions are written from the right in the first line,then from left to right on the mext line,and so on,back and forth until the end.This type of writing style is called boustrophedon,a Greek word that means “as the ox turns,”because it moves down one row and up the next,the way oxen plow a field,or people mow the lawn.

  • 日本語訳を!!c7-1

    お願いします!! Archaeologist can't read the records the people of the Indus Vally left because they haven't decoded the script. So they have to use other clues-like trash. What's left of people's ruined basements,garbage,and sewers tell us a lot about what it was like to live in the Indus Valley 4,000 years ago. Sometimes ancient cities are buried through tragic events such as an earthquake or a volcanic eruption.But usually cities get buried bit by bit,while people are still living there.Old buildings fall down and are covered with dust and garbage.Because it's easier,people build on top of the old buildings rather than clear them out and start from the ground again.As this happens,the streets are repaved and get higher and higher over time. The cities of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa,located in what is now Pakistan,had enough room for 40,000 to 80,000 people.That's about as many eople as can fit into the huge Olympic stadium in Athens.But no one is sure if that many people actually lived there full-time.How many of those buildings were empty during the farming season,when people may have gone home to their family farms to help with planting and harvesting? How many of the buildings sheltered merchants or pilgrims who were just passing through?Or people who had come to celebrate religious festivals? The streets of Indus towns and cities in India and Pakistan are strangely similar.Each has streets that run north and south and east and west.Why?No one knows,although religious beliefs might have had something to do with it.For example,Christian cathedrals face the rising sun in the east and Muslims pray facing their sacred city,Mecca.

  • 日本語訳を! 1-(2)

    お願いします。  Without the Nile you wouldn't have much of a kingdom to rule. Strutting might seem a bit silly. Egypt would be home to nothing more than a few wandering bands of nomads passing through the red land, dusty and dragging from the relentless heat, in search of the rare oasis. The Nile, however, the glorious Nile, brought a narrow band of life to Egypt. It carried rich, black dirt and spread it over the floodplains, creating fields for the Egyptians to plant their seeds. The Egyptians called it khemet―the black land. The change from red land to black land was so abrupt you could straddle the border, standing with one foot in red earth and the other in black.  The ancient Egyptians knew tha without the Great River they would have no villages, no fields of wheat, and no cattle. To them the water was sacred. They believed it flowed from paradise and could heal the sick. They wrote songs to the Nike―praising its life-giving force. The Hymn to the Nile began "Hail to thee O, Nile!" and praised the Great River for coming "to give life to Egypt." It may seem as if the ancients got carried away with their praise when they sang, "If you cease your toil and your work, then all that exists is in anguish." But if the Nile did "cease its toil," the people would starve. Maybe they weren't so carried away after all.

  • 日本語訳を! 2-(1)

    お願いします。  If you had an important story to tell, but most of your audience couldn't read, you might tell the story by drawing it in pictures. If you wanted the story to last a very long time, you might draw those pictures in stone. That's what an Egyptian storyteller did, and his work has lasted more than 5,000 years. It's the story of the first king of Egypt. And the stone is called the Palette of Narmer.  Long before the first king, before there were people of great power, before there were towns to lead, before there were villages with headsmen, the people of Egypt lived like all prehistoric peoples. They lived in small groups on the move. They followed the food.  Ten thousand years ago the area around the Nile hadn't dried up into desert yet. Rain fell more often and fields of grass grew. Elephants plodded about, flapping their ears in the heat. Giraffes nibbled on thorny trees. Vultures rode the warm air currents in search of something dead to eat. The people of Egypt hunted gazelle and dug root vegetables.  By 6,000 years ago, the people of Egypt had begun to herd cattle. When the Nile swelled and flowed over its banks, the people would follow their cattle away from the river. Extended families sometimes joined other groups while the cattle munched in the grasslands. By the end of summer, the heat and the lack of rain shriveled the grass, and the herderr brought the cattle back to the edge of the floodplain―back to the Nile. They planted seeds and grew an early form of wheat called emmer. They grew peas, barley, and melons.  Small villages began to crop up along the Nile, just out of reach of the floodwaters. When the people argued, someone from the group would step in to solve the problem. Pretty soon they would look to that person to solve all of the problems. Power was born.

  • 日本語訳を!!c8-1

    お願いします!! During the holidays,big cities like New York and London are even more crowded than usual.Why do people go to all the trouble and expense to travel to a big city? Because the theaters and museums and major-league sports.And even more activities than usual are going om during the holidays,like Thanksgiving and New Year's Day parades and holiday concerts and performances. The weeks after the spring and fall harvests were probably a holiday for the people of the Indus Valley civilization.Farmers,fishermen,and herders gathered their goods and their families and made the long trip to the nearest city to sell their goods and thank the deities for the bounty of the harvest.Imagine the son of a farmer who is 12 or 13-old enough to bear the two-day walk to Harappa one autumn in about 2100 BCE.We'll call this boy Sarang.Sarang would have begun the journey by helping to load the family's oxcart with the barley,wheat,and cotton that they had raised that year on their farm.He may have helped to harness the oxen that pulled the heavy load.He was probably wildly excited-and probably driven crazy by the oxen's slow pace through the wooded countryside and by the loud creaking of the cart. If they lived too far away to make the journey in single day,Sarang and his family would have set up camp with other travelers they had met along the way to help protect their goods from the bandits who hid in the forest.Eventually they would have emerged from the forest to see the walled city of Harappa in the distance,rising pale and beautiful above the plain.

  • 日本語訳を!c9-5

    お願いします!続き But the sea captain's voyage proves that the people of the Indus Valley could have been the source of some of the goods the Mesopotamians bought from “Meluhha.”What about blue lapis lazuli and tin (which they mixed with copper to make bronze),which are not found along either the Indus River or the coast of the Arabian Sea? It turns out that Indus River merchants followed more than one trade route.According to the later Ramayana,an Indian poem by Valmiki,“With the end of the rainy season,nature's traffic resumed on land,air,and water.”At the end of October,after the rains were over and the rivers had gone down to tgeir normal levels,a second group of Indus merchants packedtheir goods into flat-bottomed riverboats and headed north.Their journey upriver was frustratingly slow at first,as men and oxen walking along the banks strained to pull the riverboats against the current.Some ancient clay models of flat-bottomed riverboats have a hole in the center.This hole would have been used for either a mast or a pulling pole.A pulling pole is made by setting up a long pole with a rope tied to the top so that it does not get caught on bushes and trees along the edge of the river.People walk along the river edge pulling the boat,a painfully slow and difficult process that is called“walking”a boat up the river. The boats would have been even harder to pull laden with grain,butter,oil,and dried fish.Their cargo also included lightweight luxuries such as finely woven cotton,shell bangles,carved ivory gaming pieces for board games,strands of blue-green glazed faience beads,and the exquisite long carnelian beads.Inlaid furniture and painted pottery were packed carefully into woven baskets so that they could be loaded onto pack oxen or carried by porters.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (9) But Spartacus didn't intend to live―or die―as a slave. He secretly organized 200 gladiators in the school and together they planned a daring escape. At the last moment, the managers of the school discovered the plot and captured more than half of the men. But, according to Plutarch, Spartacus and about 70 men escaped with knives and skewers that they stole from the school's kitchen. (10) As the rebels slipped through the darkened streets of Capua, they got a lucky break: they happened upon cart full of weapons, intended for use in the gladiatorial games. The men helped themselves and left the city, armed with swords and daggers.Their first hiding place was in the top of Mt. Vesuvius, an inactive volcano. (11) When the news broke about the slaves' escape, Rome sent 3,000 foot soldiers to surround the slaves and starve them out. Spartacus and his men were outnumbered, but not outwitted. While the Romans guarded the road, the rebels cut some thick vines they found growing near the mouth of the volcano. They twisted the vines into ropes, which they used to climb down the mountain. Surprising their enemies, they seized the Roman camp, and the defeated Romans fled. (12) As word of this astonishing victory spread, thousands of farm slaves left their masters and joined Spartacus. The rebel band grew to nearly 70,000 men who roamed the countryside and broke into slaves' barracks. The rebels freed thousands of men and armed them for battle against Rome and their former masters. (13) The Senate thought it would be easy to defeat Spartacus, but Spartacus's men defeated the Roman forces again and again. Then the senators appointed Crassus, one of Rome's top generals, as commander in chief. Crassus sent a lieutenant named Mummius against the ex-slaves. The rebels crushed Mummius so completely that he lost his soldiers, his tents, and equipment―even his horse. The soldiers who survived the battle saved their own lives by handing over their weapons to the enemy.

  • 日本語訳を教えて下さい。

    この英文の訳を教えて下さい。 Many, for example, follow coastlines and thread their way through straits and mounta in passes.

  • 日本語訳を教えて下さい

    Naturally,these societies differ from one another in many ways, reflecting difference in their histories, in the social and biophysical environments to which they must adapt today , and in their precise level of technological advance. these societies have,for decades,been struggling with problems that constantly threaten to overwhelm them.

  • 日本語訳を!!

    お願いします (1) Ising of war and of that man who first came in exile from the shores of Troy to the coast of Italy. He was battered on land and sea by divine violence,... He had to suffer much in war until he built a city.... From him came the Latin people,...and the high walls of Rome. (2) With his homeland in enemy hands and his city in flames, Prince Aeneas, son of the goddess Venus, led a small group of Trojans to sea. After many months of being tossed about by fierce winds and storms, the travelers finally anchored their ships near the mouth of the Tiber River in Italy. Yet no sooner had they landed than the men began to plan another voyage. (3) This appalled the Trojan women. As the Greek historian Dionysius records the story, a noblewoman named Roma secretly took the women aside and suggested that they take matters into their own hands. “Tired of wandering,”the others listened eagerly. “Roma stirred up the... Trojan women”and suggested a simple plan. They all agreed, and “together, they set fire to the ships.” (4) At first the men were furious, but pretty soon they realized that the women had done the right thing. They had landed in a perfect spot. With mild weather and beautiful countryside―a cluster of hills just 15 miles from the sea―why should they leave? The men were so pleased that they named the place after Roma, the rebellious wife.